Surface mounting technology - Environmental and endurance test methods for surface mount solder joints -- Part 1-5: Mechanical shear fatigue test

The test method described in this part of IEC 62137 applies to area array packages, such as BGA. This test method is designed to evaluate the fatigue life of the solder joints between component leads and lands on a substrate as shown in Figure 1. A temperature cyclic approach is generally used to evaluate the reliability of solder joints. Another method is to mechanically cycle the solder joints to shorten the testing time rather than to produce the strains by changing temperatures. The methodology is the imposition of shear deformation on the solder joints by mechanical displacement instead of relative displacement generated by CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) mismatch, as shown in Figure 2. In place of the temperature cycle test, the mechanical shear fatigue predicts the reliability of the solder joints under repeated temperature change conditions by mechanically cycling the solder joints. In this test method, the evaluation requires first to mount the surface mount component on the substrate by reflow soldering, then cyclic mechanical shear deformation is applied to the solder joints until fracture of the solder joints occurs. The properties of the solder joints (for example solder alloy, substrate, mounted device or design, etc.) are evaluated to assist in improving the strength of the solder joints.

Oberflächenmontage-Technik -- Verfahren zur Prüfung auf Umgebungseinflüsse und zur Prüfung der Haltbarkeit von Oberflächen-Lötverbindungen -- Teil 1-5: Prüfung der Ermüdung durch mechanische Scherbeanspruchung

Technologie du montage en surface - Méthodes d'essais d'environnement et d'endurance des joints brasés montés en surface -- Partie 1-5: Essai de fatigue par cisaillement mécanique

La CEI 62137-1-5:2009 s'applique aux boîtiers de type matriciel tels que les BGA. Cette méthode d'essai est destinée à évaluer l'endurance des joints de soudure situés entre les sorties du composant et les pastilles d'un substrat comme illustré à la Figure 1. On utilise généralement une approche par cycles de températures pour évaluer la fiabilité des joints de soudure. Une autre méthode consiste à faire subir aux joints de soudure des cycles mécaniques pour réduire le temps d'essai plutôt que de produire des contraintes générées par des variations de température. La méthodologie consiste à imposer une déformation par cisaillement aux joints de soudure par déplacement mécanique au lieu d'un déplacement relatif produit par une différence de coefficient de dilatation thermique (CTE) comme cela est représenté sur la Figure 2. A la place des essais de cycles de températures, cet essai de fatigue par cisaillement mécanique sert à prévoir la fiabilité des joints de soudure dans des conditions de variations de température répétées en faisant subir des cycles mécaniques aux joints de soudure. Dans la présente méthode d'essai, pour procéder à l'évaluation, le composant pour montage en surface nécessite d'abord d'être monté sur le substrat par brasage par fusion, puis les joints de soudure sont soumis à des déformations cycliques par cisaillement mécanique jusqu'à ce que les joints de soudure rompent. Les propriétés des joints de soudure (par exemple alliage de soudure, substrat, dispositif assemblé ou conception, etc.) sont évaluées pour aider à améliorer la résistance des joints de soudure.

Tehnologija površinske montaže - Okoljski preskusi in preskusne metode za določanje zanesljivosti spajkanih spojev, izdelanih s površinsko montažo - 1-5. del: Mehanski preskus trdnosti s strižno obremenitvijo (IEC 62137-1-5:2009)

Preskusna metoda, opisana v tem delu IEC 62137, se nanaša na nize ploskovnih paketov, kot je BGA. Ta preskusna metoda je zasnovana za ocenjevanje trajnostne dobe spajkanih spojev med priključnimi žicami komponent ter substratom, kot je prikazano na Sliki 1. Običajno se za oceno zanesljivosti spajkanih spojev uporablja temperaturni krožni pristop. Druga metoda je mehansko kroženje spajkanih spojev, s čimer se skrajša čas testiranja, namesto da bi ustvarili deformacijo s spreminjanjem temperature. Metodologija predstavlja vsiljevanje strižne deformacije spajkanim spojem z mehanskim premikom namesto relativnega premika, ki je povzročen zaradi neujemanjem koeficienta termalnega raztezanja (CTE), kot je prikazano na Sliki 2. Na mestu temperaturnega krožnega testa mehanski preskus trdnosti s strižno obremenitvijo napove zanesljivost spajkanih spojev pod pogoji ponavljajoče temperaturne spremembe z mehanskim vrtenjem spajkanih spojev. Pri tej metodi preskušanja ocenjevanje zahteva, da najprej montiramo komponento površinske montaže na substrat s povratnim mehkim spajkanjem, nato se na spajkane spoje aplicira ciklična mehanična strižna obremenitev, dokler spajkani spoji ne počijo. Lastnosti spajkanih spojev (na primer zlitina za spajkanje, substrat, montirana naprava ali načrt itd.) se ocenjujejo z namenom, da bi pripomogli k izboljšanju trdnosti spajkanih spojev.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Dec-2009
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
29-Oct-2009
Due Date
03-Jan-2010
Completion Date
16-Dec-2009

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 62137-1-5:2010
01-januar-2010
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Surface mounting technology - Environmental and endurance test methods for surface

mount solder joints -- Part 1-5: Mechanical shear fatigue test

Oberflächenmontage-Technik -- Verfahren zur Prüfung auf Umgebungseinflüsse und zur

Prüfung der Haltbarkeit von Oberflächen-Lötverbindungen -- Teil 1-5: Prüfung der
Ermüdung durch mechanische Scherbeanspruchung
Technologie du montage en surface - Méthodes d'essais d'environnement et

d'endurance des joints brasés montés en surface -- Partie 1-5: Essai de fatigue par

cisaillement mécanique
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 62137-1-5:2009
ICS:
19.040 Preskušanje v zvezi z Environmental testing
okoljem
31.190 Sestavljeni elektronski Electronic component
elementi assemblies
SIST EN 62137-1-5:2010 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-1-5:2010
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-1-5:2010
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 62137-1-5
NORME EUROPÉENNE
May 2009
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 31.190
English version
Surface mounting technology -
Environmental and endurance test methods
for surface mount solder joints -
Part 1-5: Mechanical shear fatigue test
(IEC 62137-1-5:2009)
Technologie du montage en surface - Oberflächenmontage-Technik -
Méthodes d'essais d'environnement Verfahren zur Prüfung
et d'endurance des joints brasés auf Umgebungseinflüsse
montés en surface - und zur Prüfung der Haltbarkeit
Partie 1-5: Essai de fatigue von Oberflächen-Lötverbindungen -
par cisaillement mécanique Teil 1-5: Prüfung der Ermüdung durch
(CEI 62137-1-5:2009) mechanische Scherbeanspruchung
(IEC 62137-1-5:2009)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2009-04-01. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the

Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: avenue Marnix 17, B - 1000 Brussels

© 2009 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 62137-1-5:2009 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-1-5:2010
EN 62137-1-5:2009 – 2 –
Foreword

The text of document 91/826/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 62137-1-5, prepared by IEC TC 91, Electronics

assembly technology, was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was approved by CENELEC

as EN 62137-1-5 on 2009-04-01.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2010-01-01
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2012-04-01
Annex ZA has been added by CENELEC.
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62137-1-5:2009 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 60068-2-21 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60068-2-21:2006 (not modified).
IEC 61188-5-8 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61188-5-8:2008 (not modified).
__________
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-1-5:2010
– 3 – EN 62137-1-5:2009
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD

applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
1) 2)
IEC 60068-1 - Environmental testing - EN 60068-1 1994
Part 1: General and guidance
1) 2)
IEC 60194 - Printed board design, manufacture and EN 60194 2006
assembly - Terms and definitions
IEC 61188-5 Series Printed boards and printed board EN 61188-5 Series
assemblies - Design and use -
Part 5: Attachment (land/joint) considerations
IEC 61190-1-2 2007 Attachment materials for electronic EN 61190-1-2 2007
assembly -
Part 1-2: Requirements for soldering pastes
for high-quality interconnects in electronics
assembly
1) 2)
IEC 61190-1-3 - Attachment materials for electronic EN 61190-1-3 2007
assembly -
Part 1-3: Requirements for electronic grade
solder alloys and fluxed and non-fluxed solid
solders for electronic soldering applications
IEC 61249-2-7 2002 Materials for printed boards and other EN 61249-2-7 2002
interconnecting structures - + corr. September 2005
Part 2-7: Reinforced base materials, clad
and unclad - Epoxide woven E-glass
laminated sheet of defined flammability
(vertical burning test), copper-clad
1) 2)
IEC 61760-1 - Surface mounting technology - EN 61760-1 2006
Part 1: Standard method for the specification
of surface mounting components (SMDs)
Undated reference.
Valid edition at date of issue.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-1-5:2010
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-1-5:2010
IEC 62137-1-5
Edition 1.0 2009-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Surface mounting technology – Environmental and endurance test methods for
surface mount solder joints –
Part 1-5: Mechanical shear fatigue test
Technologie du montage en surface – Méthodes d'essais d'environnement et
d'endurance des joints brasés montés en surface –
Partie 1-5: Essai de fatigue par cisaillement mécanique
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX
ICS 31.190 ISBN 2-8318-1028-5
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-1-5:2010
– 2 – 62137-1-5 © IEC:2009
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................3

INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................5

1 Scope...............................................................................................................................6

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................7

3 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................................8

4 Test equipment and materials...........................................................................................8

4.1 Test equipment for mechanical shear fatigue testing ...............................................8

4.2 Test substrate .........................................................................................................8

4.3 Solder alloy .............................................................................................................9

4.4 Solder paste............................................................................................................9

4.5 Reflow soldering equipment ....................................................................................9

5 Mounting ..........................................................................................................................9

6 Test conditions ...............................................................................................................10

6.1 Pre-treatment ........................................................................................................10

6.2 Test procedures ....................................................................................................10

6.3 Judging criteria......................................................................................................10

7 Items to be included in the test report.............................................................................11

8 Items to be given in the product specification .................................................................11

Annex A (normative) Mechanical shear fatigue test equipment.............................................12

Annex B (normative) Mechanical shear fatigue test procedure .............................................15

Annex C (informative) Evaluation of mechanical properties of a single solder joint by

mechanical shear fatigue test ...............................................................................................17

Bibliography..........................................................................................................................21

Figure 1 – Image drawing on evaluation area of joint strength.................................................6

Figure 2 – Schematic illustrations of thermomechanical and mechanical fatigue for

solder joints ............................................................................................................................7

Figure 3 – A typical temperature profile taken by reflow soldering equipment........................10

Figure A.1 – Sample structures of shear fatigue jig ...............................................................13

Figure B.1 – Example of set-up for electrical resistance measuring.......................................16

Figure C.1 – Schematic illustration of the single solder joint for mechanical fatigue

testing ..................................................................................................................................18

Figure C.2 – Schematic illustration of fixing jig for soldering of the single solder joint ...........18

Figure C.3 – Schematic illustration of the shear fatigue jig....................................................19

Figure C.4 – Relationship between reaction forces and the number of cycles during a

fatigue test............................................................................................................................20

Figure C.5 – Relationship between the displacement range and fatigue life ..........................20

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-1-5:2010
62137-1-5 © IEC:2009 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SURFACE MOUNTING TECHNOLOGY –
ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENDURANCE TEST METHODS
FOR SURFACE MOUNT SOLDER JOINTS –
Part 1-5: Mechanical shear fatigue test
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62137-1-5 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 91:

Electronics assembly technology.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
91/826/FDIS 91/841/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-1-5:2010
– 4 – 62137-1-5 © IEC:2009

A list of all parts of the IEC 62137 series, under the general title Surface mounting

technology – Environmental and endurance test methods for surface mount solder joints, can

be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in

the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be

• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-1-5:2010
62137-1-5 © IEC:2009 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

The mechanical properties of lead-free solder joints between leads and lands on a printed

wiring board are not the same with tin-lead-containing solder joints, due to their solder

compositions. Thus, it becomes important to test the mechanical properties of solder joints of

different alloys.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-1-5:2010
– 6 – 62137-1-5 © IEC:2009
SURFACE MOUNTING TECHNOLOGY –
ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENDURANCE TEST METHODS
FOR SURFACE MOUNT SOLDER JOINTS –
Part 1-5: Mechanical shear fatigue test
1 Scope

The test method described in this part of IEC 62137 applies to area array packages, such as

BGA. This test method is designed to evaluate the fatigue life of the solder joints between

component leads and lands on a substrate as shown in Figure 1. A temperature cyclic

approach is generally used to evaluate the reliability of solder joints. Another method is to

mechanically cycle the solder joints to shorten the testing time rather than to produce the

strains by changing temperatures. The methodology is the imposition of shear deformation on

the solder joints by mechanical displacement instead of relative displacement generated by

CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) mismatch, as shown in Figure 2. In place of the

temperature cycle test, the mechanical shear fatigue predicts the reliability of the solder joints

under repeated temperature change conditions by mechanically cycling the solder joints. In

this test method, the evaluation requires first to mount the surface mount component on the

substrate by reflow soldering, then cyclic mechanical shear deformation is applied to the

solder joints until fracture of the solder joints occurs. The properties of the solder joints (for

example solder alloy, substrate, mounted device or design, etc.) are evaluated to assist in

improving the strength of the solder joints.

NOTE This test, however, does not measure the strength of the electronic components. The test method to

evaluate the robustness of the joint to a board is described in IEC 60068-2-21.
Component
land
Enlarge
Plated layers
Solder
Intermetallic compound
Component
Evaluation area
layers
Substrate
Substrate
Substrate land
IEC 232/09
Figure 1 – Image drawing on evaluation area of joint strength
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-1-5:2010
62137-1-5 © IEC:2009 – 7 –
Thermomechanical fatigue
Package
Solder
Δd/2 Δd/2
L + Δd
IEC 233/09
Δd = L × (α – α ) × ΔT
substrate package
Mechanical fatigue
Package
Solder
Mechanical loading L Mechanical loading
Δd/2 Δd/2
L + Δd
IEC 234/09
Key
Δd Relative displacement
ΔT Temperature range
α Coefficient of thermal expansion
Figure 2 – Schematic illustrations of thermomechanical
and mechanical fatigue for solder joints
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition

of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
IEC 60068-1, Environmental testing – Part 1: General and guidance

IEC 61188-5 (all parts), Printed boards and printed board assemblies – Design and use

IEC 60194, Printed board design, manufacture and assembly – Terms and definitions

IEC 61190-1-2:2007, Attachment materials for electronic assembly – Part 1-2: Requirements

for soldering pastes for high-quality interconnects in electronics assembly

IEC 61190-1-3, Attachment materials for electronic assembly – Part 1-3: Requirements for

electronic grade solder alloys and fluxed and non-fluxed solid solders for electronic soldering

applications

IEC 61249-2-7:2002, Materials for printed boards and other interconnecting structures –

Part 2-7: Reinforced base materials clad and unclad – Epoxide woven E-glass laminated

sheet of defined flammability (vertical burning test), copper-clad

IEC 61760-1, Surface mounting technology – Part 1: Standard method for the specification of

surface mounting components (SMDs)
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-1-5:2010
– 8 – 62137-1-5 © IEC:2009
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60068-1, in

IEC 60194, as well as the following apply.
3.1
mechanical shear fatigue life

number of cycles to attain the joint fracture between surface mount component terminals

mounted on the printed board and the copper land of the substrate after application of cyclic

mechanical shear deformation
3.2
ramp rate

moving velocities of the fixing jig attached to the actuator of the mechanical testing machine

3.3
displacement range

distance between the maximum and the minimum test position caused by pushing and pulling

the actuator back, which means relative displacement in shear direction between the surface

mount component and the substrate
3.4
maximum and minimum forces

reaction forces at the maximum and minimum test positions caused by shear deformation of

the solder joint at each cycle
4 Test equipment and materials
4.1 Test equipment for mechanical shear fatigue testing

The equipment for mechanical shear testing consists of a tension-compression testing

machine, sample fixing jigs, a resistance-measuring instrument and a recorder. The

specifications shall be in compliance with those of the mechanical test equipment prescribed

in Annex A.
4.2 Test substrate
Unless otherwise stated in the relevant product specifications, t
...

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