Electronics assembly technology - Part 3: Selection guidance of environmental and endurance test methods for solder joints

IEC 62137-3:2011 describes the selection methodology of an appropriate test method for a reliability test for solder joints of various shapes and types of surface mount devices (SMD), array type devices and leaded devices, and lead insertion type devices using various types of solder material alloys. This first edition cancels and replaces IEC/PAS 62137-3, published in 2008, and includes some editorial revisions. The main changes with respect to the PAS include the following:
- no technical changes;
- some editorial changes and corrections;
- for the sake of convenience some constitutive changes.

Montageverfahren für elektronische Baugruppen - Teil 3: Leitfaden für die Auswahl von Umwelt- und (Lebens)dauerprüfungen für Lötverbindungen

Techniques d'assemblage des composants électroniques - Guide de choix des méthodes d'essai d'environnement et d'endurance des joints brasés

La CEI 62137-3:2011 présente la méthodologie de choix d'une méthode d'essai appropriée à un essai de fiabilité des joints brasés de divers types et formes de dispositifs montés en surface (CMS), de dispositifs du type en réseau, de dispositifs à connexions filaires et de dispositifs du type à insertion de connexions, utilisant divers types d'alliages de matériaux de soudure. Cette première édition annule et remplace la CEI/PAS 62137-3, publiée en 2008, et comporte des modifications éditoriales. Les principales modifications par rapport au PAS sont les suivantes:
- pas de modifications techniques;
- des corrections et modifications éditoriales;
- un réagencement du document.

Tehnologija elektronskega sestavljanja - 3. del: Napotki za izbiro metod za preskušanje vplivov na okolje in vzdržljivosti s kositrom spajkanih spojev

Ta del standarda IEC 62137 opisuje metodologijo za izbiro ustrezne metode za preskušanje zanesljivosti s kositrom spajkanih spojev na različnih oblikah in vrstah elementov za površinsko namestitev (SMD), elementov s ploskovnimi nizi, osvinčenih elementov in elementov s svinčenimi vstavki z uporabo različnih vrst zlitin za spajkanje.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Feb-2012
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-Feb-2012
Due Date
12-Apr-2012
Completion Date
09-Feb-2012

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 62137-3:2012
01-marec-2012
Tehnologija elektronskega sestavljanja - 3. del: Napotki za izbiro metod za
preskušanje vplivov na okolje in vzdržljivosti s kositrom spajkanih spojev

Electronics assembly technology - Part 3: Selection guidance of environmental and

endurance test methods for solder joints

Montageverfahren für elektronische Baugruppen - Teil 3: Leitfaden für die Auswahl von

Umwelt- und (Lebens)dauerprüfungen für Lötverbindungen
Techniques d'assemblage des composants électroniques - Guide de choix des
méthodes d'essai d'environnement et d'endurance des joints brasés
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 62137-3:2012
ICS:
19.040 Preskušanje v zvezi z Environmental testing
okoljem
31.190 Sestavljeni elektronski Electronic component
elementi assemblies
SIST EN 62137-3:2012 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-3:2012
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-3:2012
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 62137-3
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM January 2012
ICS 31.190
English version
Electronics assembly technology -
Part 3: Selection guidance of environmental and endurance test methods
for solder joints
(IEC 62137-3:2011)
Techniques d'assemblage des Montageverfahren für elektronische
composants électroniques - Baugruppen -
Partie 3: Guide de choix des méthodes Teil 3: Leitfaden für die Auswahl von
d'essai d'environnement et d'endurance Umwelt- und (Lebens)dauerprüfungen für
des joints brasés Lötverbindungen
(CEI 62137-3:2011) (IEC 62137-3:2011)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2011-12-13. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,

the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,

Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B - 1000 Brussels

© 2012 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 62137-3:2012 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-3:2012
EN 62137-3:2012 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 91/986/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 62137-3, prepared by IEC/TC 91 "Electronics

assembly technology" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as

EN 62137-3:2012.
The following dates are fixed:
(dop) 2012-09-13
• latest date by which the document has
to be implemented at national level by
publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
• latest date by which the national (dow) 2014-12-13
standards conflicting with the
document have to be withdrawn

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62137-3:2011 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 60068-1:1988 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60068-1:1994 (not modified).
+ A1:1992
IEC 60068-2-2 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60068-2-2.
IEC 60068-2-14 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60068-2-14.
IEC 60068-2-78 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60068-2-78.
IEC 61760-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61760-1.
IEC 62137:2004 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62137:2004 (not modified).
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-3:2012
- 3 - EN 62137-3:2012
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD

applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60194 - Printed board design, manufacture and EN 60194 -
assembly - Terms and definitions

IEC 61188-5 Series Printed boards and printed board assemblies -EN 61188-5 Series

Design and use -
Part 5: Attachment (land/joint) considerations
IEC 61249-2-7 - Materials for printed boards and other EN 61249-2-7 -
interconnecting structures -
Part 2-7: Reinforced base materials, clad and
unclad - Epoxide woven E-glass laminated
sheet of defined flammability (vertical burning
test), copper-clad
IEC 62137-1-1 2007 Surface mounting technology - Environmental EN 62137-1-1 2007
and endurance test methods for surface
mount solder joint -
Part 1-1: Pull strength test
IEC 62137-1-2 2007 Surface-mounting technology - Environmental EN 62137-1-2 2007
and endurance test methods for surface
mount solder joint -
Part 1-2: Shear strength test
IEC 62137-1-3 2008 Surface mounting technology - Environmental EN 62137-1-3 2009
and endurance test methods for surface
mount solder joint -
Part 1-3: Cyclic drop test
IEC 62137-1-4 2009 Surface mounting technology - Environmental EN 62137-1-4 2009
and endurance test methods for surface
mount solder joint -
Part 1-4: Cyclic bending test
IEC 62137-1-5 2009 Surface mounting technology - Environmental EN 62137-1-5 2009
and endurance test methods for surface
mount solder joint -
Part 1-5: Mechanical shear fatigue test
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-3:2012
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-3:2012
IEC 62137-3
Edition 1.0 2011-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Electronics assembly technology –
Part 3: Selection guidance of environmental and endurance test methods for
solder joints
Techniques d'assemblage des composants électroniques –
Partie 3: Guide de choix des méthodes d'essai d'environnement et d'endurance
des joints brasés
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX X
ICS 31.190 ISBN 978-2-88912-711-5
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-3:2012
– 2 – 62137-3 © IEC:2011
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................... 7

4 General remarks ............................................................................................................... 9

5 Procedure of selecting the applicable test method .......................................................... 10

5.1 Stress to solder joints in the field and test methods ............................................... 10

5.2 Selection of test methods based on the shapes and terminations/leads of

electronic devices .................................................................................................. 12

5.2.1 Surface mount devices .............................................................................. 12

5.2.2 Lead insertion type device ......................................................................... 13

6 Common subjects in each test method ........................................................................... 14

6.1 Mounting device and materials used ...................................................................... 14

6.2 Soldering condition ................................................................................................ 15

6.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 15

6.2.2 Reflow soldering ........................................................................................ 15

6.2.3 Wave soldering .......................................................................................... 17

6.3 Accelerated stress conditioning ............................................................................. 18

6.3.1 Rapid temperature change (applies to all solder alloys in this

document) ................................................................................................. 18

6.3.2 Dry heat (applies to Bi58Sn42 alloy solder only) ........................................ 19

6.3.3 Damp heat (steady state) (applies to Sn91Zn9 and Sn89Zn8Bi3 alloy

solder) ....................................................................................................... 19

6.4 Selection of test conditions and judgement of test results ...................................... 19

7 Evaluation test method ................................................................................................... 19

7.1 Solder joint strength test of SMD ........................................................................... 19

7.1.1 General ..................................................................................................... 19

7.1.2 Pull strength test ....................................................................................... 19

7.1.3 Shear strength test .................................................................................... 20

7.1.4 Torque shear strength test ......................................................................... 21

7.1.5 Monotonic bending strength test ................................................................ 21

7.2 Cyclic bending strength test .................................................................................. 22

7.3 Mechanical shear fatigue test ................................................................................ 23

7.4 Cyclic drop test and cyclic steel ball drop strength test .......................................... 24

7.4.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 24

7.4.2 Cyclic steel ball drop strength test ............................................................. 25

7.5 Solder joint strength test for lead insertion type device .......................................... 26

7.5.1 Pull strength test for insertion type device ................................................. 26

7.5.2 Creep strength test for lead insertion type device ...................................... 26

Annex A (informative) Condition of rapid temperature change .............................................. 28

Annex B (informative) Electrical continuity test for solder joint ............................................. 30

Annex C (informative) Torque shear strength test ................................................................ 31

Annex D (informative) Monotonic bending strength test ....................................................... 34

Annex E (informative) Cyclic steel ball drop strength test ..................................................... 36

Annex F (informative) Pull strength test ................................................................................. 38

Annex G (informative) Creep strength test ............................................................................. 39

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-3:2012
62137-3 © IEC:2011 – 3 –

Annex H (informative) Evaluation method for the fillet lifting phenomenon of a lead

insertion type device solder joint ........................................................................................... 41

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 43

Figure 1 – Joint regions for the reliability tests ........................................................................ 9

Figure 2 – Factors affecting the joint reliability made by lead-free solder .............................. 10

Figure 3 – An example of the mounting position of SMD for monotonic bending and

cyclic bending tests .............................................................................................................. 15

Figure 4 – An example of reflow soldering temperature profile (Sn96,5Ag3Cu,5) .................. 16

Figure 5 – Examples of reflow soldering temperature profile other than

Sn96,5Ag3Cu,5 .................................................................................................................... 16

Figure 6 – An example of wave soldering temperature profile (Sn96,5Ag3Cu,5) .................... 17

Figure 7 – An example of wave soldering temperature profile ............................................... 18

Figure 8 – Pull strength test .................................................................................................. 20

Figure 9 – Shear strength test............................................................................................... 20

Figure 10 – Torque shear strength test ................................................................................. 21

Figure 11 – Monotonic bending strength test ......................................................................... 21

Figure 12 – Cyclic bending strength test ............................................................................... 22

Figure 13 – Structure of cyclic bending strength test ............................................................. 23

Figure 14 – Schematic diagram of mechanical shear fatigue for solder joint .......................... 24

Figure 15 – Cyclic drop test .................................................................................................. 25

Figure 16 – Cyclic steel ball drop test ................................................................................... 25

Figure 17 – Pull strength test ................................................................................................ 26

Figure 18 – Creep strength test ............................................................................................ 27

Figure A.1 – Stress relation curve for a given strain to a solder joint (Sn96,5Ag3Cu,5) ......... 28

Figure A.2 – Time to reach steady state in the temperature cycle chamber ........................... 29

Figure B.1 – Example of the test circuit for an electrical continuity test of a solder joint ........ 30

Figure C.1 – Fixing of substrate for torque shear strength test .............................................. 32

Figure C.2 – Torque shear strength test jig and position adjustment ..................................... 33

Figure C.3 – Torque shear strength test for a connector ....................................................... 33

Figure D.1 – Example of a board bending jig ......................................................................... 34

Figure E.1 – Cyclic steel ball drop test .................................................................................. 37

Figure E.2 – Comparison of cyclic drop test and cyclic steel ball drop test ............................ 37

Figure F.1 – Pull strength test ............................................................................................... 38

Figure G.1 – Creep strength test ........................................................................................... 39

Figure H.1 – Fillet lifting phenomenon of solder joint ............................................................. 41

Figure H.2 – Example of an electrical continuity test circuit for a lead insertion type

device solder joint ................................................................................................................. 42

Table 1 – Correlations between test methods and actual stresses in the field ....................... 11

Table 2 – Recommended test methods suitable for specific shapes and

terminations/leads of SMDs .................................................................................................. 12

Table 3 – Recommended test methods suitable for application and mass of the lead

insertion type device ............................................................................................................. 13

Table 4 – Solder alloy composition ....................................................................................... 14

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-3:2012
– 4 – 62137-3 © IEC:2011
Table 5 – Diameters of through holes and lands in respect to the nominal cross

section and nominal diameter of lead wire ............................................................................ 15

Table 6 – Temperature condition for rapid temperature change............................................. 18

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-3:2012
62137-3 © IEC:2011 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ELECTRONICS ASSEMBLY TECHNOLOGY –
Part 3: Selection guidance of environmental and endurance
test methods for solder joints
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62137-3 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 91:

Electronics assembly technology.

This first edition cancels and replaces IEC/PAS 62137-3, published in 2008, and includes

some editorial revisions. The main changes with respect to the PAS include the following:

– no technical changes;
– some editorial changes and corrections;
– for the sake of convenience some constitutive changes.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-3:2012
– 6 – 62137-3 © IEC:2011
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
91/986/FDIS 91/1011/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts of IEC 62137 under the general title Electronics assembly technology can be

found in the IEC website.

Future standards in this series will carry the new general title as cited above. Titles of existing

standards in this series will be updated at the time of the next edition.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The “colour inside” logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this publication using a colour printer.

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-3:2012
62137-3 © IEC:2011 – 7 –
ELECTRONICS ASSEMBLY TECHNOLOGY –
Part 3: Selection guidance of environmental and endurance
test methods for solder joints
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62137 describes the selection methodology of an appropriate test method for

a reliability test for solder joints of various shapes and types of surface mount devices (SMD),

array type devices and leaded devices, and lead insertion type devices using various types of

solder material alloys.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.

For a dated reference, only the edition cited applies. For an undated reference, the latest

edition of the referenced document (including any amendment) applies.

IEC 60194, Printed board design, manufacture and assembly – Terms and definitions

IEC 61188-5 (all parts), Printed boards and printed board assemblies – Design and use

IEC 61249-2-7, Materials for printed boards and other interconnecting structures – Part 2-7:

Reinforced base materials clad and unclad – Epoxide woven E-glass laminated sheet of

defined flammability (vertical burning test), copper-clad

IEC 62137-1-1:2007, Surface mounting technology – Environmental and endurance test

methods for surface mount solder joint – Part 1-1: Pull strength test

IEC 62137-1-2:2007, Surface mounting technology – Environmental and endurance test

methods for surface mount solder joint – Part 1-2: Shear strength test

IEC 62137-1-3:2008, Surface mounting technology – Environmental and endurance test

methods for surface mount solder joint – Part 1-3: Cyclic drop test

IEC 62137-1-4:2009, Surface mounting technology – Environmental and endurance test

methods for surface mount solder joint – Part 1-4: Cyclic bending test

IEC 62137-1-5:2009, Surface mounting technology – Environmental and endurance test

methods for surface mount solder joints – Part 1-5: Mechanical shear fatigue test

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions in IEC 60194, as well as the

following, apply.
3.1
pull strength for SMD

maximum force to break the joint of a lead to substrate when a gull-wing lead of a surface

mount device is pulled using a pulling tool at an angle of 45° to the substrate surface

[IEC 62137-1-1:2007, modified]
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-3:2012
– 8 – 62137-3 © IEC:2011
3.2
shear strength for SMD

maximum force applied parallel to the substrate and perpendicular to the specimen lateral

surface to break the joint of SMD mounted on a substrate
[IEC 62137-1-2:2007, modified]
3.3
torque shear strength for SMD

maximum rotation moment to SMD which is applied in parallel to the substrate surface, to

break the solder joint between an SMD termination/lead and the land on the substrate

3.4
monotonic bending strength for SMD

strength of solder joints of SMD mounted on substrate when the substrate is bent convex

toward to the mounted SMDs expressed by the maximum bending depth to the break of joints

3.5
cyclic bending strength for SMD

intensity of the strength, which is expressed in the number of cycles to attain the joint fracture

between SMD termination/lead mounted on the substrate and the copper land of the substrate

after bending the substrate cyclically to a specified degree to allow the surface of the device

side of the substrate to become a convex shape
[IEC 62137-1-4:2009, modified]
3.6
mechanical shear fatigue strength for SMD

imposition of cyclic shear deformation on the solder joints by mechanical displacement

instead of relative displacement generated by CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion)

mismatch in thermal cycling testing

NOTE The mechanical shear fatigue tests continues until the maximum force decreases to a specified value,

which corresponds to the appearance of an initial crack, or the electrical resistance-measuring instrument can

detect electric continuity interruption, and the number of cycles is recorded as fatigue life.

3.7
cyclic drop test for SMD

number of drops to break solder joints of an SMD to the lands on a substrate which is fixed to

a jig when the substrate is dropped from a specified height
3.8
cyclic steel ball drop strength for SMD

number of drops to break solder joints of a SMD to the lands on a substrate when the steel

ball is dropped from a specified height on a substrate
3.9
pull strength for lead insertion type device

maximum applied force to break the solder joint of a lead insertion type device to a land on

substrate when the lead is pulled using a jig
3.10
creep strength for lead insertion type device

strength of a solder joint expressed by the time to break the joint when a continuous force is

applied to a lead of a lead insertion type device soldered to a land
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN 62137-3:2012
62137-3 © IEC:2011 – 9 –
3.11
fillet lifting phenomenon for lead insertion type device

phenomenon whereby a solder fillet of a lead is lifting from a land on a substrate, or of the

land from the substrate (de-lamination)
3.12
daisy chain

all chains of solder joint connections that are connected in series, see Clause B.2

NOTE Lands on both sides of a substrate and lead are solder-connected in a chain in the case of a fillet lifting

test.
4 General remarks

The regions of the joints to be evaluated are shown in Figure 1. The test methods given here

are applicable to evaluate the durability of joints of a device mounted on substrate but not to

test the mechanical strength of the device itself.

The conditions for accelerated stress conditioning (rapid temperature change and dry heat)

may exceed the maximum allowable temperature range for a device.
SMD (leadless termination type)
Device
Device termination
Device termination
Solder
Plating layers
Evaluation
area Solder
Inter-metallic
Compound layers
Substrate Substrate land
Substrate Land
SMD
...

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