IEC 60953-3:2022 This part establishes a Supplementary Standard for thermal verification tests of retrofitted steam turbines.
The rules given in this document follow the guidance given in IEC 60953-0, but contain amendments and supplements regarding guarantees and verification of the guarantees by thermal acceptance tests on retrofitted steam turbines.
General principles for the preparation, performance, evaluation, comparison with guaranteed values and the determination of the measurement uncertainties of verification tests are given in this document.
This document is applicable only when the retrofit involves some hardware change in the steam turbine equipment. Conversely, any modification on the cycle or any retrofit of other equipment of the power plant (e.g. boiler, feedwater heaters, etc.) is not covered by this document.
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IEC 60953-0:2022 constitutes a technical revision.This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) IEC 60953-2:1990 has been used as the basis to develop IEC 60953-0;
b) Outdated measuring techniques have been updated and the corresponding reduction of the expected test result measuring uncertainty indicated;
c) Guarantee of power output at specified steam flow has been included;
d) A proposal for assignment of unaccounted for leakages has been included;
e) Correction methods and guarantee comparisons are updated;
f) Various appendices deleted:
- Appendix B (flow nozzle)
- Appendix E (generalized correction curves)
- Appendix G (power measurement uncertainty)
g) Annex added:
- Annex E (Temperature variation method) taken over from IEC 60953-3:2002,Annex L
The rules given in this document are applicable to thermal acceptance tests covering a wide range of accuracy on steam turbines of every type, rating and application. Only the relevant portion of these rules will apply to any individual case.
The rules provide for the testing of turbines, whether operating with either superheated or saturated steam. They include measurements and procedures required to determine specific enthalpy within the moisture region and describe precautions necessary to permit testing while respecting radiological safety rules in nuclear plants.
Uniform rules for the preparation, carrying out, evaluation, comparison with guarantee and calculation of measuring uncertainty of acceptance tests are defined in this standard. Details of the conditions under which the acceptance test can take place are included.
Should any complex or special case arise which is not covered by these rules, appropriate agreement is to be reached by manufacturer and purchaser before the contract is signed.
This first edition cancels and replaces IEC 60953-2, published in 1990.
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IEC TR 63388:2021 introduces the widely used technical scheme of cogeneration (also known as combined heat and power (CHP)), and gives the corresponding cases. The technical schemes of cogeneration covered in this technical report can be divided into two categories. One is cogeneration based on steam turbine, which is generally applied in thermal power plants; The other is cogeneration based on other prime movers, such as fuel cell, micro gas turbine, internal combustion engine, Stirling engine, ORC, etc.
This document gives some cases of cogeneration, mainly including:
• CHP based on extraction turbine;
• CHP based on back pressure turbine;
• Low-vacuum heating mode;
• LP cylinder steam bypassed heating mode;
• CHP based on steam turbine with synchro-self-shift clutches;
• Gas-steam combined cycle CHP;
• Micro gas turbine CHP;
• Stirling engine CHP;
• Fuel cell CHP; and
• ORC CHP.
The characteristics, components and technical requirements of these technical schemes are introduced in this document.
By collecting existing standards of CHP, this document also identifies the gaps of CHP standardization and put forward a roadmap for future CHP standards.
This document is prepared based on limited expert resources. Thus, some cogeneration cases could not be covered in this document, such as:
• Solar cogeneration; and
• Internal combustion engine cogeneration.
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IEC 60045-1:2020 is applicable primarily to land-based horizontal steam turbines driving generators for electrical power services. Some of its provisions are relevant to turbines for other applications. Generator, gear box and other auxiliaries which are considered as a part of the system are also mentioned in this document. Detailed specifications for this equipment are not included in this document.
The purpose of this document is to make an intending purchaser aware of options and alternatives which it may wish to consider, and to enable it to state its technical requirements clearly to potential suppliers. Consequently, final technical requirements will be in accordance with an agreement between the purchaser and the supplier in the contract.
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1991. This edition constitutes a technical revision.
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) Scope clarification and boundaries of applicability;
b) general update to state-of-the-art technology;
c) integration of product safety: Clause 5;
d) integration of automation, incorporating the former annex on electronic governors: Clause 11;
e) Informative Annex A on welding added.
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ISO 10494:2018 specifies methods for measuring the noise emission of a turbine or turbine set under steady-state operating conditions. It specifies methods for measuring the sound pressure levels on a measurement surface enveloping a source, and for calculating the sound power level produced by the source. It gives requirements for the test environment and instrumentation, as well as techniques for obtaining the surface sound pressure level from which the A-weighted sound power level of the source and octave or one-third-octave band sound power levels are calculated. These methods can be used to conduct performance tests even if the purpose of the test is simply to determine the sound pressure level around the machine.
ISO 10494:2018 is applicable to turbines and turbine sets:
- for power plant and industrial applications (e.g. stationary);
- for installation on board ships, or offshore installations, road and railway vehicles.
ISO 10494:2018 does not apply to gas turbines in aircraft applications.
ISO 10494:2018 is applicable to only the part of the turbine set (turbine, driven equipment and attached components) located above the floor and inside a continuous enveloping measurement surface bounded by this floor.
ISO 10494:2018 is applicable to steady-state operation and excludes transients such as start-up and shut-down, when the noise emission can be higher for short times. Under these conditions, this document does not apply.
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This part of IEC 60953, also called "retrofit code" (RC), establishes a supplementary retrofit code for thermal verification tests of retrofitted steam turbines.
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