IEC TR 63388:2021 introduces the widely used technical scheme of cogeneration (also known as combined heat and power (CHP)), and gives the corresponding cases. The technical schemes of cogeneration covered in this technical report can be divided into two categories. One is cogeneration based on steam turbine, which is generally applied in thermal power plants; The other is cogeneration based on other prime movers, such as fuel cell, micro gas turbine, internal combustion engine, Stirling engine, ORC, etc.
This document gives some cases of cogeneration, mainly including:
• CHP based on extraction turbine;
• CHP based on back pressure turbine;
• Low-vacuum heating mode;
• LP cylinder steam bypassed heating mode;
• CHP based on steam turbine with synchro-self-shift clutches;
• Gas-steam combined cycle CHP;
• Micro gas turbine CHP;
• Stirling engine CHP;
• Fuel cell CHP; and
The characteristics, components and technical requirements of these technical schemes are introduced in this document.
By collecting existing standards of CHP, this document also identifies the gaps of CHP standardization and put forward a roadmap for future CHP standards.
This document is prepared based on limited expert resources. Thus, some cogeneration cases could not be covered in this document, such as:
• Solar cogeneration; and
• Internal combustion engine cogeneration.

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IEC 60045-1:2020 is applicable primarily to land-based horizontal steam turbines driving generators for electrical power services. Some of its provisions are relevant to turbines for other applications. Generator, gear box and other auxiliaries which are considered as a part of the system are also mentioned in this document. Detailed specifications for this equipment are not included in this document.
The purpose of this document is to make an intending purchaser aware of options and alternatives which it may wish to consider, and to enable it to state its technical requirements clearly to potential suppliers. Consequently, final technical requirements will be in accordance with an agreement between the purchaser and the supplier in the contract.
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1991. This edition constitutes a technical revision.
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) Scope clarification and boundaries of applicability;
b) general update to state-of-the-art technology;
c) integration of product safety: Clause 5;
d) integration of automation, incorporating the former annex on electronic governors: Clause 11;
e) Informative Annex A on welding added.

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ISO 10494:2018 specifies methods for measuring the noise emission of a turbine or turbine set under steady-state operating conditions. It specifies methods for measuring the sound pressure levels on a measurement surface enveloping a source, and for calculating the sound power level produced by the source. It gives requirements for the test environment and instrumentation, as well as techniques for obtaining the surface sound pressure level from which the A-weighted sound power level of the source and octave or one-third-octave band sound power levels are calculated. These methods can be used to conduct performance tests even if the purpose of the test is simply to determine the sound pressure level around the machine.
ISO 10494:2018 is applicable to turbines and turbine sets:
- for power plant and industrial applications (e.g. stationary);
- for installation on board ships, or offshore installations, road and railway vehicles.
ISO 10494:2018 does not apply to gas turbines in aircraft applications.
ISO 10494:2018 is applicable to only the part of the turbine set (turbine, driven equipment and attached components) located above the floor and inside a continuous enveloping measurement surface bounded by this floor.
ISO 10494:2018 is applicable to steady-state operation and excludes transients such as start-up and shut-down, when the noise emission can be higher for short times. Under these conditions, this document does not apply.

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This part of IEC 60953, also called "retrofit code" (RC), establishes a supplementary retrofit code for thermal verification tests of retrofitted steam turbines.

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