Rules for steam turbine thermal acceptance tests - Part 3: Thermal performance verification tests of retrofitted steam turbines

IEC 60953-3:2022 This part establishes a Supplementary Standard for thermal verification tests of retrofitted steam turbines.
The rules given in this document follow the guidance given in IEC 60953-0, but contain amendments and supplements regarding guarantees and verification of the guarantees by thermal acceptance tests on retrofitted steam turbines.
General principles for the preparation, performance, evaluation, comparison with guaranteed values and the determination of the measurement uncertainties of verification tests are given in this document.
This document is applicable only when the retrofit involves some hardware change in the steam turbine equipment. Conversely, any modification on the cycle or any retrofit of other equipment of the power plant (e.g. boiler, feedwater heaters, etc.) is not covered by this document.

Règles pour les essais thermiques de réception des turbines à vapeur - Partie 3: Essais de vérification des performances thermiques des turbines à vapeur rénovées

IEC 60953-3:2022 La présente partie établit une norme supplémentaire pour les essais de vérification thermique des turbines à vapeur modernisées.
Les règles données dans le présent document suivent les directives données dans la CEI 60953-0, mais contiennent des amendements et des suppléments concernant les garanties et la vérification des garanties par des essais de réception thermique sur des turbines à vapeur modernisées.
Les principes généraux pour la préparation, l’exécution, l’évaluation, la comparaison avec les valeurs garanties et la détermination des incertitudes de mesure des essais de vérification sont donnés dans le présent document.
Le présent document ne s’applique que lorsque la mise à niveau implique un changement de matériel dans l’équipement de la turbine à vapeur. Inversement, toute modification du cycle ou toute modernisation d’autres équipements de la centrale (par exemple chaudière, chauffe-eau, etc.) n’est pas couverte par le présent document.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
19-Jul-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
20-Jul-2022
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IEC 60953-3
Edition 2.0 2022-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Rules for steam turbine thermal acceptance tests –
Part 3: Thermal performance verification tests of retrofitted steam turbines
Règles pour les essais thermiques de réception des turbines à vapeur –
Partie 3: Essais de vérification des performances thermiques des turbines à
vapeur rénovées
IEC 60953-3:2022-07(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60953-3
Edition 2.0 2022-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Rules for steam turbine thermal acceptance tests –
Part 3: Thermal performance verification tests of retrofitted steam turbines
Règles pour les essais thermiques de réception des turbines à vapeur –
Partie 3: Essais de vérification des performances thermiques des turbines à
vapeur rénovées
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 27.040 ISBN 978-2-8322-3974-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60953-3:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 8

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 10

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 13

1.1 General ................................................................................................................. 13

1.2 Object ................................................................................................................... 13

1.3 Matters to be considered in the contract ............................................................... 13

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 13

3 Units, symbols, terms and definitions ............................................................................. 14

3.1 General ................................................................................................................. 14

3.2 Symbols, units ...................................................................................................... 14

3.3 Subscripts, superscripts and definitions ................................................................ 14

3.4 Guarantee parameters .......................................................................................... 16

3.4.1 Guidance on guarantee parameters ............................................................... 16

3.4.2 Thermal efficiency ......................................................................................... 16

3.4.3 Heat rate ....................................................................................................... 16

3.4.4 Thermodynamic efficiency ............................................................................. 16

3.4.5 Steam rate ..................................................................................................... 16

3.4.6 Main steam flow capacity ............................................................................... 16

3.4.7 Power output ................................................................................................. 16

3.4.8 Guarantee values for extraction and mixed-pressure turbines ........................ 16

3.4.9 Thermal Load Capacity (for Nuclear applications) .......................................... 16

3.5 Additional guarantee parameters .......................................................................... 16

3.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 16

3.5.2 Cylinder isentropic efficiency – expansion in superheated region ................... 16

3.5.3 Cylinder isentropic efficiency – expansion involving wet region ...................... 17

3.5.4 Pressure loss ................................................................................................. 19

3.5.5 Flow-passing capacity (FPC) ......................................................................... 19

4 Guiding principles .......................................................................................................... 19

4.1 Advance planning for test ...................................................................................... 19

4.2 Preparatory agreements and arrangements for tests ............................................. 20

4.3 Planning of the test ............................................................................................... 20

4.3.1 Time for verification tests ............................................................................... 20

4.3.2 Direction of acceptance tests ......................................................................... 21

4.4 Preparation of the tests ......................................................................................... 21

4.4.1 Condition of the plant..................................................................................... 21

4.4.2 Condition of the steam turbine ....................................................................... 22

4.4.3 Condition of the condenser ............................................................................ 22

4.4.4 Isolation of the cycle ...................................................................................... 22

4.4.5 Checks for leakage of condenser and feed water heaters .............................. 22

4.4.6 Cleanliness of the steam strainers ................................................................. 22

4.4.7 Checking of the test measuring equipment .................................................... 22

4.5 Comparison measurements ................................................................................... 22

4.6 Settings for test .................................................................................................... 23

4.6.1 Load settings ................................................................................................. 23

4.6.2 Special settings ............................................................................................. 23

4.7 Preliminary tests ................................................................................................... 23

4.8 Acceptance tests .................................................................................................. 23

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IEC 60953-3:2022 © IEC 2022 – 3 –

4.8.1 Constancy of test conditions .......................................................................... 23

4.8.2 Maximum deviation and fluctuation in test conditions ..................................... 23

4.8.3 Duration of test runs and frequency of reading ............................................... 23

4.8.4 Reading of integrating measuring instruments ............................................... 23

4.8.5 Alternative methods ....................................................................................... 23

4.8.6 Recording of tests ......................................................................................... 23

4.8.7 Additional measurement ................................................................................ 23

4.8.8 Preliminary calculations ................................................................................. 23

4.8.9 Consistency and number of tests ................................................................... 24

4.9 Repetition of acceptance tests .............................................................................. 24

4.10 Guidance on retrofit guarantees ............................................................................ 24

4.10.1 General ......................................................................................................... 24

4.10.2 Absolute guarantees ...................................................................................... 25

4.10.3 Relative guarantees ....................................................................................... 26

5 Measuring techniques and measuring instruments ......................................................... 27

5.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 27

5.1.1 Instrument accuracy requirements ................................................................. 27

5.1.2 Measuring instruments................................................................................... 27

5.1.3 Measuring uncertainty ................................................................................... 27

5.1.4 Calibration of instruments .............................................................................. 27

5.1.5 Alternative instrumentation ............................................................................ 27

5.1.6 Consistency of pre- and post-retrofit tests...................................................... 27

5.2 Measurement of power .......................................................................................... 27

5.2.1 Determination of mechanical turbine output ................................................... 27

5.2.2 Measurement of boiler feed pump power ....................................................... 27

5.2.3 Determination of electrical power of a turbine generator ................................ 28

5.2.4 Measurement of electrical power ................................................................... 28

5.2.5 Electrical instrument connections ................................................................... 28

5.2.6 Electrical instruments .................................................................................... 28

5.2.7 Instrument transformers ................................................................................. 28

5.2.8 Determination of electrical power of pre- and post-retrofit tests ..................... 28

5.3 Flow measurement ................................................................................................ 28

5.3.1 Determination of flows to be measured .......................................................... 28

5.3.2 Measurement of primary flow ......................................................................... 29

5.3.3 Installation and location of flow measuring devices ........................................ 29

5.3.4 Calibration of primary flow devices for water flow .......................................... 29

5.3.5 Inspection of flow measuring devices ............................................................. 29

5.3.6 Differential pressure measurements............................................................... 30

5.3.7 Water flow fluctuation .................................................................................... 30

5.3.8 Secondary flow measurements ...................................................................... 30

5.3.9 Occasional secondary flows ........................................................................... 31

5.3.10 Density of water and steam ........................................................................... 31

5.3.11 Determination of cooling water flow of condenser .......................................... 31

5.4 Pressure measurement (excluding condensing turbine exhaust pressure) ............. 31

5.4.1 Pressures to be measured ............................................................................. 31

5.4.2 Instruments ................................................................................................... 31

5.4.3 Main pressure measurements ........................................................................ 31

5.4.4 Pressure tapping holes and connecting lines ................................................. 31

5.4.5 Shut-off valves............................................................................................... 32

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– 4 – IEC 60953-3:2022 © IEC 2022

5.4.6 Calibration of pressure measuring devices..................................................... 32

5.4.7 Atmospheric pressure .................................................................................... 32

5.4.8 Correction of readings ................................................................................... 32

5.5 Condensing turbine exhaust pressure measurement ............................................. 32

5.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 32

5.5.2 Plane of measurement ................................................................................... 32

5.5.3 Pressure taps ................................................................................................ 32

5.5.4 Manifolds ....................................................................................................... 32

5.5.5 Connecting lines ............................................................................................ 32

5.5.6 Instruments ................................................................................................... 32

5.5.7 Calibration ..................................................................................................... 32

5.6 Temperature measurement ................................................................................... 33

5.6.1 Points of temperature measurement .............................................................. 33

5.6.2 Instruments ................................................................................................... 33

5.6.3 Main temperature measurements ................................................................... 33

5.6.4 Feed train temperature measurements (including bled steam) ....................... 33

5.6.5 Condenser cooling water temperature measurement ..................................... 33

5.6.6 Thermometer wells ........................................................................................ 33

5.6.7 Precautions to be observed in the measurement of temperature .................... 33

5.7 Steam quality determination .................................................................................. 33

5.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 33

5.7.2 Tracer technique............................................................................................ 33

5.7.3 Condensing method ....................................................................................... 33

5.7.4 Constant rate injection method ...................................................................... 33

5.7.5 Extraction enthalpy determined by constant rate injection method ................. 33

5.7.6 Tracers and their use ..................................................................................... 34

5.7.7 Use of tracer techniques in retrofit applications ............................................. 34

5.8 Time measurement ............................................................................................... 34

5.9 Speed measurement ............................................................................................. 34

6 Evaluation of tests ......................................................................................................... 34

6.1 Preparation of evaluation ...................................................................................... 34

6.2 Computation of results .......................................................................................... 35

6.2.1 Calculation of average values of instrument readings .................................... 35

6.2.2 Correction and conversion of averaged readings ........................................... 35

6.2.3 Checking of measured data ........................................................................... 35

6.2.4 Thermodynamic properties of steam and water .............................................. 36

6.2.5 Calculation of test results .............................................................................. 36

7 Corrections of test results and comparison with guarantee ............................................ 39

7.1 Guarantee values and guarantee conditions ......................................................... 39

7.1.1 Guarantee values and guarantee conditions specific to retrofits ..................... 39

7.2 Correction of initial steam flow capacity ................................................................ 40

7.3 Correction of output .............................................................................................. 40

7.3.1 Correction of maximum output ....................................................................... 40

7.3.2 Correction of Output with specified initial steam flow ..................................... 40

7.4 Correction of the thermal performance .................................................................. 40

7.5 Definition and application of correction values ...................................................... 40

7.6 Correction methods ............................................................................................... 40

7.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 40

7.6.2 Correction by heat balance calculation .......................................................... 40

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IEC 60953-3:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –

7.6.3 Correction by use of correction curves prepared by the manufacturer ............ 41

7.6.4 Tests to determine correction values ............................................................. 41

7.7 Variables to be considered in the correction of specific turbine cycles................... 41

7.7.1 Scope of corrections ...................................................................................... 41

7.7.2 Turbines with regenerative feed-water heating ............................................... 41

7.7.3 Turbines which have no provision for the addition or extraction of steam

after partial expansion ................................................................................... 41

7.7.4 Turbines with steam extraction for purposes other than feed-water

heating (extraction turbines) .......................................................................... 41

7.7.5 Other types of turbine .................................................................................... 41

7.8 Guarantee comparison .......................................................................................... 41

7.8.1 Tolerance and weighting ................................................................................ 41

7.8.2 Guarantee comparison with locus curve ......................................................... 41

7.8.3 Guarantee comparison with guarantee point .................................................. 41

7.8.4 Guarantee comparison for turbines with throttle governing............................. 41

7.8.5 Guarantee comparison for extraction turbines ................................................ 41

7.8.6 Additional consideration for retrofit guarantee comparison ............................. 42

7.9 Deterioration of turbine performance (ageing) ....................................................... 42

7.9.1 Timing to minimise deterioration .................................................................... 42

7.9.2 Correction with comparison tests ................................................................... 42

7.9.3 Correction without comparison tests .............................................................. 42

7.9.4 Deterioration of performance of retrofitted components .................................. 42

8 Measuring uncertainty ................................................................................................... 43

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 43

8.2 Determination of measuring uncertainty of steam and water properties ................. 43

8.2.1 Pressure ........................................................................................................ 43

8.2.2 Temperature .................................................................................................. 43

8.2.3 Enthalpy and enthalpy difference ................................................................... 43

8.3 Calculation of measuring uncertainty of output ...................................................... 43

8.3.1 Electrical measurement ................................................................................. 43

8.3.2 Mechanical measurement .............................................................................. 43

8.3.3 Additional uncertainty allowance because of unsteady load conditions .......... 43

8.4 Determination of measuring uncertainty of mass flow ............................................ 44

8.4.1 Measuring uncertainty of mass flow measurements ....................................... 44

8.4.2 Measuring uncertainty of multiple measurements of primary flow ................... 44

8.4.3 Uncertainty allowance for cycle imperfections ................................................ 44

8.5 Calculation of measuring uncertainty of results ..................................................... 44

8.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 44

8.5.2 Measuring uncertainty of thermal efficiency ................................................... 44

8.5.3 Measuring uncertainty of thermodynamic efficiency ....................................... 44

8.5.4 Uncertainty of corrections .............................................................................. 44

8.5.5 Guiding values for the measuring uncertainty of results ................................. 44

8.6 Example uncertainty calculation ............................................................................ 44

Annex A (normative) Feedwater heater leakage and condenser leakage tests ..................... 45

A.1 Feedwater heater leakage tests ............................................................................ 45

A.2 Condenser leakage tests ...................................................................................... 45

Annex B (normative) Evaluation of multiple measurements, compatibility ............................. 46

Annex C (normative) Mass flow balances ............................................................................. 47

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 47

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– 6 – IEC 60953-3:2022 © IEC 2022

C.2 Flows for further evaluations (informative) ............................................................ 47

Annex D (informative) Short-statistical definition of measuring uncertainty and error

propagation in acceptance test ............................................................................................. 48

Annex E (informative) Temperature variation method ........................................................... 49

E.1 Description of the problem .................................................................................... 49

E.2 Possibility to determine the leakage flow ............................................................... 49

E.3 Applied example ................................................................................................... 49

Annex F (normative) Measuring uncertainty of results – retrofit application .......................... 50

Annex G (informative) Retrofit improvement calculation – numerical examples (fossil

and nuclear) ......................................................................................................................... 53

G.1 General ................................................................................................................. 53

G.2 Example of retrofitting a fossil-fired reheat turbine ................................................ 53

G.2.1 General ...................................................
...

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