This document specifies a method for the determination of the gross calorific value of a solid mineral fuel at constant volume and at the reference temperature of 25 °C in a combustion vessel calorimeter calibrated by combustion of certified benzoic acid. The result obtained is the gross calorific value of the analysis sample at constant volume with all the water of the combustion products as liquid water. In practice, fuel is burned at constant (atmospheric) pressure and the water is not condensed but is removed as vapour with the flue gases. Under these conditions, the operative heat of combustion is the net calorific value of the fuel at constant pressure. The net calorific value at constant volume can also be used; formulae are given for calculating both values. General principles and procedures for the calibrations and the fuel tests are specified in the main text, whereas those pertaining to the use of a particular type of calorimetric instrument are described in Annexes A to C. Annex D contains checklists for performing calibration and fuel tests using specified types of calorimeters. Annex E gives examples illustrating some of the calculations. Annex F provides guidance around safe use, maintenance and testing of the calorimeter combustion vessel. NOTE Descriptors: solid fuels, coal, coke, tests, determination, calorific value, rules of calculation, calorimetry.

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This document establishes a practice for the ultimate analysis of coal and coke and is intended for general utilization by the coal and coke industries to provide a basis for comparison of coals and cokes.

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This document specifies a method of determining the chlorine content of hard coal, brown coals and lignites, and coke using Eschka mixture.

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This document specifies a reference method for determining the total sulfur content of hard coal, brown coals and lignites, and coke by the Eschka method.

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This document specifies a method of determining the volatile matter of brown coals and lignites by the one furnace method.

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This document specifies a method for determining the swelling properties of hard coal when heated under standard conditions in a dilatometer.

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This document specifies a method of determination of caking index of hard coal. It is applicable to the evaluation of caking power of bituminous coal with random reflectance of vitrinite, Rr, greater than 0,6 % and less than or equal to 1,8 % (>0,6 % and ≤1,8 %).

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This document specifies two methods (high temperature combustion and high pressure vessel combustion) for the determination of chlorine in solid mineral fuels. It is applicable to solid mineral fuels. The chlorine in the absorption solution can be determined using different finishes, such as coulometric or potentiometric titration, spectrophotometry or ion chromatography. The method is applicable to determine the chlorine content higher than 0,005 % mass fraction.

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This document gives reference to ASTM D1412 as a method of determining the moisture-holding capacity of hard coals.

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This document specifies a gravimetric method of determining the carbon in the mineral carbonates associated with solid mineral fuels. NOTE The result obtained will include any carbon from atmospheric carbon dioxide absorbed by the fuel.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of total fluorine in coal, coke and fly ash. From measurement of the total fluorine alone, it is not possible to estimate the amount of fluorine released to the environment by utilization of the coal and subsequent disposal of the ash residue.

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This document describes a simple classification system for coals providing — guidance on the selection of the appropriate ISO standard procedures for the analyses and testing of coals, — international comparison of coals in terms of some key characteristics, — descriptive categorization of coals. The system is applicable to coals of all ranks, but care is required in relation to the classification of some types of coal. The system can be applied to a wide range of representative coal samples, provided their exact nature is stated. Such samples include bore-core seam sections and composite samples, raw (as-mined) coal, washed coal, blends of coals of similar rank and selected, specified size fractions. The system provides a broad framework within which coals can be assessed. The selection of coals for a specific use requires detailed information that enables the likely performance of a coal in a particular application to be anticipated. The wide-ranging list of ISO analyses and test procedures for coals serve this purpose. The selection of the appropriate procedures to be used in assessing a coal depends on the intended use.

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This document describes a method for determining the abrasiveness of hard coal.

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This document sets out a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) procedure for the determination of silicon, aluminium, iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, titanium, manganese, phosphorus and sulfur.

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ISO 20336:2017 specifies an alternative method of determining the total sulfur content of coal and coke by high-temperature combustion ? Coulomb titration.

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ISO 7404-4:2017 specifies a method, using a graticule with 20 crossline intersections, for determining the proportions of microlithotypes, carbominerite and minerite in coals. It applies only to determinations made on polished particulate blocks using reflected white light (about 400 nm to 700 nm). Additional blue, blue-violet or UV light excitation (365 nm to 440 nm) for better identification of liptinite in fluorescence may be used especially at low rank coals.

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ISO 10329:2017 specifies a method for obtaining a relative measure of the plastic behaviour of coal when heated under prescribed conditions. The method is used to obtain values of the plastic properties of coals and blends used in carbonization and in other situations where determination of plastic behaviour of coals is of practical importance. NOTE The empirical nature of this test requires proper equipment calibration to produce fluidity readings which are a true indication of the relative plastic behaviour of the coal.

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ISO 647:2017 specifies a method for the determination of the yields of tar, water, gas and coke residue obtained from brown coal and lignite by distillation to a final temperature of 520 °C.

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ISO 11723:2016 specifies a method using Eschka's mixture during ashing, extraction of the ash residue with acid, and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry or hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry, for the determination of arsenic and selenium in solid mineral fuels.

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ISO 15238:2016 specifies a procedure for the determination of the total cadmium content of coal. This procedure has not been validated with coals that spontaneously ignite. Prior to use with such sample types, users should validate the method.

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ISO 622:2016 specifies a reduced molybdophosphate photometric method for the determination of the total phosphorus content of hard coal, lignites and coke. Two methods for taking the phosphorus into solution are specified, namely extraction from the coal or coke ash with acid or by repeated oxidation of the coal or coke, by acid, to remove carbonaceous matter.

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ISO 15237:2016 specifies a procedure for the determination of the total mercury content of coal.

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ISO 7404-1:2016 defines terms that are used in connection with both maceral and microlithotype analyses, and with the determination of the reflectance of vitrinite. It applies to the terms used in the examination of coal of all ranks. ISO 7404-1:2016 is not intended to be a comprehensive glossary of coal petrographic terminology, nor does it attempt to provide sufficient information to allow recognition of all the coal components described. Further information may be obtained from the relevant ICCP publications[3][4][5].

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ISO 5074:2015 specifies the method for determining the grindability index of hard coal using the Hardgrove machine. It also specifies the procedure for calibrating the test machine and for preparing the standard reference coal samples. NOTE In this International Standard, the term "hard coal" is used as an indication of maturity or rank in the coalification sequence and is not related to the physical properties of the coal.

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ISO 502:2015 specifies a method of assessing the caking power of coal under standard conditions.

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ISO 602:2015 specifies a method of determining the amount of mineral matter in all types of coal, including brown coals and lignites.

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ISO 23380:2013 provides guidance on the selection of methods used for the determination of trace elements in coal. The trace elements of environmental interest include antimony, arsenic, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, fluorine, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc. The radioactive trace elements thorium and uranium can be added to this list.

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ISO 11722:2013 specifies a method for determining the moisture in the general analysis test sample of hard coal by drying in nitrogen.

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ISO 579:2013 specifies a method for determining the total moisture of coke. It can be used for the determination of moisture of blast-furnace coke, foundry coke and other high-temperature carbonization products.

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ISO 5071-1:2013 specifies a method of determining the volatile matter of brown coals and lignites.

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ISO 975:2013 specifies a semi-automatic method for determination of the yield of benzene-soluble extract in brown coals and lignites.

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ISO 5073:2013 specifies volumetric methods for the determination of total humic acids and free humic acid of brown coals and lignites.

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ISO 5072:2013 describes methods for the determination of true relative density and the apparent relative density of brown coals and lignites.

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ISO 501:2012 specifies a method for determining the swelling properties of hard coal when heated in a covered crucible. The "crucible swelling number" (CSN) is also known as the "free swelling index" (FSI).

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ISO 23873:2010 describes a method for the measurement of the swelling of hard coal using a dilatometer.

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ISO 29541:2010 specifies a method for the determination of total carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in coal and coke by instrumental methods.

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ISO 17246:2010 establishes a practice for the proximate analysis of coal and is intended for general utilization by the coal industry to provide a basis for comparison of coals.

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ISO 687:2010 specifies a method for determining the moisture in the general analysis test sample of coke. ISO 687:2010 can be used for the determination of moisture in blast-furnace coke, foundry-coke and other high-temperature carbonization products.

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ISO 562:2010 specifies a method of determining the volatile matter of hard coal and of coke. It is not applicable to brown coals and lignites.

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ISO 1171:2010 specifies a method for the determination of the ash of all solid mineral fuels.

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ISO 7404-5:2009 specifies the methods for determining the reflectance of vitrinite of coals microcopically on the polished surfaces, immersed in oil. The methods are applicable to coals from single seams or coal blends covering the whole range of low-, medium- and high-rank coal. Vitrinite reflectance measurements can be used to characterize the components within blends. Measures can be taken to correct for the vitrinite percentage within each of the components of the blend or to determine the proportion of components in a blend, particularly when the components have dissimilar vitrinite contents. This method necessitates the identification of vitrinite by the analyst. Reflectance measurements on vitrinite obtained by interpreting the results from an automated system, are outside the scope of ISO 7404-5:2009.

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ISO 7404-2:2009 specifies methods for preparing a polished particulate block from a sample of crushed coal for analysis by reflectance microscopy. These methods can also be applied to the preparation of a polished, embedded lump of coal.

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ISO 7404-3:2009 specifies a method for determining the proportions of the maceral groups (and the minerals, if desired) in coals. ISO 7404-3:2009 is applicable only to determinations made on polished particulate blocks using incident white light. For lower-rank coals, the additional use of the fluorescence mode is necessary to identify liptinites.

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ISO 589:2008 describes two methods for determination of the total moisture content of hard coals, a two-stage method and a single-stage method. For either method there is a choice between drying in air and drying in a nitrogen atmosphere. Depending on the coal rank, there may be systematic differences between the results obtained by drying in the different atmospheres on subsamples of a sample. Drying in a nitrogen atmosphere is suitable for all hard coals, while drying in air is only suitable for hard coals not susceptible to oxidation.

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ISO 1952:2008 describes the extraction from solid mineral fuels by dilute hydrochloric acid and determination of extractable sodium, potassium, calcium, iron and magnesium.

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ISO 540:2008 specifies a method of determining the characteristic fusion temperatures of ash from coal and coke.

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ISO 8983:2007 covers the determination of beryllium, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead, strontium, vanadium and zinc by atomic absorption spectrometry, following acid digestion of a laboratory-prepared ash.

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ISO 5068-1:2007 specifies two methods for determination of the total moisture content of brown coals and lignites using an indirect gravimetric single-stage method and a two-stage method.

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ISO 5068-2:2007 specifies a method for the determination of the moisture content in the analysis sample of brown coals and lignites using an indirect gravimetric method.

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