This document specifies a reference method for determining the total sulfur content of hard coal, brown coals and lignites, and coke by the Eschka method.

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This document defines terms commonly employed in coal preparation. Note For terms relating to petrographic analysis, see ISO 7404-1.

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This document establishes a practice for the ultimate analysis of coal and coke and is intended for general utilization by the coal and coke industries to provide a basis for comparison of coals and cokes.

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This document specifies a reference method for determining the total sulfur content of hard coal, brown coals and lignites, and coke by the Eschka method.

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This document specifies a method of determining the volatile matter of brown coals and lignites by the one furnace method.

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This document describes a method for determining the abrasiveness of hard coal.

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This document sets out the basic methods for sampling fine coal, coal rejects or tailings of nominal top size The procedures described in this document primarily apply to sampling of coal that is transported in moving streams as a slurry. These streams can fall freely or be confined in pipes, launders, chutes, spirals or similar channels. Sampling of slurries in stationary situations, such as a settled or even a well-stirred slurry in a tank, holding vessel or dam, is not recommended and is not covered in this Document. This document describes procedures that are designed to provide samples representative of the slurry solids and particle size distribution of the slurry under examination. After draining the slurry sample of fluid and measuring the fluid volume, damp samples of the contained solids in the slurry are available for drying (if required) and measurement of one or more characteristics in an unbiased manner and with a known degree of precision. The characteristics are measured by chemical analysis or physical testing or both. The sampling methods described are applicable to slurries that require inspection to verify compliance with product specifications, determination of the value of a characteristic as a basis for settlement between trading partners or estimation of a set of average characteristics and variances that describes a system or procedure. Provided flow rates are not too high, the reference method against which other sampling procedures are compared is one where the entire stream is diverted into a vessel for a specified time or volume interval. This method corresponds to the stopped-belt method described in ISO 13909-2.

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This document specifies a method for determining the swelling properties of hard coal when heated under standard conditions in a dilatometer.

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This document specifies a method of determination of caking index of hard coal. It is applicable to the evaluation of caking power of bituminous coal with random reflectance of vitrinite, Rr, greater than 0,6 % and less than or equal to 1,8 % (>0,6 % and ≤1,8 %).

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This document sets out recommended practices for the inspection of mechanical sampling systems. It serves as a guide for conformance with applicable ISO/TC 27 standards. This document covers general considerations including precision, mineral variability and bias, establishment of inspection systems and inspection procedure.

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This document gives reference to ASTM D1412 as a method of determining the moisture-holding capacity of hard coals.

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This document sets out a laboratory procedure for the froth flotation testing of fine coal, e.g. coal of particle size less than 0,5 mm. The procedure provides a means of evaluating the general flotation characteristics of a coal under a set of specified standard conditions, and will not necessarily indicate the full flotation potential of that coal. The flotation characteristics of coals are sensitive to changes in flotation conditions. These conditions can be changed by varying basic parameters such as flotation time, reagent and dosage rate. Separate flotation tests are used to assess the effect of varying these parameters to determine the best flotation conditions for a particular coal. A method of evaluating flotation response will be given in a separate standard.

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This document specifies a method for the comparative evaluation of the performances of flocculants for clarification, thickening and sedimentation applications on a given slurry. This performance can be evaluated by a) the settling velocity in the initial period, b) the sediment volume after compaction and consolidation, and c) the clarity of the supernatant liquid.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of total fluorine in coal, coke and fly ash. From measurement of the total fluorine alone, it is not possible to estimate the amount of fluorine released to the environment by utilization of the coal and subsequent disposal of the ash residue.

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This document describes a simple classification system for coals providing — guidance on the selection of the appropriate ISO standard procedures for the analyses and testing of coals, — international comparison of coals in terms of some key characteristics, — descriptive categorization of coals. The system is applicable to coals of all ranks, but care is required in relation to the classification of some types of coal. The system can be applied to a wide range of representative coal samples, provided their exact nature is stated. Such samples include bore-core seam sections and composite samples, raw (as-mined) coal, washed coal, blends of coals of similar rank and selected, specified size fractions. The system provides a broad framework within which coals can be assessed. The selection of coals for a specific use requires detailed information that enables the likely performance of a coal in a particular application to be anticipated. The wide-ranging list of ISO analyses and test procedures for coals serve this purpose. The selection of the appropriate procedures to be used in assessing a coal depends on the intended use.

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This document describes a method for determining the abrasiveness of hard coal.

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This document sets out a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) procedure for the determination of silicon, aluminium, iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, titanium, manganese, phosphorus and sulfur.

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ISO 7404-4:2017 specifies a method, using a graticule with 20 crossline intersections, for determining the proportions of microlithotypes, carbominerite and minerite in coals. It applies only to determinations made on polished particulate blocks using reflected white light (about 400 nm to 700 nm). Additional blue, blue-violet or UV light excitation (365 nm to 440 nm) for better identification of liptinite in fluorescence may be used especially at low rank coals.

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ISO 10329:2017 specifies a method for obtaining a relative measure of the plastic behaviour of coal when heated under prescribed conditions. The method is used to obtain values of the plastic properties of coals and blends used in carbonization and in other situations where determination of plastic behaviour of coals is of practical importance. NOTE The empirical nature of this test requires proper equipment calibration to produce fluidity readings which are a true indication of the relative plastic behaviour of the coal.

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ISO 647:2017 specifies a method for the determination of the yields of tar, water, gas and coke residue obtained from brown coal and lignite by distillation to a final temperature of 520 °C.

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ISO 14180:2017 provides guidance on methods for taking samples from coal seams in the ground, whether from exploration areas or tenements, or from operating underground or open-cut mines. The following methods are described: a) sampling of small or large diameter holes; b) drill cuttings sampling; c) open-cut slot sampling; d) adit, drift or shaft sampling; e) pillar sampling; f) channel sampling; g) strip sampling. ISO 14180:2017 does not apply to sampling from moving streams in production or any other source of coal that is not in situ. Recommendations are made for selection and preparation of the sampling site, and methods are described for taking both small and bulk samples, and for preparing the samples for transport. NOTE Annex A gives an example of a channel sample record form that can be used to record sampling and other relevant data, and ISO 13909 or ISO 18283 describes how to determine the mass of a representative sample at various nominal top sizes.

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ISO 1213-2:2016 defines terms commonly employed in the sampling, testing and analysis of solid mineral fuels. Alternative names are given for several terms. In some cases, however, the use of the alternative name is deprecated (as indicated). An alphabetical index, with numerical cross reference is provided.

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ISO 15238:2016 specifies a procedure for the determination of the total cadmium content of coal. This procedure has not been validated with coals that spontaneously ignite. Prior to use with such sample types, users should validate the method.

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ISO 15237:2016 specifies a procedure for the determination of the total mercury content of coal.

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ISO 11723:2016 specifies a method using Eschka's mixture during ashing, extraction of the ash residue with acid, and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry or hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry, for the determination of arsenic and selenium in solid mineral fuels.

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ISO 13909-2:1016 specifies procedures and requirements for the design and establishment of mechanical samplers for the sampling of coal from moving streams and describes the methods of sampling used. It does not cover mechanical sampling from stationary lots which is dealt with in ISO 13909‑3[1].

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ISO 13909-8:2016 sets out principles and procedures for testing the bias of test samples of hard coals or cokes, taken in accordance with ISO 13909: 2016 (all parts). NOTE In the text, the term "fuel" is used where both coal and coke would be applicable in the context and either "coal" or "coke" where only one is applicable.

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ISO 13909-4:2016 describes the preparation of samples of coal from the combination of primary increments to the preparation of samples for specific tests.

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ISO 13909-1:2016 defines the basic terms used in the sampling of solid mineral fuels, describes the general principles of sampling and details the information to be provided in the documentation and the sampling report. It also lists the other parts and gives guidance on the selection of the appropriate part. It does not include sampling of brown coals and lignites, or sampling from coal seams, for which guidance is given in ISO 14180. Manual sampling of coal and coke is covered in ISO 18283.

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ISO 13909-3:2016 specifies procedures for the mechanical sampling of coal from stationary lots, for example, from wagons, barges, ships and stockpiles. These procedures are to be used when it is not possible to sample the lots during loading or discharge according to ISO 13909‑2:2016. Procedures for sample preparation are given in ISO 13909‑4:2016. ISO 13909-3:2016 is applicable to mechanical sampling from stationary coal lots, to obtain samples from which test samples for the determination of moisture, and for general analysis including physical and chemical tests, can be prepared in accordance with the requirements and recommendations set out in ISO 13909‑4:2016. In ISO 13909-3:2016, the principles and procedures for designing a sampling scheme are given, together with typical examples of applications; in addition, practices for the execution of sampling in different sampling situations are described. The methods described are limited to those on which it is possible to conduct a test for bias.

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In ISO 13909-7:2016, formulae are developed which link the variables that contribute to overall sampling precision. Methods are described for estimating overall precision and for deriving values for primary increment variance which can be used to modify the sampling scheme to change the precision. Methods for checking the variance of sample preparation and testing are also described.

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This International Standard specifies a method of assessing the caking power of coal under standard
conditions.

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This International Standard specifies reference methods for the size analysis of coal by manual sieving
(wet or dry), using test sieves of aperture sizes between 125 mm and 45 μm. A guide to sampling is
given in Annex A.
This International Standard is applicable to all hard coals. It is not applicable to coke or other
manufactured fuels.
In the case of pulverized coal which has been ground so that a high proportion passes through the test
sieve of smallest aperture size, the methods described in this International Standard will determine
only the percentage oversize.

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This International Standard specifies the method for determining the grindability index of hard coal
using the Hardgrove machine. It also specifies the procedure for calibrating the test machine and for
preparing the standard reference coal samples.
NOTE In this International Standard, the term “hard coal” is used as an indication of maturity or rank in the
coalification sequence and is not related to the physical properties of the coal.

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This International Standard specifies a method of determining the amount of mineral matter in all types
of coal, including brown coals and lignites.

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ISO 7404-1:2016 defines terms that are used in connection with both maceral and microlithotype analyses, and with the determination of the reflectance of vitrinite. It applies to the terms used in the examination of coal of all ranks. ISO 7404-1:2016 is not intended to be a comprehensive glossary of coal petrographic terminology, nor does it attempt to provide sufficient information to allow recognition of all the coal components described. Further information may be obtained from the relevant ICCP publications[3][4][5].

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ISO 1953:2015 specifies reference methods for the size analysis of coal by manual sieving (wet or dry), using test sieves of aperture sizes between 125 mm and 45 μm. A guide to sampling is given in Annex A. This International Standard is applicable to all hard coals. It is not applicable to coke or other manufactured fuels. In the case of pulverized coal which has been ground so that a high proportion passes through the test sieve of smallest aperture size, the methods described in this International Standard will determine only the percentage oversize.

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ISO 5074:2015 specifies the method for determining the grindability index of hard coal using the Hardgrove machine. It also specifies the procedure for calibrating the test machine and for preparing the standard reference coal samples. NOTE In this International Standard, the term "hard coal" is used as an indication of maturity or rank in the coalification sequence and is not related to the physical properties of the coal.

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ISO 502:2015 specifies a method of assessing the caking power of coal under standard conditions.

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ISO 602:2015 specifies a method of determining the amount of mineral matter in all types of coal, including brown coals and lignites.

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ISO 23380:2013 provides guidance on the selection of methods used for the determination of trace elements in coal. The trace elements of environmental interest include antimony, arsenic, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, fluorine, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc. The radioactive trace elements thorium and uranium can be added to this list.

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ISO 23499:2013 provides description of a cone procedure for determining an uncompacted bulk density of crushed coal less than 37 mm in size, such as is charged into coke ovens. It focuses on the uncompacted bulk density of coal resulting from flowing the material into a measuring container (box) in the absence of compacting forces. ISO 23499:2013 does not cover procedures for determining a compacted coal bulk density nor to the testing of fine or powdered coal (for boiler or utility application) nor to the determination of bulk density of coal in storage piles.

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ISO 11722:2013 specifies a method for determining the moisture in the general analysis test sample of hard coal by drying in nitrogen.

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ISO 5073:2013 specifies volumetric methods for the determination of total humic acids and free humic acid of brown coals and lignites.

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ISO 5072:2013 describes methods for the determination of true relative density and the apparent relative density of brown coals and lignites.

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ISO 5071-1:2013 specifies a method of determining the volatile matter of brown coals and lignites.

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ISO 975:2013 specifies a semi-automatic method for determination of the yield of benzene-soluble extract in brown coals and lignites.

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ISO 501:2012 specifies a method for determining the swelling properties of hard coal when heated in a covered crucible. The "crucible swelling number" (CSN) is also known as the "free swelling index" (FSI).

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ISO 23873:2010 describes a method for the measurement of the swelling of hard coal using a dilatometer.

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