Influence of cementitious products on water intended for human consumption - Test methods - Part 1: Influence of factory made cementitious products on organoleptic parameters

This European Standard specifies a method to determine the influence of factory made cementitious products on the odour, flavour, colour and turbidity of test waters after contact with the products.
This European Standard is applicable to factory made cementitious products, e.g. cement mortar linings to metallic pipes, tanks, concrete pipes etc. intended to be used for the transport and storage of water for human consumption, including raw water used for the production of drinking water.

Einfluss von zementgebundenen Produkten auf Wasser für den menschlichen Gebrauch - Prüfverfahren - Teil 1: Einfluss fabrikmäßig hergestellter zementgebundener Produkte auf organoleptische Parameter

Diese Europäische Norm legt ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung des Einflusses fabrikmäßig hergestellter zementgebundener Produkte auf Geruch, Geschmack, Färbung und Trübung von Prüfwässern nach einem Kontakt mit den Produkten fest.
Diese Europäische Norm wird auf fabrikmäßig hergestellte zementgebundene Produkte angewendet, z. B. Zementmörtelauskleidungen von metallischen Rohren, Behälter, Betonrohre usw., welche dazu bestimmt sind, Trinkwasser zu transportieren und aufzubewahren, einschließlich Rohwasser, welches für die Herstellung von Trinkwasser eingesetzt wird.

Influence des produits à base de ciment sur l'eau destinée à la consommation humaine - Méthode d'essai - Partie 1: Influence des produits à base de ciment fabriqués en usine sur les paramètres organoleptiques

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Vpliv cementnih proizvodov na pitno vodo – Preskusne metode – 1. del: Vpliv industrijsko izdelanih cementnih proizvodov na organoleptične parametre

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
04-Apr-2006
Current Stage
9092 - Decision on results of review/2YR ENQ - revise - Review Enquiry
Completion Date
28-May-2018

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Influence of cementitious products on water intended for human consumption - Test methods - Part 1: Influence of factory made cementitious products on organoleptic parametersDPHWUHInfluence des produits a base de ciment sur l'eau destinée a la consommation humaine - Méthode d'essai - Partie 1: Influence des produits a base de ciment fabriqués en usine sur les parametres organoleptiquesEinfluss von zementgebundenen Produkten auf Wasser für den menschlichen Gebrauch - Prüfverfahren - Teil 1: Einfluss fabrikmäßig hergestellter zementgebundener Produkte auf organoleptische ParameterTa slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 14944-1:2006SIST EN 14944-1:2006en67.250Materiali in predmeti v stiku z živiliMaterials and articles in contact with foodstuffs13.060.20Pitna vodaDrinking waterICS:SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 14944-1:200601-oktober-2006

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 14944-1April 2006ICS 13.060.20; 67.250 English VersionInfluence of cementitious products on water intended for humanconsumption - Test methods - Part 1: Influence of factory madecementitious products on organoleptic parametersInfluence des produits à base de ciment sur l'eau destinéeà la consommation humaine - Méthodes d'essai - Partie 1:Influence des produits à base de ciment fabriqués en usinesur les paramètres organoleptiquesEinfluss von zementgebundenen Produkten auf Wasser fürden menschlichen Gebrauch - Prüfverfahren - Teil 1:Einfluss fabrikmäßig hergestellter zementgebundenerProdukte auf organoleptische ParameterThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 13 February 2006.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the officialversions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2006 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 14944-1:2006: E

EN 14944-1:2006 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword 3 Introduction 4 1 Scope 5 2 Normative references 5 3 Terms and definitions 6 4 Principle 8 5 Reagents 8 6 Apparatus 10 7 Samples and test pieces 11 8 Pre-treatment of samples (curing, preconditioning and disinfection) 13 9 Test procedure 14 10 Determination of odour as TON and flavour as TFN 14 11 Determination of colour and turbidity 15 12 Expression of results 15 13 Test report 15 Annex A (normative)

Additional procedures for testing factory made pipes
(cement mortar lined and concrete) 17 Annex B (normative)
Additional procedures for testing factory made fittings
(cement mortar lined and concrete) 21 Annex C (normative)
Additional procedures for testing factory made storage systems
(cement mortar, cement mortar lined and concrete) 26 Annex D (informative)

Examples of typical test pieces and test conditions as a function of S/V ratio 31 Annex E (informative)

Test arrangements for testing factory made cementitious products 35 Annex F (normative)

Additional procedures for testing factory made cementitious
products at elevated temperature 41 Annex G (informative)
Discrimination between porous and non-porous
coatings on factory made products
42 Annex H (informative)
Schematic description of the test procedure 44 Bibliography 47

EN 14944-1:2006 (E) 3 Foreword This document (EN 14944-1:2006) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 164 "Water supply", the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2006, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by October 2006. This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s). It describes a test method to determine the influence(s) of factory made cementitious products on the organoleptic parameters of water intended for human consumption. Annex A, which is normative, describes additional procedures for testing factory made pipes (cement mortar lined and concrete). Annex B, which is normative, describes additional procedures for testing factory made fittings (cement mortar lined and concrete). Annex C, which is normative, describes additional procedures for testing factory made storage systems (cement mortar, cement mortar lined and concrete). Annex D, which is informative, provides examples of typical test pieces and test conditions as a function of S/V ratio. Annex E, which is informative, describes test arrangements for testing factory made cementitious products Annex F, which is normative, describes additional procedures for testing factory made cementitious products at elevated temperature. Annex G, which is informative, provides a means of discriminating between porous and non-porous coatings on factory made products. Annex H, which is informative, provides a schematic description of the test (preconditioning and migration) procedure. This European Standard provides a bibliography. This European Standard will result in one of a series of standards that support appropriate standards. This European Standard is Part 1 of a series dealing with the influence of cementitious and associated non-cementitious products/materials on water intended for human consumption, including: — Part 1: Influence of factory made cementitious products on organoleptic parameters — Part 21: Influence of site-applied cementitious materials and associated non-cementitious products/materials on organoleptic parameters — Part 3: Migration of substances from factory made cementitious products. — Part 42: Migration of substances from site-applied cementitious materials and associated non-cementitious products/materials. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

1 The work on Part 2 of EN 14944 has not yet begun. 2 The work on Part 4 of EN 14944 has not yet begun.

EN 14944-1:2006 (E) 4

Introduction With respect to any potential adverse effects of products and materials on the quality of water intended for human consumption, it should be understood that relevant national regulations remain in force until verifiable European acceptance criteria are adopted.

EN 14944-1:2006 (E) 5

1 Scope This European Standard specifies a method to determine the influence of factory made cementitious products on the odour, flavour, colour and turbidity of test waters after contact with the products. This European Standard is applicable to factory made cementitious products, e.g. cement mortar linings to metallic pipes, tanks, concrete pipes etc. intended to be used for the transport and storage of water for human consumption, including raw water used for the production of drinking water. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this European Standard. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 196-1,

Methods of testing cement — Part 1: Determination of strength EN 1622:1997,

Water analysis — Method for the determination of threshold odour number (TON) and threshold flavour number (TFN) EN 1015-2,

Methods of test for mortar for masonry — Part 2: Bulk sampling of mortars and preparation of test mortars EN 1015-11,

Methods of test for mortar for masonry — Part 11; Determination of flexural and compressive strength of hardened mortar EN 10088-1,

Stainless steels — Part 1: List of stainless steels EN 12350-1,
Testing fresh concrete — Part 1: Sampling EN 12390-1,

Testing hardened concrete — Part 1: Shape, dimensions and other requirements for specimens and moulds EN 12390-2,

Testing hardened concrete — Part 2: Making and curing specimens for strength tests EN 27888,

Water quality — Determination of electrical conductivity (ISO 7888:1985) EN ISO 3696,

Water for analytical laboratory use — Specification and test methods (ISO 3696:1987) EN ISO 7027:1999,

Water quality — Determination of turbidity (ISO 7027:1999) EN ISO 7887:1994,

Water quality — Examination and determination of colour (ISO 7887:1994) EN ISO 7393-1,

Water quality — Determination of free chlorine and total chlorine — Part 1: Titrimetric method using N, N-diethyl-1, 4-phenylenediamine (ISO 7393-1:1985) EN ISO 7393-2,

Water quality — Determination of free chlorine and total chlorine — Part 2: Colorimetric method using N, N-diethyl-1, 4-phenylenediamine for routine control purposes (ISO 7393-2:1985) EN ISO 9963-2,

Water quality — Determination of alkalinity — Part 2: Determination of carbonate alkalinity (ISO 9963-2:1994) EN ISO 16264,

Water quality — Determination of soluble silicates by flow analysis (FIA and CFA) and photometric detection (ISO 16264:2002) ISO 6058,

Water quality — Determination of calcium content — EDTA titrimetric method ISO 10523,

Water quality — Determination of pH

EN 14944-1:2006 (E) 6 3 Terms and definitions For the purpose of this European Standard, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 appropriate body certification body, inspection body or test laboratory, as relevant to a particular requirement 3.2 cementitious product factory made product containing a cementitious material supplied in the hardened state with a formed surface prior to its incorporation into the construction works 3.3 cementitious material material that contains a hydraulic cement in sufficient proportion to act as the main binder by forming a hydrate structure which governs the performance of the material 3.4 associated non-cementitious product product which is applied to the surface of a cementitious product, directly or indirectly, during manufacture (or construction) and which either provides a porous seal to the product or which remains as a residue in contact with water e.g. porous seal coats, formwork release agents and curing compounds 3.5 porous seal coat polymeric (usually organic) materials applied in a thin (25µm - 200µm thickness) surface layer to a cement mortar lining in order to restrict (but not prevent) interactions between the mortar and conveyed water (ISO 16132 [1]) 3.6 proxy sample sample of fresh mortar or fresh concrete taken from material to be used for the production of a factory made product, either spray-applied to a laboratory test plate (mortar only) or cast into a mould (mortar or concrete) of appropriate dimensions (e.g. standard cube, cylinder or prism etc.) and compacted (where appropriate), cured and hardened under conditions representative of those intended for the product 3.7 fresh concrete concrete that is fully mixed and still in a condition capable of being compacted by the chosen method 3.8 fresh mortar cement mortar that is fully mixed and still in a condition of being applied to a substrate by the chosen method 3.9 odour organoleptic attribute perceptible by olfactory organ on sniffing certain volatile substances (ISO 5492 [2]) 3.10 flavour complex combination of the olfactory, gustatory, and trigeminal sensations perceived during tasting. The flavour may be influenced by tactile, thermal, painful and/or kinaesthetic effects (ISO 5492 [2]) 3.11 colour optical property that causes the changing of the spectral composition of transmitted visible light measured at three wavelengths (see section 3 of EN ISO 7887:1994) 3.12 turbidity reduction of transparency of a water due to the presence of undissolved matter (see 3.1 of EN ISO 7027:1999)

EN 14944-1:2006 (E) 7 3.13 threshold odour number (TON) dilution ratio of the migration water with the reference water at the same temperature, beyond which this diluted sample does not have any perceptible odour (see EN 1622) 3.14 threshold flavour number (TFN) dilution ratio of the migration water with the reference water at the same temperature, beyond which this diluted sample does not have any perceptible flavour (see EN 1622) 3.15 testing panel: group of people meeting the relevant requirements of EN 1622 3.16 test technical operation that consists of the determination of one or more characteristics of a given product 3.17 test procedure specified technical method for performing a test 3.18 sample one or more units, or a specified quantity, drawn from a batch or lot, selected at random for inspection, e.g. at the factory or in a laboratory 3.19 test piece the sample or portion which is to be conditioned, treated or otherwise prepared to be tested to obtain a single test result 3.20 nominal diameter (DN/ID) or (DN/OD) numerical designation of the size of a component, which is a whole number approximately equal to the actual dimensions in millimetres.

This applies to either the internal diameter (DN/ID) or the external diameter (DN/OD). 3.21 preconditioning succession of contact periods of a test piece with the preconditioning water (3.22) before contact with the test water 3.22 preconditioning water water used for preconditioning prepared as described in 5.4.1 3.23 reference water water described as without odour, flavour, colour and turbidity conforming to the requirements in 5.4.2 3.24 test water water used for testing purposes prepared as described in 5.4.3 and 5.4.4 3.25 migration water: test water which has been in contact with a test piece under specified conditions 3.26 blank water test water which has been kept at the same specified conditions as migration water but without contact with the test piece

EN 14944-1:2006 (E) 8 3.27 disinfection treatment water preconditioning water containing chlorine as described in 5.3.2 3.28 tap water drinking water distributed by a public supplier NOTE Tap water is used as a lubricant/coolant for the sawing and coring operations used to obtain test pieces generally from products of large dimensions. See normative Annexes A, B and C. 3.29 demineralised water water conforming to the requirements in EN ISO 3696 for Grade 3. 4 Principle Each test piece is subjected to a specified preconditioning procedure where the surface which is exposed in practice to water intended for human consumption is brought into contact with preconditioning water during five sequential periods: three periods of 24 h, 1 period of 72 h and a final period of 24 h {with 50 mg/l Cl2 (5.3.2) if requested to simulate chlorine disinfection treatment}. The preconditioned test piece is then brought into contact with test water, chlorinated and/or chlorine-free during three sequential migration periods. A migration period is either: a)

72 h at (23 ± 2) °C for products intended to come into contact with chlorinated or chlorine-free cold water; b)

24 h at a specified elevated temperature for products intended to come into contact with warm or hot chlorine-free water. After each contact period, each migration water is assessed for odour, flavour, colour and turbidity. NOTE The selection of: a)

the appropriate test water, chlorinated and/or chlorine-free, from those made available in this European Standard; b)

the temperature of the test water; c)

the need for chlorination during preconditioning; is specified in product or system standards or in national or European regulations, as appropriate. 5 Reagents 5.1 General requirements Use only reagents of analytical quality unless otherwise stated. 5.2 Chlorine neutralisation reagents 5.2.1 Ascorbic acid solution, prepared by dissolving (4,0 ± 0,1) g of ascorbic acid in one litre of reference water (5.4.2). This ascorbic acid solution shall be replaced on a monthly basis. 5.2.2 Sodium thiosulfate solution, comprising a solution of 3,5 g/l of sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate (Na2S2O3 .5H2O) and stored in the absence of light at a temperature below 10°C, for a maximum of 4 months. 5.3 Disinfection reagents 5.3.1 Sodium hypochlorite solution, prepared from a commercial solution of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and have a known concentration of about 0,1 % by mass of free chlorine determined in accordance with either EN ISO 7393-1 or EN ISO 7393-2. This sodium hypochlorite solution is unstable and shall be prepared on the day of use.

EN 14944-1:2006 (E) 9 5.3.2 Disinfection treatment water, consisting of a batch of preconditioning water (5.4.1) with a free chlorine content of (50 ± 5) mg/l as Cl2, determined in accordance with either EN ISO 7393-1 or EN ISO 7393-2, after addition of sodium hypochlorite solution (5.3.1). 5.4 Waters to be used for testing 5.4.1 Preconditioning water prepared by dissolving (222 ± 2) mg anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2) and (336 ± 2) mg sodium hydrogen-carbonate (NaHCO3) in one litre of demineralised water (3.29). The pH is determined in accordance with ISO 10523 and adjusted to 7,4 ± 0,1 by bubbling air and/or CO2 into the solution. NOTE The target total hardness is 200 mg/l as CaCO3 and the target alkalinity is 244 mg/l as HCO3. 5.4.2 Reference water, a natural water without gas and with parameters that conform to the requirements given in Table 1. When a reference water is chlorinated to 1,0 mg/l free chlorine and then dechlorinated after 72 h with either the ascorbic acid solution (5.2.1) or the sodium thiosulfate solution (5.2.2), its organoleptic parameters, odour, flavour colour and turbidity shall conform to the requirements given in Table 1. Table 1 — Reference water Parameter Test method a Requirement Unit Conductivity

EN 27888 500 ± 50
µS/cm pH
ISO 10523 7,3 ± 0,2 pH unit Calcium
ISO 6058 80 ± 10
mg Ca/l Alkalinity
EN ISO 9963-2 350 ± 50
mg HCO3-/l Silica
EN ISO 16264 15 ± 5
mg SiO2/l Odour
EN 1622 < 2
TON Flavour
EN 1622 < 2
TFN Colour
EN ISO 7887:1994 b < 0,1
m-1 Turbidity
EN ISO 7027:1999 c < 0,1
FNU a

Alternative methods, either calibrated against the reference methods or which have proven comparable analytical performance, may be used. b

Section 3 c
Clause 6

5.4.3 Test water without chlorine content (chlorine-free), shall consist of a batch of reference water (5.4.2) used for contact with test pieces and preparation of the blank water (3.26). 5.4.4 Test water with chlorine content (chlorinated), consisting of reference water (5.4.2) with a free chlorine content of (1,0 ± 0,2) mg/l as Cl2, determined in accordance with either EN ISO 7393-1 or EN ISO 7393-2, after addition of sodium hypochlorite solution (5.3.1) 5.5 Cleaning liquids for apparatus Use one of the following cleaning liquids: — non-perfumed biodegradable detergent; — hydrochloric acid, 2 mol/l; — nitric acid, 10 % or 1,5 mol/l.

EN 14944-1:2006 (E) 10 6 Apparatus 6.1 General For cleaning the glassware, and appropriate apparatus, before use, the following general requirements apply: a)

Clean the glassware to be used, using detergent (5.5). Rinse the glassware in demineralised water (3.29); b)

Clean the inner surface of the glassware with hydrochloric acid (5.5) and rinse it with demineralised water. For stainless steel, clean with nitric acid (5.5) and then rinse with demineralised water; c)

Before use, rinse the glassware, and appropriate apparatus, at least three times using preconditioning water before preconditioning (8.3) or reference water before the test procedure (Clause 9). 6.2 Apparatus and materials for test piece preparation (see normative Annexes A, B and C) 6.2.1 Stainless steel plates and cylinders 6.2.1.1 Stainless steel Stainless steel shall be austenitic, super austenitic or duplex grades in accordance with the corresponding numerical designations, 1.4301, 1.4436, 1.4429, 1.4259 or 1.4462 in EN 10088-1 for stainless steels. NOTE The grades above are specified for the use of stainless steel as reinforcement in concrete. Therefore they are considered to be inert when used in contact with cementitious proxy samples (see normative Annexes A, B and C of this European Standard). 6.2.1.2 Plates In order to provide a sufficient volume of migration water for assessment, the surface area of one face of a plate should be between 10 000 mm2 and 90 000 mm2. The length/width of the plates should be selected to be consistent with the dimensions of the test container and the volume of test water in which they will be immersed. 6.2.1.3 Cylinders The diameter and length of a cylinder should be consistent with the dimensions of the test piece (see normative Annexes A, B or C and informative Annexes D and E) and the volume of test water appropriate to the specified S/V ratio given in 7.3. 6.2.2 Glass cylinders The diameter and length of a glass cylinder should be consistent with the dimensions of the test piece (see normative Annexes A, B or C and informative Annexes D and E) and the volume of test water appropriate to the specified S/V ratio given in 7.3. Glass cylinders should be provided with suitable external (opaque) shielding for use during migration procedures (test pieces and blanks), in order to minimize exposure of migration waters to ambient light. 6.2.3 Moulds for forming test pieces Moulds for forming prisms of mortar shall conform to the requirements of EN 196-1, as specified for use in EN 1015-11, or to EN 12390-1 for forming cubes/cylinders of concrete, with modifications to materials and dimensional tolerances as specified by the appropriate normative Annex A, B or C of this European Standard. Clean moulds and any filling frame used with a mould, by thoroughly washing with non-perfumed detergent (5.5) and tap water (3.28), rinsing with copious amounts of tap water, followed by a final rinse with demineralised water (3.29) and dry before use. Where a factory made cementitious product has been formed in a process where its entire contact surface has been in contact with a release agent then where proxy samples (3.6) are used, the same release agent shall be applied to the internal surfaces of the mould, otherwise the use of release agents is not permitted by this European Standard.

EN 14944-1:2006 (E) 11 6.3 Apparatus and materials for preconditioning and migration procedure 6.3.1 vessels, containers, covers, connectors and stoppers, made of materials which do not affect the odour, flavour, colour and turbidity assessment under the specified test conditions such as glass, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or stainless steel. NOTE The material PTFE should only be used when there is a small contact area with the test water. Thus PTFE is unsuitable for containers. 6.3.2 equipment, capable of maintaining the test temperature within ± 2°C for the duration of the test. 6.3.3 where required, sealants that do not affect the odour, flavour, colour and turbidity assessments under the specified test conditions. 6.4 Apparatus for odour and flavour assessment 6.4.1 erlenmeyer and volumetric flasks, beakers, measuring cylinders, immersion tanks, volumetric pipettes, funnels and stoppers made of glass, PTFE or stainless steel. NOTE The material PTFE should only be used when there is a small contact area with the test water. Thus PTFE is unsuitable for containers. 6.4.2 testing vessels, comprising the following glassware (which shall be reserved for odour and flavour assessment only and cleaned separately from other items): testing bottles for odour assessment and testing glasses for flavour assessment conforming to the requirements given in EN 1622. 6.4.3 waterbath or incubator, conforming to the requirements of EN 1622. 6.5 Apparatus for colour and turbidity assessment 6.5.1 Apparatus for the determination of colour, conforming to the requirements of section 3 of EN ISO 7887:1994. 6.5.2 Apparatus for the determination of turbidity, conforming to the requirements of 6.3.1 of EN ISO 7027:1999. 7 Samples and test pieces 7.1 Sampling, transport and storage of samples Carry out sampling of factory made products in accordance with the relevant product standard, system standard or the national or European regulations, or the relevant normative Annex to this European Standard, as appropriate. Take care that the transport conditions do not influence the test results. If it is necessary to store samples or test pieces before testing, ensure that they are protected from contamination taking into account any written instructions that are provided. Where appropriate, clean storage containers using the same procedures as are used for the test containers. Ensure that the surfaces of the test pieces intended to come into contact with the test water are free from any contamination e.g. adhesive tape, labels, ink or pencil marks. 7.2 Preparation of test pieces 7.2.1 General Prepare the test pieces in such a way that only the surface intended to come into contact with drinking water is exposed to the test water except as given in normative Annex C (see C.1.2.3.2.1) where stainless steel plates are coated with cement mortar on one face only prior to complete immersion during testing.

EN 14944-1:2006 (E) 12 In the preparation of a test piece the following general principles apply: a)

ensure that test pieces are representative of the finished product;

during the preparation of test pieces, include any procedures which are performed in practice for curing and cleaning; c)

ensure that the minimum age of the test piece, at test, conforms to that recommended by the manufacturer for the product to be ready for use; d)

ensure that the surface area of the test piece is sufficient to fulfil the appropriate surface area to volume (S/V) ratio in accordance with the requirements of 7.3. 7.2.2 Factory made pipes, fittings and storage systems Where possible, use the product or test piece as the test vessel, with dimensions that provide sufficient migration water for assessment. In cases where this is not practicable (e.g. large pipes, storage systems etc.), and where alternatives are specified, use as appropriate, an alternative test piece described in the relevant normative Annex A, B or C to this European Standard and an appropriate test arrangement given in informative Annex E. NOTE Where it is required to discriminate between porous and non-porous coatings already applied to factory made products, use the test procedure given in informative Annex G of this European Standard. 7.3 Surface area-to-volume ratio (S/V) for use in the test procedure 7.3.1 General The following general principles apply for S/V ratios: a)

the surface area to volume ratio (S/V) of the test piece exposed to the test water relates to realistic service conditions; b)

where no difference in material composition and production process exists in the range of sizes produced, only the largest S/V ratio is required to be tested; c)

the ratio of the surface area, S, of the test piece intended to come into contact with volume, V, of the test water is expressed per decimetre, i.e. dm-1. NOTE The unit, dm-1, can also be expressed as dm2/dm3 or dm2/l. 7.3.2 Pipes Test pipes of sizes up to DN/ID 800 by this method at the actual S/V ratio of the pipe diameter. The S/V ratio is calculated, in dm-1, according to the formula: []IDDNVS/400/= …(1) where: [DN/ID] (3.20) is the value of the nominal size related to the internal diameter, in mm.

Test pipes of sizes greater or equal to DN/ID 800 using an S/V ratio of (0,50 ± 0,02 ) dm-1. NOTE 1 But see 7.3.1 (b) for the acceptable minimum requirement for testing pipes that are produced in a range of sizes. NOTE 2 Migration from pipes full of water in the service condition is controlled by the intrinsic S/V ratio of the pipe. In the case of a pipe of diameter DN/ID 800 the intrinsic S/V ratio is 0,5 dm-1. This S/V ratio is the same as that specified in 7.3.4 to be a worst-case test condition for factory made cementitious storage systems. In consequence, an S/V ratio of 0,5 dm-1 has also been specified to be a worst-case test condition for all large diameter cementitious pipes (generally precast concrete) of diameter greater than or equal to DN/ID 800. 7.3.3 Fittings Test fittings of sizes up to DN/ID 800 by this method at the actual S/V ratio of the fitting modified by a factor of 0,4.

EN 14944-1:2006 (E) 13 The S/V ratio is calculated, in dm-1, according to the formula: []IDDNVS/4004,0/×= …(2) where: DN/ID (3.20) is the nominal internal diameter in mm.

Test fittings of sizes greater than of equal to DN/ID 800 using an S/V ratio of (0,20 ± 0,01) dm-1. NOTE 1 But see 7.3.1 (b) for the acceptable minimum requirement for testing fittings that are produced in a range of sizes. NOTE 2 Migration from fittings full of water in the service condition is controlled by the intrinsic S/V ratio of the fitting. In the case of a fitting of diameter DN/ID 800 the intrinsic S/V ratio is 0,5 dm-1. The factor of 0,4 in equation (2) has been specified to be a worst-case test condition to allow for the difference in the service condition between th

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