Solid biofuels - Fuel quality assurance - Part 1: General requirements

This European Standard defines the procedures to fulfil the quality requirements (quality control) and describes measures to ensure adequate confidence that the biofuel specification is fulfilled (quality assurance). This European Standard covers the whole chain, from supply of raw materials to point of delivery to the end-user.
According to the mandate given for the standardisation work, the scope of the CEN/TC 335 only includes solid biofuels originating from the following sources:
-   products from agriculture and forestry;
-   vegetable waste from agriculture and forestry;
-   vegetable waste from the food processing industry;
-   wood waste, with the exception of wood waste which may contain halogenated organic compounds or heavy metal as a result of treatment with wood preservatives or coating, and which includes in particular such wood waste originated from construction and demolition waste;
   fibrous vegetable waste from virgin pulp production and from the production of paper from pulp, if it is co-incinerated at the place of production and heat generated is recovered;
   cork waste.
NOTE 1    The quality assurance systems applied to the operation of conversion plants fuelled by solid biofuels are outside the scope of this European Standard.
NOTE 2    Health, safety and environmental issues for solid biofuels are important and need special attention, however they are outside the scope of this European Standard.
NOTE 3    For the avoidance of doubt, demolition wood is not included in the scope of this European Standard. Demolition wood is defined as “used wood arising from demolition of buildings or civil engineering installations”
(EN 14588:2010, 4.52).
NOTE 4    The biofuels covered by this European standard are identical to the fuels exempted from the Directive 2000/76/EC [Article 2.2 a) from i) to v)] on incineration of waste.
NOTE 5   Aquatic biomass is not included in the scope of this European Standard.

Feste Biobrennstoffe - Qualitätssicherung von Brennstoffen - Teil 1: Allgemeine Anforderungen

Diese Europäische Norm legt die Verfahren zur Erfüllung der Qualitätsanforderungen (Qualitätslenkung) fest und beschreibt Maßnahmen zur Sicherstellung eines angemessenen Vertrauens auf die Einhaltung der Biobrennstoffspezifikation (Qualitätssicherung). Diese Europäische Norm umfasst die gesamte Kette, von der Anlieferung der Rohstoffe bis zum Lieferort beim Endverbraucher.
Nach dem für die Normungsarbeit zugeteilten Mandat umfasst der Aufgabenbereich des CEN/TC 335 nur feste Biobrennstoffe, die aus folgenden Quellen stammen:

Produkte aus der Land- und Forstwirtschaft;

pflanzliche Abfälle aus der Land- und Forstwirtschaft;

pflanzliche Abfälle aus der Lebensmittel verarbeitenden Industrie;

Holzabfälle, mit der Ausnahme von Holzabfällen, die im Ergebnis der Behandlung mit Holzschutzmitteln oder Aufbringung von Beschichtungen halogenierte organische Verbindungen oder Schwermetalle ent-halten können, und zu denen besonders Holzabfälle gehören, die von Bau- und Abbrucharbeiten stammen;

faserige pflanzliche Abfälle aus der Herstellung von natürlichem Zellstoff und aus der Herstellung von Papier aus Zellstoff, sofern sie am Herstellungsort verbrannt werden und die erzeugte Wärme genutzt wird;
-Korkabfälle.
ANMERKUNG 1 Qualitätssicherungssysteme, die für mit festen Biobrennstoffen betriebene Konversionsanlagen gelten, fallen nicht in den Anwendungsbereich dieser Europäischen Norm.
ANMERKUNG 2 Mit festen Biobrennstoffen verbundene Aspekte hinsichtlich Gesundheit, Sicherheit und Umwelt sind wichtig und bedürfen besonderer Aufmerksamkeit, fallen jedoch nicht in den Anwendungsbereich dieser Europäischen Norm.
ANMERKUNG 3 Um keine Zweifel aufkommen zu lassen, fällt Abbruchholz nicht in den Anwendungsbereich dieser Europäischen Norm. Abbruchholz ist als „Gebrauchtholz, das aus dem Abriss von Gebäuden oder sonstigen Bauwerken stammt“, definiert (EN 14588:2010, 4.52).
(...)

Biocombustibles solides - Assurance de la qualité des combustibles - Partie 1: Exigences générales

La présente Norme européenne définit les modes opératoires pour satisfaire aux exigences de qualité (maîtrise de la qualité) et décrit les mesures destinées à assurer une confiance adéquate en ce que la spécification du biocombustible est satisfaite (assurance de la qualité). La présente Norme européenne couvre la chaîne logistique dans son intégralité, de l’alimentation en matières premières jusqu’au point de livraison à l’utilisateur final.
Conformément au mandat donné pour les travaux de normalisation, le domaine d’application de la présente Norme européenne (CEN/TC 335) se limite aux biocombustibles solides provenant des sources suivantes :
- produits de l’agriculture et de la sylviculture,
- déchets végétaux agricoles et forestiers,
- déchets végétaux provenant du secteur de la transformation alimentaire,
- déchets de bois, à l’exception de ceux susceptibles de contenir des composés organiques halogénés ou des métaux lourds à la suite d’un traitement de préservation ou de finition, y compris en particulier, les déchets de bois de ce type provenant de déchets de construction ou de démolition,
- déchets végétaux fibreux provenant de la production de pâte vierge et de papier issu de pâte, à condition d’être co-incinérés sur le lieu de production et que la chaleur générée soit récupérée,
- déchets de liège.
NOTE 1 Les systèmes d’assurance de la qualité appliqués au fonctionnement d’usines de conversion alimentées par des biocombustibles solides ne sont pas couverts par le domaine d’application de la présente Norme européenne.
NOTE 2 Les questions de santé, de sécurité et environnementales relatives aux biocombustibles solides, sont importantes et nécessitent une attention particulière. Cependant, elles ne sont pas couvertes par le domaine d’application de la présente Norme européenne.
NOTE 3 Afin d’ôter tout doute, le bois de démolition est exclu du domaine d’application de la présente Norme européenne (...)

Trdna biogoriva - Zagotavljanje kakovosti goriv - 1. del: Splošne zahteve

Ta evropski standard določa postopke za izpolnjevanje zahtev glede kakovosti in opisuje ukrepe za zagotavljanje zadostnega zaupanja, da je specifikacija biogoriva izpolnjena. Ta evropski standard zajema celotno verigo od dobave surovih materialov do točke dostave končnemu uporabniku. V skladu s pooblastilom, podeljenim za standardizacijsko delo, področje Tehničnega odbora (TC 335) zajema samo trdna biogoriva, ki izhajajo iz virov, kot so:
proizvodi iz kmetijstva in gozdarstva; rastlinski odpadki iz kmetijstva in gozdarstva; rastlinski odpadki iz živilskopredelovalne industrije; lesni odpadki, razen lesnih odpadkov, ki zaradi obdelave z zaščitnimi sredstvi ali premazi lahko vsebujejo halogenirane organske spojine ali težke kovine in ki vključujejo zlasti take lesne odpadke, ki izvirajo iz gradbenih odpadkov in odpadkov pri rušenju objektov; odpadki iz plute; vlakneni rastlinski odpadki iz proizvodnje primarne papirne kaše in iz proizvodnje papirja iz kaše, če se sosežigajo na kraju proizvodnje in se ustvarjena toplota zajame.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Mar-2011
Current Stage
9093 - Decision to confirm - Review Enquiry
Completion Date
04-Sep-2021

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Trdna biogoriva - Zagotavljanje kakovosti goriv - 1. del: Splošne zahteveFeste Biobrennstoffe - Qualitätssicherung von Brennstoffen - Teil 1: Allgemeine AnforderungenBiocombustibles solides - Assurance de la qualité des combustibles - Partie 1: Exigences généralesSolid biofuels - Fuel quality assurance - Part 1: General requirements75.160.10Trda gorivaSolid fuelsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 15234-1:2011SIST EN 15234-1:2011en,fr,de01-junij-2011SIST EN 15234-1:2011SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST-TS CEN/TS 15234:20061DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 15234-1:2011
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 15234-1
March 2011 ICS 75.160.10 Supersedes CEN/TS 15234:2006English Version
Solid biofuels - Fuel quality assurance - Part 1: General requirements

Biocombustibles solides - Assurance de la qualité des combustibles - Partie 1: Exigences générales

Feste Biobrennstoffe - Qualitätssicherung von Brennstoffen - Teil 1: Allgemeine Anforderungen This European Standard was approved by CEN on 18 January 2011.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2011 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 15234-1:2011: ESIST EN 15234-1:2011

EN 15234-1:2011 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................41Scope ......................................................................................................................................................52Normative references ............................................................................................................................53Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................54Symbols and abbreviations ..................................................................................................................65Principle ..................................................................................................................................................76Quality assurance and quality control measures ...............................................................................86.1General ....................................................................................................................................................86.2Comparison of quality control and quality assurance.......................................................................96.3Traceability .......................................................................................................................................... 106.4Production requirements ................................................................................................................... 116.5Transportation, handling and storage .............................................................................................. 146.6Fuel analysis and specification ......................................................................................................... 146.6.1General ................................................................................................................................................. 146.6.2Sampling and sample handling ......................................................................................................... 156.6.3Accuracy in determination of properties ......................................................................................... 157Product declaration of fuel quality and labelling ............................................................................ 16Annex A (informative)

Examples of product declarations .......................................................................... 17Annex B (informative)

Overview of properties being specified in EN 14961-1 ......................................... 20Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 22 SIST EN 15234-1:2011

EN 15234-1:2011 (E) 3 Foreword This document (EN 15234-1:2011) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 335 “Solid biofuels”, the secretariat of which is held by SIS. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2011, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2011. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document supersedes CEN/TS 15234:2006. The European standard series EN 15234 Solid biofuels  Fuel quality assurance are provided as a general requirements and additional standards. Additional standards may extend this series over time. EN 15234 consists of the following parts, under the general title Solid biofuels  Fuel quality assurance:  Part 1: General requirements;  Part 2: Wood pellets for non-industrial use (under development);  Part 3: Wood briquettes for non-industrial use (under development);  Part 4: Wood chips for non-industrial use (under development);  Part 5: Firewood for non-industrial use (under development);  Part 6: Non-woody pellets for non-industrial use (under development). Although these standards may be obtained separately, it should be recognised that they require an understanding of the standards based on and supporting EN 15234-1. It is recommended to obtain and use EN 15234-1 in conjunction with these standards.

NOTE In these standards, non-industrial use means: use in smaller scale appliances, such as, in households, in small commercial and public sector buildings. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 15234-1:2011

EN 15234-1:2011 (E) 4 Introduction The overall aim of this European Standard is to guarantee the solid biofuel quality through the whole supply chain, from the origin to the delivery of the solid biofuel and to provide adequate confidence that specified quality requirements are fulfilled. The solid biofuel supply chain usually consists of the main stages described in Figure 1.

Figure 1—Solid biofuel supply chain The objective of this European Standard is to serve as a tool to enable the efficient trading of biofuels. Thereby: a) end-user can find a biofuel that corresponds to its needs; b) producer/supplier can produce a biofuel with defined and consistent properties and describe the biofuel to the customers. Quality assurance measures shall establish confidence in the biofuel through systems that are simple to operate and do not cause undue bureaucracy. Solid biofuels are specified according to EN 14961 series — Solid biofuels  Fuel specifications and classes.

According to the terminology of EN ISO 9001:2008 [1], a Quality Management system generally consists of quality planning, quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement. This European Standard covers fuel quality assurance (part of quality management, focused on providing confidence that the quality requirements will be fulfilled) and quality control (part of quality management, focused on fulfilling the quality requirements). The users of this European Standard may integrate EN 15234-1 in their general quality assurance scheme, e.g. the EN ISO 9000 series [1, 2, 3]. If the company does not have a quality management system, this European Standard can be used on its own to help the supplier in documenting fuel quality and creating adequate confidence between the supplier and the end-user.

NOTE This European Standard for fuel quality assurance is only concerned with the fuel part. To ensure the efficient use of solid biofuels, the relationship between the fuel and the combustion unit is also important to consider. It is recommended that the end-users ensure that the combustion technology used and the solid biofuels are compatible to achieve an optimised burning process. In addition to high efficiency, the environmental impact is reduced when the combustion process is optimised (e.g. unburnt carbon in the ash will be reduced; the emissions from the flue gases are reduced, etc.). Raw materialIdentification

and collection ofraw materialProduction/ preparation ofsolid biofuelsTrade and delivery of

solid biofuelsReception ofsolid biofuelby end-userSupply chain activities covered by this European Standard End-user Combustion unit

or other conversion unit SIST EN 15234-1:2011

EN 15234-1:2011 (E) 5 1 Scope This European Standard defines the procedures to fulfil the quality requirements (quality control) and describes measures to ensure adequate confidence that the biofuel specification is fulfilled (quality assurance). This European Standard covers the whole chain, from supply of raw materials to point of delivery to the end-user.

According to the mandate given for the standardisation work, the scope of the CEN/TC 335 only includes solid biofuels originating from the following sources:  products from agriculture and forestry;  vegetable waste from agriculture and forestry;  vegetable waste from the food processing industry;  wood waste, with the exception of wood waste which may contain halogenated organic compounds or heavy metal as a result of treatment with wood preservatives or coating, and which includes in particular such wood waste originated from construction and demolition waste;  fibrous vegetable waste from virgin pulp production and from the production of paper from pulp, if it is co-incinerated at the place of production and heat generated is recovered;  cork waste. NOTE 1

The quality assurance systems applied to the operation of conversion plants fuelled by solid biofuels are outside the scope of this European Standard. NOTE 2

Health, safety and environmental issues for solid biofuels are important and need special attention, however they are outside the scope of this European Standard. NOTE 3

For the avoidance of doubt, demolition wood is not included in the scope of this European Standard. Demolition wood is defined as “used wood arising from demolition of buildings or civil engineering installations”

(EN 14588:2010, 4.52). NOTE 4

The biofuels covered by this European standard are identical to the fuels exempted from the Directive 2000/76/EC [Article 2.2 a) from i) to v)] on incineration of waste. NOTE 5 Aquatic biomass is not included in the scope of this European Standard. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 14588:2010, Solid biofuels  Terminology, definitions and descriptions EN 14961-1:2010, Solid biofuels  Fuel specifications and classes  Part 1: General requirements NOTE In EN 14961-1, there is a list of Normative references of the European Standards for sampling, sample reduction and determination of solid biofuel properties. 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 14588:2010 apply. SIST EN 15234-1:2011

EN 15234-1:2011 (E) 6 4 Symbols and abbreviations The symbols and abbreviations used in this European Standard comply with the SI—system of units as far as possible. d

dry (dry basis) daf dry, ash-free ar as received w-% weight-percentage A designation for ash content Ad (w-% of dry basis) 1) BD

designation for bulk density as received [kg/m3] 1) DE designation for particle density as received [kg/dm3] 1) D designation for diameter as received [mm] 1) DU designation for mechanical durability as received [w-%]1) E designation for energy density as received Ear [MJ/m3 or MWh/m3 loose or stacked volume] amount of

energy/volume unit) 1) F designation for amount of fines [w-%, particles less than 3,15 mm] 1) L designation for length as received [mm] 1) M designation for moisture content as received on wet basis, Mar [w-%] 1) P designation for particle size distribution 1) qV,gr, d gross calorific value at constant volume on dry basis [MJ/kg]

qp,net,d net calorific value at constant pressure on dry basis [MJ/kg] Q designation for net calorific value as received, qp,net,ar [MJ/kg or kWh/kg or MWh/t] at constant

pressure1) NOTE 1 MJ/kg equals 0,2778 kWh/kg (1 kWh/kg equals 1 MWh/t and 1 MWh/t is 3,6 MJ/kg). 1 g/cm3 equals 1 kg/dm3.

1) Designation symbols are used in combination with a number to specify property levels in Table 3 to Table 15 and in informative Annex A in EN 14961-1:2010. For designation of chemical properties chemical symbols like S (sulphur), Cl (chlorine), N (nitrogen) are used and the value is added at the end of the symbol. SIST EN 15234-1:2011

EN 15234-1:2011 (E) 7 Origin and source Origin and source Specification Product declaration Biomass origin and source Solid biofuel production Retail or end-use 5 Principle This European Standard covers the fuel quality assurance of the supply chain and the information to be used in the quality control of the biofuel. This ensures traceability and gives confidence by demonstrating that all processes along the supply chain (of solid biofuels) up to the point of the delivery to the end-user are under control. Figure 2 illustrates the principle of this standard and the procedures to establish confidence in the biofuel.

Traceability Production requirements Product declaration Person/ Organisation responsible: 1st operator providing the resource as a feedstock for energy purposes Producer of the solid biofuel who is responsible for the maintenance of the fuel quality until it is delivered to the end-user or retailer.

If the producer is a direct supplier for end-user it is him/her who has to provide a product declaration. Supplier/retailer of solid biofuels to the end-user Actions: Providing accurate information on the origin, source and location the feedstock was taken from.

Processing, handling and storage of the solid biofuels ensuring the solid biofuel is supplied in the quality that has been declared.

Ensuring the customer receives products as declared in the product declaration and the declaration is accurate and appropriate for the end-users requirements Example of demonstrating compliance This can be achieved through a combination of using EN 14961-1:2010, Table 1 Origin and Source and having a declaration where possible on the location of the feedstock This can be achieved by providing a declaration about origin, source an location according to EN 14961-1:2010, Table 1 at the location of the feedstock wherever possible

Product declaration, backed up with quality control verification and

quality assurance documentation and test data (as appropriate) Figure 2  Illustration of principle. Figure 3 illustrates some of the different types of solid biofuel supply chains and appropriate points for documenting the origin and source and the points for making the product declaration. Figure 3 is only listing operators and documentation (not harvesting, transport or storage processes). Additional configurations of supply chains are possible. Traceability Production requirements including storage and handling Product declaration SIST EN 15234-1:2011

EN 15234-1:2011 (E) 8

Figure 3 — Examples of the documentation of origin and source and product declaration in different biofuel supply chains 6 Quality assurance and quality control measures 6.1 General Quality assurance and control aims to provide confidence that a stable quality is continually achieved in accordance with the customer requirements. It means that specified requirements are fulfilled, but it does not necessarily mean a high quality but a steady and continually achieved quality in accordance with the customer´s requirements. The customer is the next operator in the supply chain. Customer requirements include not only the fuel quality, but also the quality of the company’s performance, such as documentation (product declaration, labelling of packaging, system for traceability, etc.), timing and logistics (to provide biofuels in time and to agreed performance criteria).

Fuel quality assurance needs to be applied to the entire supply chain (see Figure 1). As the supply chains for solid biofuels in most cases need to be kept very simple, the same documents are often used for documentations of quality assurance and quality control measures. NOTE 1

When the customer is a supplier, a retailer or end user, the customer requirements are usually written in sales contracts. NOTE 2

For non-industrial use customer production requirements are described in Parts 2 to 6 of EN 14961 [11, 12, 13, 14, 15] and quality requirements in Parts 2 to 6 of prEN 15234 [17, 18, 19, 20, 21]. PackagedbiofuelsBiofuels in bulk materialBiomass resourceowners BiomassresourceownersBiofuel

producer/supplier BiofuelretailerEnd-userBiofuel

producersBiofuel producer=supplierBiofuel supplierEnd-user'Documentationof originand source Product declaration Product declaration End-userOperator or owner

Operator OperatorBIOMASS ORIGIN/SOURCE SUPPLIEREND-USERCEN –Fuelqualityassurancefor solidbiofuelsSIST EN 15234-1:2011

EN 15234-1:2011 (E) 9 The methodology (described in this chapter) facilitates the design of a fuel quality control and assurance system. Its function is to make sure that:  traceability exists;

 factors that influence the fuel quality are controlled;

 the end-user can have confidence in the fuel quality. Documentation is an important part of quality assurance and quality control. In this European Standard the following documentations are mandatory (see Table 1).

Table 1 — Mandatory documents on quality assurance and control measures Area Mandatory documentation Subclause Traceability of raw material Documenting origin and source 6.3 Production requirements Steps in the process chain a (Step 2) Critical Control Points (Step 4) Criteria and methods to ensure appropriate control at Critical Control Points (Step 5) Nonconforming biofuels (Step 6) 6.4 Transportation, handling and storage after production Description of transportation, handling and storage 6.5 Final fuel specification Product declaration/labelling 6.6 a The steps refer to the steps in the methodology described in subclause 6.4.

6.2 Comparison of quality control and quality assurance It is important to understand the differences between quality control and quality assurance. Quality control is fundamentally about controlling the quality of a product or process to enable the delivery of the product or service within agreed parameters in the most efficient and cost effective way. The consequences of having good quality control will be a cost effective product and process. EXAMPLE 1:

Quality control of a pellet factory A pellet factory operator will sample and record the pellet moisture content over the shift. If the moisture alters outside given parameters the process will be adjusted to bring the moisture content back within specification. If the process of drying the feedstock is known to be problematic and the operator does not monitor the moisture content in an appropriate timescale, the company could have produced many hours worth of nonconforming pellets before the issue is picked up. EXAMPLE 2:

Quality control of a wood chip producer A wood chip producer has an agreement with a customer to provide no more than 6 % oversized chips. When the chipper blades are blunt the producer knows the chipper makes chips out of specification. The producer has to shape blades or change them to reduce amount of oversize chips. Other option is to sieve produced chips to fulfil the customer requirements.

SIST EN 15234-1:2011

EN 15234-1:2011 (E) 10 Quality assurance on the other hand, is about reviewing the products and processes, primarily through data provided from the quality control records and using this data: a) to provide confidence that products are produced within the required specification and processes are operated as they should be, and

b) to assure that over a longer term either consistency is being maintained (stability in process results) or that quality improvements are making the intended impact.

Quality assurance tools are excellent at providing data that allows the company to manage a process through exception reporting.

NOTE Exception reporting – reporting issues or activities that fall outside the normal pattern or are outside the selected minimum or maximum range. Exception reporting enables the quality team to only investigate those incidences that are outside the norm. Exception reporting also reduces the volume of data to be reviewed. From the two examples above for quality control, practical examples of quality assurance will be demonstrated: EXAMPLE 3: Quality assurance of a pellet factory In the example of the pellet factory, if the processing moisture content data was trended and shown to be a particular problem every three weeks on a particular nightshift, the issue could be identified as being a particular delivery of feedstock or that a particular operator who coincides with that shift requires additional training. To provide confidence that a stable quality is continually achieved, data from the quality control recordings can be expected and added to the product declaration. For example, if durability of pellets is recorded on a regular basis, the average value of the durability can be stated on the product declaration.

EXAMPLE 4: Quality assurance of a wood chip producer The chip producer, after reviewing a series of months of customer service and blade sharpening data, realises that his customer’s satisfaction is reduced at the same time as the chipper blades’ running hours have been extended over a specific number of hours; however, the producer now has an understanding of the additional blade running hours before there is a detrimental effect on his customer service and the cost benefits over the life of the blades due to the time saved and additional life gained by extending the run hours between blade sharpening or change. By trending and reviewing the data through the quality assurance system these issues are more easily established. Quality assurance measures should

 be simple to operate;
 not cause undue bureaucracy;
 support regimes for cost reductions.

As stated, quality control is important in assessing the properties of the fuel produced and the processes used. 6.3 Traceability Solid biofuels shall be specified with the appropriate part of EN 14961. The series of EN 14961 allows the possibility to differentiate and specify solid biofuel with the detail necessary. The origin and source of solid biofuel is specified in Table 1 of EN 14961-1:2010. All operators in the supply chain are responsible for the traceability of the origin and source of the material delivered by them. The first operator is responsible for the documents being prepared the first time. The documents shall be available and provided on justified request throughout the entire supply chain.

SIST EN 15234-1:2011

EN 15234-1:2011 (E) 11 The first operator in the supply chain is a body or enterprise, which operates at the beginning of the supply chain.

Country/countries and location (e.g. county or region) where the biomass is harvested, produced to biofuel or first traded as biofuel (by-products and residues from wood, herbaceous or fruit processing industry or used wood) shall be stated.

If more detailed information is requested it may be added in the product declaration.

NOTE 1 Identifying and describing the location of the raw material will be important as part of the demands for information on the sustainability of the material. Also for identification of contamination from succeeding areas the knowledge of the location of raw material could be useful. In the case of solid biofuels produced from by-products and residues from wood, herb or fruit processing industries, the first operator is the industrial plant. For used wood the first operator is the first owner who decides to trade or use it as a biofuel. The producer of solid biofuels from used wood or by-products and residues from wood, herb or fruit processing industries is responsible that the raw materials fall within the scope of the EN 14961-1.

NOTE 2 When solid biofuels consist of a mixture from a number of first operators, all possible first operators should be listed as the first operator.

6.4 Production requirements The production requirements for solid biofuels vary depending on the complexity of the production process as well as on the requirements of the biofuel (for example between small-scale users that may require high-grade biofuels and large-scale users who may take advantage of fuel flexible combustion units). This leads to different measures and requirements for the quality assurance and quality control process. The methodology described below for quality assurance and quality control of the production shall be used for all processes, but shall be adjusted for the production requirements of the specific production chain in question.

There are six consecutive steps. The steps are shown in Figure 4 and described below.

Figure 4 — Methodology for quality assurance a) Step 1: Define specification(s) for the biofuel(s) 1) Fuel quality description. The fuel quality is described by the specification of the fuel in accordance with the appropriate part of EN 14961 and should be the result of an agreement between one operator and the next operator in the supply chain. The next operator should be considered as the customer of the previous operator. The definition of the specification of the biofuels should be the initial step. This step will influence the subsequent decisions about equipment, raw materials and production site. Specifications can also be established 1 Define specification

for the fuels 2 Document the steps in the supply chain 3 Analyse

factors influencing fuel quality and company performance 4 Identify and document Critical Control Points for compliance with fuel specification 5 Select appropriate measures that give confidence to customers that the specification are being realised 6 Establish and document routines for separate handling of nonconforming materials and biofuels SIST EN 15234-1:2011

EN 15234-1:2011 (E) 12 according to anticipated market demands. In reality the specification is often a combination of customer requirements, market demands and the operator’s preconditions (e.g. equipment limitations).

2) Determination of key properties. The biofuel producer and/or supplier should determine the key properties in accordance with the end-user needs. The following topics should be considered in the determination of the key properties: i. Use of the biofuel and compliance with an appropriate part of EN 14961; ii. Legal constraints and regulations concerning emission limits and other environmental issues; iii. Possible quality effects of mixing and blending biofuels of different raw materials, their qualities and their subsequent storage. b) Step 2: Document the steps in the process chain 1) Using a flow diagram. A flow diagram is recommended to illustrate the process-chain or material flow under consideration. It should not be more detailed than necessary. For examples of flow diagrams see appropriate part of EN 15234. The flow diagram should be carefully assessed with the purpose to emphasising the quality assurance aspects.

2) Allocation of responsibilities. To support the structure and information provided in the process chain an allocation of responsibilities may be helpful. This is likely to be a useful starting point when assessing a process in the light of quality assurance.

3) Management issues. Many quality parameters have nothing to do with the physical and chemical properties altered during the processing of the biofuel, but rather with management issues. Companies, who trade and servi

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