Water quality - Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) - Part 2: Determination of selected elements including uranium isotopes (ISO 17294-2:2016)

ISO 17294-2:2016 specifies a method for the determination of the elements aluminium, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, boron, cadmium, caesium, calcium, cerium, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, erbium, gadolinium, gallium, germanium, gold, hafnium, holmium, indium, iridium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, neodymium, nickel, palladium, phosphorus, platinum, potassium, praseodymium, rubidium, rhenium, rhodium, ruthenium, samarium, scandium, selenium, silver, sodium, strontium, terbium, tellurium, thorium, thallium, thulium, tin, tungsten, uranium and its isotopes, vanadium, yttrium, ytterbium, zinc and zirconium in water (for example, drinking water, surface water, ground water, waste water and eluates).
Taking into account the specific and additionally occurring interferences, these elements can also be determined in digests of water, sludges and sediments (for example, digests of water as described in ISO 15587‑1 or ISO 15587‑2).
The working range depends on the matrix and the interferences encountered. In drinking water and relatively unpolluted waters, the limit of quantification (xLQ) lies between 0,002 µg/l and 1,0 µg/l for most elements. The working range typically covers concentrations between several pg/l and mg/l depending on the element and pre-defined requirements.
The quantification limits of most elements are affected by blank contamination and depend predominantly on the laboratory air-handling facilities available on the purity of reagents and the cleanliness of glassware.
The lower limit of quantification is higher in cases where the determination suffers from interferences (see Clause 5) or memory effects (see ISO 17294‑1:2004, 8.2).

Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anwendung der induktiv gekoppelten Plasma-Massenspektrometrie (ICP-MS) - Teil 2: Bestimmung von ausgewählten Elementen einschließlich Uran-Isotope (ISO 17294-2:2016)

Qualité de l'eau - Application de la spectrométrie de masse avec plasma à couplage inductif (ICP-MS) - Partie 2: Dosage des éléments sélectionnés y compris les isotopes d'uranium (ISO 17294-2:2016)

L'ISO 17294-2 :2016 spécifie une méthode de dosage des éléments suivants: aluminium, antimoine, argent, arsenic, baryum, béryllium, bismuth, bore, cadmium, césium, calcium, cérium, chrome, cobalt, cuivre, dysprosium, erbium, étain, fer, gadolinium, gallium, germanium, hafnium, holmium, indium, iridium, lanthane, lithium, lutécium, magnésium, manganèse, mercure, molybdène, néodyme, nickel, or, palladium, phosphore, platine, plomb, potassium, praséodyme, rubidium, rhénium, rhodium, ruthénium, samarium, scandium, sélénium, sodium, strontium, terbium, tellure, thorium, thallium, thulium, tungstène, uranium et ses isotopes, vanadium, yttrium, ytterbium, zinc et zirconium, ainsi que pour le dosage de ces éléments dans l'eau (par exemple l'eau potable, l'eau de surface, l'eau souterraine, les eaux usées et les éluats).
Compte tenu des interférences spécifiques et non spécifiques, ces éléments peuvent également être dosés dans des minéralisats d'eau, de boues et de sédiments (par exemple des minéralisats d'eau tels que décrits dans l'ISO 15587‑1 ou l'ISO 15587‑2).
La gamme de travail dépend de la matrice et des interférences rencontrées. Dans l'eau potable et dans les eaux relativement peu polluées, la limite de quantification (xLQ) est comprise entre 0,002 µg/l et 1,0 µg/l pour la plupart des éléments. Selon l'élément concerné et les exigences prédéfinies, la gamme de travail couvre généralement les concentrations comprises entre plusieurs pg/l et plusieurs mg/l.
Les limites de quantification de la plupart des éléments sont influencées par la contamination du blanc et dépendent, dans une large mesure, des installations de traitement de l'air dont dispose le laboratoire, ainsi que de la pureté des réactifs et de la propreté de la verrerie.
La limite inférieure de quantification sera plus élevée dans les cas où la détermination est susceptible d'être soumise à des interférences (voir l'Article 5) ou en cas d'effets mémoire (voir ISO 17294‑1:2004, 8.2).

Kakovost vode - Uporaba masne spektrometrije z induktivno sklopljeno plazmo (ICP/MS) - 2. del: Določevanje izbranih elementov, vključno z izotopi urana (ISO 17294-2:2016)

Ta del standarda ISO 17294 določa metodo za določevanje aluminija, antimona, arzena, barija, berilija, bizmuta, bora, kadmija, cezija, kalcija, cerija, kroma, kobalta, bakra, disprozija, erbija, gadolinija, galija, germanija, zlata, hafnija, holmija, indija, železa, lantana, svinca, litija, molibdna, neodima, niklja, paladija, fosforja, platine, kalija, prazeodima, rubidija, renija, rodija, rutenija, samarija, skandija, selena, srebra, natrija, stroncija, terbija, telurija, torija, talija, kositra, volframa, urana in njegovih izotopov, vanadija, itrija, iterbija, cinka in cirkonija v vodi (na primer v pitni vodi, površinski vodi podtalnici, odpadni vodi in izlužkih).
Ob upoštevanju posebnih in dodatnih motenj je mogoče prisotnost teh elementov ugotavljati tudi v razklopih vode, blatu in usedlinah (npr. v razklopih vode, kot je opisano v standardu ISO 15587-1 ali ISO 15587-2).
Delovni razpon je odvisen od matrice in motenj, ki se pojavijo. V pitni vodi in relativno neonesnaženih vodah količinska omejitev (xLQ) znaša med 0,002 μg/l in 1,0 μg/l za večino elementov. Delovni razpon običajno zajema koncentracije med nekaj pg/l in mg/l, odvisno od elementa in predhodno določenih zahtev.
Na količinske omejitve večine elementov vpliva slepa kontaminacija in so odvisne predvsem od laboratorijske prezračevalne opreme, ki je na voljo za čistost reagentov in čistost steklene posode.
Spodnja količinska omejitev je višja v primerih, kjer na določevanje vplivajo motnje
ali spominski učinki (glej standard ISO 17294-1:2004, 8.2).

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Aug-2016
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
10-Aug-2016
Completion Date
10-Aug-2016

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 17294-2:2017
01-junij-2017
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 17294-2:2005
.DNRYRVWYRGH8SRUDEDPDVQHVSHNWURPHWULMH]LQGXNWLYQRVNORSOMHQRSOD]PR
,&306 GHO'RORþHYDQMHL]EUDQLKHOHPHQWRYYNOMXþQR]L]RWRSLXUDQD ,62


Water quality - Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) -

Part 2: Determination of selected elements including uranium isotopes (ISO 17294-

2:2016)
Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anwendung der induktiv gekoppelten Plasma-

Massenspektrometrie (ICP-MS) - Teil 2: Bestimmung von 62 Elementen einschließlich

Uran-Isotope (ISO 17294-2:2016)

Qualité de l'eau - Application de la spectrométrie de masse avec plasma à couplage

inductif (ICP-MS) - Partie 2: Dosage des éléments sélectionnés y compris les isotopes

d'uranium (ISO 17294-2:2016)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 17294-2:2016
ICS:
13.060.50 3UHLVNDYDYRGHQDNHPLþQH Examination of water for
VQRYL chemical substances
SIST EN ISO 17294-2:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 17294-2:2017
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SIST EN ISO 17294-2:2017
EN ISO 17294-2
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
August 2016
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.060.50 Supersedes EN ISO 17294-2:2004
English Version
Water quality - Application of inductively coupled plasma
mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) - Part 2: Determination of
selected elements including uranium isotopes (ISO 17294-
2:2016)

Qualité de l'eau - Application de la spectrométrie de Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anwendung der induktiv

masse avec plasma à couplage inductif (ICP-MS) - gekoppelten Plasma-Massenspektrometrie (ICP-MS) -

Partie 2: Dosage des éléments sélectionnés y compris Teil 2: Bestimmung von ausgewählten Elementen

les isotopes d'uranium (ISO 17294-2:2016) einschließlich Uran-Isotope (ISO 17294-2:2016)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 28 February 2016.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 17294-2:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 17294-2:2017
EN ISO 17294-2:2016 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 17294-2:2017
EN ISO 17294-2:2016 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 17294-2:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 147 “Water

quality” in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 230 “Water analysis” the secretariat of

which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by February 2017, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by February 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
This document supersedes EN ISO 17294-2:2004.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 17294-2:2016 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 17294-2:2016 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 17294-2:2017
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SIST EN ISO 17294-2:2017
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 17294-2
Second edition
2016-07-15
Water quality — Application of
inductively coupled plasma mass
spectrometry (ICP-MS) —
Part 2:
Determination of selected elements
including uranium isotopes
Qualité de l’eau — Application de la spectrométrie de masse avec
plasma à couplage inductif (ICP-MS) —
Partie 2: Dosage des éléments sélectionnés y compris les isotopes
d’uranium
Reference number
ISO 17294-2:2016(E)
ISO 2016
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SIST EN ISO 17294-2:2017
ISO 17294-2:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17294-2:2017
ISO 17294-2:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Interferences ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Spectral interferences ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.2 Isobaric elemental .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.3 Polyatomic interferences .......................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Non-spectral interferences ........................................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Reagents ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

7 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

8 Sampling .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

9 Sample pre-treatment ..................................................................................................................................................................................12

9.1 Determination of the mass concentration of dissolved elements without digestion .............12

9.2 Determination of the total mass concentration after digestion ................................................................12

10 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

10.2 Calibration of the ICP-MS system .........................................................................................................................................13

10.3 Measurement of the matrix solution for evaluation of the correction factors ..............................14

10.4 Measurement of the samples ...................................................................................................................................................14

11 Calculation ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................14

12 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

Annex A (normative) Determination of the mass concentration of uranium isotopes .................................16

Annex B (informative) Description of the matrices of the samples used for the

interlaboratory trial ......................................................................................................................................................................................26

Annex C (informative) Performance data .....................................................................................................................................................28

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................31

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 17294-2:2017
ISO 17294-2:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 147, Water quality, Subcommittee SC 2, Physical,

chemical and biochemical methods.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 17294-2:2003), which has been

technically revised.

ISO 17294 consists of the following parts, under the general title Water quality — Application of

inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS):
— Part 1: General guidelines
— Part 2: Determination of selected elements including uranium isotopes
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17294-2:2016(E)
Introduction

When applying this part of ISO 17294, it is necessary in each case, depending on the range to be tested,

to determine if and to what extent additional conditions are to be established.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 17294-2:2017
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 17294-2:2016(E)
Water quality — Application of inductively coupled plasma
mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) —
Part 2:
Determination of selected elements including uranium
isotopes

WARNING — Persons using this part of ISO 17294 should be familiar with normal laboratory

practice. This part of ISO 17294 does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any,

associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user to establish appropriate safety and

health practices and to ensure compliance with any national regulatory conditions.

IMPORTANT — It is absolutely essential that tests, conducted in accordance with this part of

ISO 17294, be carried out by suitably qualified staff.
1 Scope

This part of ISO 17294 specifies a method for the determination of the elements aluminium, antimony,

arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, boron, cadmium, caesium, calcium, cerium, chromium, cobalt,

copper, dysprosium, erbium, gadolinium, gallium, germanium, gold, hafnium, holmium, indium, iridium,

iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, neodymium,

nickel, palladium, phosphorus, platinum, potassium, praseodymium, rubidium, rhenium, rhodium,

ruthenium, samarium, scandium, selenium, silver, sodium, strontium, terbium, tellurium, thorium,

thallium, thulium, tin, tungsten, uranium and its isotopes, vanadium, yttrium, ytterbium, zinc and

zirconium in water (for example, drinking water, surface water, ground water, waste water and eluates).

Taking into account the specific and additionally occurring interferences, these elements can also be

determined in digests of water, sludges and sediments (for example, digests of water as described in

ISO 15587-1 or ISO 15587-2).

The working range depends on the matrix and the interferences encountered. In drinking water and

relatively unpolluted waters, the limit of quantification (xLQ) lies between 0,002 µg/l and 1,0 µg/l for

most elements (see Table 1). The working range typically covers concentrations between several pg/l

and mg/l depending on the element and pre-defined requirements.

The quantification limits of most elements are affected by blank contamination and depend

predominantly on the laboratory air-handling facilities available on the purity of reagents and the

cleanliness of glassware.

The lower limit of quantification is higher in cases where the determination suffers from interferences

(see Clause 5) or memory effects (see ISO 17294-1:2004, 8.2).
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 17294-2:2017
ISO 17294-2:2016(E)
Table 1 — Lower limits of quantification (xLQ) for unpolluted water
Element Isotope Limit of Element Isotope Limit of Element Isotope Limit of
a a a
often quantification often quantification often quantification
used used used
µg/l µg/l µg/l
107 178 102
Ag 0,5 Hf Hf 0,1 Ru Ru 0,1
109 202 121
Ag 0,5 Hg Hg 0,05 Sb 0,2
27 165 123
Al Al 1 Ho Ho 0,1 Sb 0,2
75 c 115 45
As As 0,1 In In 0,1 Sc Sc 5
197 193 77 c
Au Au 0,5 Ir Ir 0,1 Se 1
10 39 C 78 c
B 1 K K 5 Se Se 0,1
11 139 82
B 1 La La 0,1 Se 1
137 6 147
Ba 3 Li 10 Sm Sm 0,1
Ba Li
138 7 118
Ba 0,5 Li 1 Sn 1
9 175 120
Be Be 0,1 Lu Lu 0,1 Sn 1
209 24 86
Bi Bi 0,5 Mg 1 Sr 0,5
Mg Sr
43 25 88
Ca 100 Mg 10 Sr 0,3
44 55 159
Ca Ca 50 Mn Mn 0,1 Tb Tb 0,1
40 95 126
Ca 10 Mo 0,5 Te Te 2
111 98 232
Cd 0,1 Mo 0,3 Th Th 0,1
114 23 203
Cd 0,5 Na Na 10 Tl 0,2
140 146 205
Ce Ce 0,1 Nd Nd 0,1 Tl 0,1
59 58 c 169
Co Co 0,2 Ni 0,1 Tm Tm 0,1
52 c 60 c 238
Cr 0,1 Ni 0,1 U 0,1
53 31 235 -4
Cr 5 P P 5 U U 10
133 206 b 234 -5
Cs Cs 0,1 Pb 0,2 U 10
63 207 b 51 c
Cu 0,1 Pb Pb 0,2 V V 0,1
65 208 b 182
Cu 0,1 Pb 0,1 W 0,3
163 108 184
Dy Dy 0,1 Pd Pd 0,5 W 0,3
166 141 89
Er Er 0,1 Pr Pr 0,1 Y Y 0,1
56 c 195 172
Fe Fe 5 Pt Pt 0,5 Yb 0,2
69 85 174
Ga 0,3 Rb Rb 0,1 Yb 0,2
71 185 64
Ga 0,3 Re 0,1 Zn 1
157 187 66
Gd 0,1 Re 0,1 Zn Zn 1
158 103 68
Gd 0,1 Rh Rh 0,1 Zn 1
74 101 90
Ge Ge 0,3 Ru Ru 0,2 Zr Zr 0,2
Depending on the instrumentation, significantly lower limits can be achieved.
b 206 207 208

In order to avoid incorrect results due to the varying isotop ratios in the environment, the signal intensities of Pb, Pb and Pb shall be added.

In order to reach these limits, depending on interferences, the use of a collision/reaction cell is recommended

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3696, Water for analytical laboratory use — Specification and test methods

ISO 5667-1, Water quality — Sampling — Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes and

sampling techniques

ISO 5667-3, Water quality — Sampling — Part 3: Preservation and handling of water samples

2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17294-2:2016(E)

ISO 8466-1, Water quality — Calibration and evaluation of analytical methods and estimation of

performance characteristics — Part 1: Statistical evaluation of the linear calibration function

ISO 15587-1, Water quality — Digestion for the determination of selected elements in water — Part 1:

Aqua regia digestion

ISO 15587-2, Water quality — Digestion for the determination of selected elements in water — Part 2:

Nitric acid digestion

ISO 17294-1:2004, Water quality — Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-

MS) — Part 1: General guidelines
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 17294-1 and the following apply.

3.1
limit of application

lowest concentration of an analyte that can be determined with a defined level of accuracy and precision

4 Principle

Multi-element determination of selected elements, including uranium isotopes, by inductively coupled

plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) consists of the following steps:

— introduction of a measuring solution into a radiofrequency plasma (for example, by pneumatic

nebulization) where energy transfer processes from the plasma cause desolvation, decomposition,

atomization and ionization of elements;

— as an additional option, collision and reaction cell technology may be to overcome several

interferences (see 5.1);

— extraction of the ions from plasma through a differentially pumped vacuum interface with integrated

ion optics and separation on the basis of their mass-to-charge ratio by a mass spectrometer (for

instance a quadrupole MS);

— transmission of the ions through the mass separation unit (for instance, a quadrupole) and detection,

usually by a continuous dynode electron multiplier assembly, and ion information processing by a

data handling system;

— quantitative determination after calibration with suitable calibration solutions.

The relationship between signal intensity and mass concentration is usually a linear one over a broad

range (usually over more than several orders of magnitude).

The method to be used for determination of uranium isotopes is described in Annex A. With instruments

equipped with a magnetic sector field, higher mass resolution spectra can be obtained. This can help to

separate isotopes of interest from interfering species.
5 Interferences
5.1 General

In certain cases, isobaric and non-isobaric interferences can occur. The most important interferences

in this respect are coinciding masses and physical interferences from the sample matrix. For more

detailed information, see ISO 17294-1.

Common isobaric interferences are given in Table 2 (for additional information, see ISO 17294-1).

It is recommended that different isotopes of an element be determined in order to select an isotope

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 17294-2:2016(E)

that does not suffer from interference. If there are none that meet this requirement, a mathematical

correction has to be applied. For the determination of uranium isotopes, the specific procedure detailed

in Annex A has to be followed.

Small drifts or variations in intensities should be corrected by the application of the internal standard

correction. In general, in order to avoid physical and spectral interferences, the mass concentration of

dissolved matter (salt content) should not exceed 2 g/l (corresponding to a conductivity of less than

2 700 µS/cm).

NOTE With the use of collision and reaction cell technology, it is possible to overcome several interferences.

As the various options and parameters of those techniques cannot be described in detail in this part of ISO 17294,

the user is responsible for demonstrating that the chosen approach is fit for purpose and achieves the necessary

performance.
5.2 Spectral interferences
5.2.1 General

For more detailed information on spectral interferences, see ISO 17294-1:2004, 6.2.

5.2.2 Isobaric elemental

Isobaric elemental interferences are caused by isotopes of different elements of the same nominal

mass-to-charge ratio and which cannot be separated due to an insufficient resolution of the mass

114 114
spectrometer in use (for example, Cd and Sn).

Element interferences from isobars may be corrected for taking into account the influence from the

interfering element (see Table 3). In this case, the isotopes used for correction shall be determinable

without any interference and with sufficient precision. Possible proposals for correction are often

included in the instrument software.
Table 2 — Important isobaric and polyatomic interferences
Element Isotope Inter-element interferences caused Interferences caused by
by isobars and doubly charged ions polyatomic ions
107
Ag ZrO
Ag —
109
Ag NbO, ZrOH
As As — ArCl, CaCl
197
Au Au — TaO
B — BH
138 + +
Ba Ba La , Ce —
9 18
Be Be — O
Ca — CNO
Ca — COO
111
Cd — MoO, MoOH, ZrOH
114 +
Cd Sn MoO, MoOH
Co Co — CaO, CaOH, MgCl
Cr — ArO, ArC, ClOH
53 +
Cr Fe ClO, ArOH,
Cu — ArNa, POO, MgCl
Cu — SOOH

NOTE In the presence of elements in high mass concentrations, interferences can be caused by the formation of

polyatoms or doubly charged ions which are not listed above.
4 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17294-2:2017
ISO 17294-2:2016(E)
Table 2 (continued)
Element Isotope Inter-element interferences caused Interferences caused by
by isobars and doubly charged ions polyatomic ions
151
Eu — BaO
153
Eu — BaO
54 37 16 1 40 14
Fe — Cl O H+ Ar N
56 40 16 40 16
Fe Fe — Ar O+ Ca O+
57 40 16 1 40 16 1 40 17
Fe — Ar O H+ Ca O H+ Ar O+
69 ++
Ga Ga Ba CrO, ArP, ClOO
74 +
Ge Ge Se ArS, ClCl
115 +
In In Sn —
193
Ir Ir — HfO
Mg — CC
Mg — CC
Mn Mn — NaS, ArOH, ArNH
98 +
Mo Mo Ru —
58 +
Ni Fe CaO, CaN, NaCl, MgS
Ni — CaO, CaOH, MgCl, NaCl
108 +
Pd Pd Cd MoO, ZrO
195
Pt Pt — HfO
187 +
Re Re Os —
102 +
Ru Ru Pd —
123 +
Sb Sb Te —
Sc Sc — COO, COOH
Se — CaCl, ArCl, ArArH
78 +
Se Se Kr ArAr, CaCl
82 +
Se Kr HBr
120 +
Sn Sn Te —
V V — ClO, SOH, ClN, ArNH
184 +
W W Os —
64 +
Zn Ni AlCl, SS, SOO, CaO
66 ++
Zn Zn Ba PCl, SS, FeC, SOO
68 ++ ++
Zn Ba , Ce FeN, PCl, ArS, FeC, SS, ArNN, SOO

NOTE In the presence of elements in high mass concentrations, interferences can be caused by the formation of

polyatoms or doubly charged ions which are not listed above.

Table 3 — Examples for suitable isotopes with their relative atomic masses and formulae for

correction
Element Recommended isotope and inter-element correction
75 77 82
As −3,127 ( Se − 0,815 Se) or
75 77 78
As −3,127 ( Se + 0,322 0 Se)
138 139 140
Ba Ba −0,000 900 8 La − 0,002 825 Ce
114 118
Cd Cd −0,026 84 Sn
74 82
Ge Ge −0,138 5 Se
115 118
In In −0,014 86 Sn
98 101
Mo Mo −0,110 6 Ru
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SIST EN ISO 17294-2:2017
ISO 17294-2:2016(E)
Table 3 (continued)
Element Recommended isotope and inter-element correction
58 54
Ni Ni −0,048 25 Fe
208 207 206
Pb Pb + Pb + Pb
82 83
Se Se −1,009 Kr
120 125
Sn Sn −0,013 44 Te
51 51 53 52
V V V −3,127 ( Cr −0,113 4 Cr)
184 189
W W −0,001 242 Os
5.2.3 Polyatomic interferences

Polyatomic ions are formed by coincidence of plasma gas components, reagents and sample matrix

75 40 35 40 35

(for example, interference of the relative mass As by Ar Cl and Ca Cl). Examples for correction

formulae are given in Table 3 and information on the magnitude of interferences are stated in Table 4.

This interference is of particular relevance for several elements (for example, As, Cr, Se, V).

It is recommended that the analyst checks the magnitude of this interference regularly for the particular

instrument.

In the case of mathematical corrections, it shall be taken into account that the magnitude of

interference depends both on the plasma adjustment (for example, oxide formation rate) and on the

mass concentration of the interfering element, which will usually be a variable component of the sample

solution.
5.3 Non-spectral interferences

For detailed information on non-spectral interferences, see ISO 17294-1:2004, 6.3.

Table 4 — Important interferences by solutions of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, S, P (ρ = 100 mg/l) and

Ba (ρ = 1 000 µg/l)
Element Isotope Simulated mass Type of interfer-
concentration ence
µg/l
As As 1,0 ArCl
Co Co 0,2 to 0,8 CaO, CaOH
1,0 ClOH
Cr 1,0 ArC
Cr 5,0 ClO
1,0 to 3,0 ArNa
1,0 to 1,6 POO
Cu 2,0 ArMg
Cu 2,0 POO
2,0 SOOH
1,0 to 25 Ba
Ga 0,3 ArP
1,0 ClOO
Ga 0,2 to 0,6 ArP
Indicates the magnitude of interference without corrective measures. User
should check the interferences and decide how to reduce or eliminate them.
6 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN
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