Earthworks - Geotechnical laboratory tests - Part 1: Degradability test standard

This document defines the principle and the methods for the determination of the "degradability coefficient" of rocky material.
The degradability coefficient IDG distinguishes the behaviour of certain rocky material and is used to show the change in the geotechnical characteristics (particle size, clay content, plasticity, etc.) in relation to the characteristics seen immediately following excavation.
Changes in the particle size occur due to the combined action of climatic or geohydrological elements (frost, soaking-drying cycles) and mechanical stress to which it is subjected. In the case of degradable rocky material, this leads to a fairly significant and continuous reduction in the mechanical and geometric characteristics of the works in which they are used.
The two methods developed in this document for the determination of IDG are not equivalent, so any result obtained by this document can refer to the method used.

Erdarbeiten - Geotechnische Laborversuche - Teil 1: Prüfung der Abbaubarkeit

Dieses Dokument definiert die Grundlagen und die Verfahren zur Bestimmung des "Abbaubarkeits-koeffizienten" von Felsmaterial.
Der Abbaubarkeitskoeffizient IDG unterscheidet das Verhalten bestimmter Felsmaterialien und wird ver-wendet, um die Änderungen der geotechnischen Merkmale (Korngröße, Tongehalt, Plastizität usw.) im Verhältnis zu den Merkmalen darzustellen, wie sie unmittelbar nach dem Lösen erkennbar sind.
Änderungen der Korngröße treten aufgrund der kombinierten Wirkung von klimatischen und geohydro-logischen Elementen (Frost, Wässerungs-Trocknungs-Zyklen) und der mechanischen Belastung auf, denen das Material ausgesetzt wird. Bei veränderlichen Felsmaterialien führt dies zu einer recht signifikanten und kontinuierlichen Herabsetzung der mechanischen und geometrischen Merkmale der Arbeiten, bei denen diese eingesetzt werden.
Die beiden in diesem Dokument entwickelten Verfahren für die Bestimmung von IDG sind nicht äquivalent, so dass aufgrund dieses Dokuments erhaltene Ergebnisse auf das verwendete Verfahren Bezug nehmen können.

Terrassements - Essais géotechniques en laboratoire - Partie 1 : Essai de dégradabilité

Le présent document définit le principe et les méthodes de détermination du « coefficient de dégradabilité » d’un matériau rocheux.
Le coefficient de dégradabilité IDG sert à distinguer le comportement de certains matériaux rocheux et est utilisé pour apprécier l’évolution des caractéristiques géotechniques (granulométrie, teneur en argile, plasticité, etc.) par rapport aux caractéristiques observées immédiatement après l’excavation.
Des modifications de la granulométrie se produisent sous l’action combinée des éléments climatiques ou hydrogéologiques (gel, cycles d’humidification-séchage) et des contraintes mécaniques auxquelles ils sont soumis. Dans le cas de matériaux rocheux dégradables, cela conduit à une détérioration relativement importante et continue des caractéristiques mécaniques et géométriques des ouvrages dans lesquels ils sont utilisés.
Les deux méthodes décrites dans le présent document pour la détermination du coefficient IDG n’étant pas équivalentes, les résultats énoncés dans ce document sont présentés en référence à la méthode utilisée.

Zemeljska dela - Geotehnični laboratorijski preskusi - 1. del: Preskus razgradljivosti

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 17542-1:2020
01-september-2020
Zemeljska dela - Geotehnični laboratorijski preskusi - 1. del: Preskus
razgradljivosti
Earthworks - Geotechnical laboratory tests - Part 1: Degradability test standard
Erdarbeiten - Geotechnische Laborversuche - Teil 1: Prüfung der Abbaubarkeit

Terrassements - Essais géotechniques en laboratoire - Partie 1 : Essai de dégradabilité

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 17542-1
ICS:
93.020 Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Earthworks. Excavations.
Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod Foundation construction.
zemljo Underground works
oSIST prEN 17542-1:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 17542-1:2020
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oSIST prEN 17542-1:2020
DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 17542-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
July 2020
ICS 93.020
English Version
Earthworks - Geotechnical laboratory tests - Part 1:
Degradability test standard

Terrassements - Essais géotechniques en laboratoire - Erdarbeiten - Geotechnische Laborversuche - Teil 1:

Partie 1 : Essai de dégradabilité Prüfung der Abbaubarkeit

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 396.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 17542-1:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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prEN 17542-1:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ............................................................................................................................................ 3

Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................... 5

4 Symbols – Units ...................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Method A .................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.1 Test principle ......................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Equipment and test material ............................................................................................................ 6

5.3 Preparing samples ................................................................................................................................ 6

5.4 Testing ...................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.5 Calculation and expression of results ........................................................................................... 7

5.6 Test report ............................................................................................................................................... 7

6 Method B .................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.1 Test principle ......................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Equipment and test material ............................................................................................................ 8

6.3 Operating procedure ........................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.1 Sample sizes ............................................................................................................................................ 9

6.3.2 Sample preparation ........................................................................................................................... 10

6.3.3 Conduct of the test .............................................................................................................................. 10

6.3.4 Quantitative examination ................................................................................................................ 11

6.3.5 Qualitative examination ................................................................................................................... 11

6.4 Test report ............................................................................................................................................. 11

Annex A (informative) Degradability coefficient of rocky materiel — Method A (in accordance

with EN 17542-1) ................................................................................................................................. 13

Annex B (informative) Degradability coefficient of rocky materiel — Method B (in accordance

with EN 17542-1) ................................................................................................................................. 15

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................................... 17

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oSIST prEN 17542-1:2020
prEN 17542-1:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (prEN 17542-1:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 396

“Earthworks”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.
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prEN 17542-1:2020 (E)
Introduction

The degradability coefficient I is an identification parameter adopted in the classification of materials

for earthworks (EN 16907-2). This document refers to two methods to define the degradability

behaviour, designated as French and Spanish methods in EN 16907-2. Those two methods are described

as Method A and Method B, respectively.
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1 Scope

This document defines the principle and the methods for the determination of the “degradability

coefficient” of rocky material.

The degradability coefficient I distinguishes the behaviour of certain rocky material and is used to show

the change in the geotechnical characteristics (particle size, clay content, plasticity, etc.) in relation to the

characteristics seen immediately following excavation.

Changes in the particle size occur due to the combined action of climatic or geohydrological elements

(frost, soaking-drying cycles) and mechanical stress to which it is subjected. In the case of degradable

rocky material, this leads to a fairly significant and continuous reduction in the mechanical and geometric

characteristics of the works in which they are used.

The two methods developed in this document for the determination of I are not equivalent, so any result

obtained by this document can refer to the method used.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 16907-2, Earthworks — Part 2: Classification of materials

ISO 3310-1, Test sieves — Technical requirements and testing — Part 1: Test sieves of metal wire cloth

ISO 3310-2, Test sieves — Technical requirements and testing — Part 2: Test sieves of perforated metal

plate
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
4 Symbols – Units

I Degradability coefficient of a rocky material (in percent) obtained by method A

DGa
(French test)

I Degradability coefficient of a rocky material (in percent) obtained by method B

DGb
(Spanish test)

D Particle size below which 10 % of the mass of a grainy material (in millimetres) are

found

Material Ratio reflecting material fraction retained by a sieve of mesh size d over material

d/D fraction passed through a sieve of a mesh size D
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5 Method A
5.1 Test principle

The test is conducted by estimating changes in D of a sample of a given granularity d/D subjected

10-value
to four conventional soaking-drying cycles.
The degradability coefficient is expressed as:
D before 1st soaking− drying cycle
I =
DGa
D after 4th soaking− drying cycle
5.2 Equipment and test material

— Test sieves conforming to ISO 3310-1 or ISO 3310-2, together with appropriate receivers, shall be

used.

— The number of sieves used and their aperture sizes shall be sufficient to ensure that any

discontinuities in the grading curve are detected.

— The inclusion of sieves: 10 mm, 16 mm, 20 mm, 40 mm, 50 mm or 63 mm, and 80 mm is necessary

as these represent the boundary sizes of the testing.

— An adjustable thermostat oven with forced air circulation devices capable of maintaining a uniform

temperature of (105 ± 5) °C throughout the drying chamber.
— Flat metal tray, minimum dimensions (H × L × W): 0,1 m × 0,3 m × 0,5 m.
— Flat tray, minimum dimensions (H × L × W): 0,25 m × 0,5 m × 0,75 m.
— Scales: 3 000 g range, accuracy ± 1 g.
5.3 Preparing samples

Take a sample that is representative of the nature of the rocky material to be tested either by extracting

a core sample, or by using a hydraulic shovel, or by cropping the surface, or by taking the sample directly

from the excavation site. Then prepare the d/D fraction to be tested.

The d/D fraction is obtained by crushing the sample with a hammer (if required), then by sifting it

through the following sieves:

— 10 mm and 20 mm for material derived from clay rocks such as marl, shale, pelite, etc;

— 40 mm and 80 mm for material derived from clay rocks such as sedimentary schist.

The oversize particles from the 20 mm and 80 mm sieves which respectively correspond to the

dimensions D of the two particle size fractions tested may be returned to the sample after they have been

crushed with a hammer and sifted once more through the 10/20 mm and 40/80 mm sieves respectively.

The sample shall weigh at least 2 kg.
5.4 Testing

ln order to draw the initial three point granulometric curve, sift the 10/20 mm or 40/80 mm fraction

(prepared earlier) through 16 mm and 50 or 63 mm sieves respectively, then weigh and note down the

oversize particles from these sieves.
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Mix all sample fraction and homogenize the d/D fraction after sifting and spread it over the metal tray.

Immerse this tray into the large tray then place it in the oven at (105 ± 5) °C. The soaking-drying cycle is

carried out four times in succession.

The 1st cycle starts with a soaking action and the 4th cycle ends with a drying action. The duration of the

cycle is:
— 8 h ± 1 h for soaking;
— 16 h ± 1 h for drying.

After each soaking action and before placing the sample in the oven, siphon off the water remaining in

the metal tray, taking extreme care of not washing away any solid particles.

At the end of the 4th cycle, dry sift the sample through the appropriate column of sieves, to determine the

particles size distribution and the D values.
The following columns of sieves can be use:
— 1, 2, 5, 10 mm if the tested fraction is a 10/20 mm fraction;
— 5, 10, 20, 40 mm if the tested fraction is a 40/80 mm fraction.
Next, weigh the oversize particles from each sieve.
5.5 Calculation and expression of results

Using the weight values of the oversize particles from the sieves specified earlier, construct the

granulometric curves of the tested fraction before and after carrying out the four soaking-drying cycles

(See EN ISO 17892-4).

From these curves, determine the respective values of D of the material before and after carrying out

the four soaking-drying cycles.
Calculate the degradability coefficient I using the following formula:
DGa
D before 1st soaking− drying cycle
I =
DGa
D after 4th soaking− drying cycle
5.6 Test report

The test report shall affirm that the test was carried out in accordance with this part of EN 17542 and

shall contain the following information:
a) method of test used;
b) identification of the
...

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