Influence of cementitious products on water intended for human consumption - Test methods - Part 4: Migration of substances from site-applied cementititous materials and associated non-cementitious products/materials

This European Standard specifies a method to determine the potential migration of substances from hardened cementitious site-applied or site-formed materials (including pre-packaged mortars) into test waters. It also covers determination of migration from individual constituents of cementitious products and materials and from associated non-cementitious products for approval purposes (see Annex C).
Site-applied or site-formed cementitious materials which cannot be cast as cubes or prisms, e.g. some spray applied systems, should be tested as factory made cementitious products according to EN 14944-3.
This European Standard is applicable to site-applied or site-formed cementitious materials intended to be used for the transport and storage of water intended for human consumption, including raw water used for the production of drinking water. It is also applicable to individual constituents of cementitious products and materials and to associated non cementitious products and materials.

Einfluss zementgebundener Produkte auf Wasser für den menschlichen Gebrauch - Prüfverfahren - Teil 4: Migration von Substanzen aus bauseits angewendeten zementgebundenen Materialien und zugehörigen nicht zementgebundenen Produkten/Materialien

Diese Europäische Norm legt ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung der möglichen Migration von Substanzen aus erhärteten zementgebundenen bauseits angewendeten oder bauseits geformten Materialien (einschließlich vorverpackter Mörtel) in Prüfwässer fest. Sie deckt auch die Bestimmung der Migration einzelner Bestandteile von zementgebundenen Produkten und Materialien und von zugehörigen nicht zementgebundenen Hilfs¬stoffen für Zulassungszwecke ab (siehe Anhang C).
Bauseits angewendete oder bauseits geformte zementgebundene Materialien, die nicht in Würfel- oder prismatische Formen gegossen werden können, wie z. B. einige aufzuspritzende Systeme, sollten als fabrik-mäßig hergestellte zementgebundene Produkte nach prEN 14944 3 geprüft werden.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt für bauseits angewendete oder bauseits geformte zementgebundene Materia¬lien, welche dazu bestimmt sind, Trinkwasser zu transportieren und zu speichern, einschließlich Rohwasser, welches für die Herstellung von Trinkwasser eingesetzt wird. Sie gilt auch für einzelne Bestandteile von zementgebundenen Produkten und Materialien und zugehörigen nicht zementgebundenen Hilfsstoffen.

Influence des produits à base de ciment sur l'eau destinée à la consommation humaine - Méthodes d'essai - Partie 4 : Migration de substances à partir de matériaux à base de ciment appliqués sur site et de produits/matériaux associés exempts de ciment

La présente Norme européenne spécifie une méthode de détermination de la migration potentielle dans les eaux d’essai des substances issues de matériaux durcis à base de ciment appliqués ou formés sur site (y compris les mortiers préconditionnés). Elle couvre également la détermination de la migration à partir de constituants individuels de produits et matériaux à base de ciment et à partir de produits associés exempts de ciment à des fins d’agrément (voir l’Annexe C).
Il convient que les matériaux à base de ciment appliqués ou formés sur site qui ne peuvent pas être coulés sous forme de cubes ou de prismes, par exemple, certains produits pulvérisés, soient soumis à essai comme des produits à base de ciment fabriqués en usine selon le prEN 14944-3.
La présente Norme européenne s’applique aux matériaux à base de ciment appliqués ou formés sur site conçus pour le transport et le stockage de l’eau destinée à la consommation humaine, y compris l’eau brute utilisée pour produire de l’eau potable. Elle s’applique également aux constituants individuels des produits et matériaux à base de ciment ainsi qu’aux produits et matériaux associés exempts de ciment.

Vpliv cementnih proizvodov na pitno vodo - Preskusne metode - 4. del: Prehod snovi iz cementnih materialov, uporabljenih na terenu, in pripadajočih necementnih proizvodov/materialov

General Information

Status
Not Published
Current Stage
4098 - Decision to abandon - Enquiry
Due Date
02-Jun-2016
Completion Date
14-Jul-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 14944-4:2015
01-september-2015
9SOLYFHPHQWQLKSURL]YRGRYQDSLWQRYRGR3UHVNXVQHPHWRGHGHO3UHKRG
VQRYLL]FHPHQWQLKPDWHULDORYXSRUDEOMHQLKQDWHUHQXLQSULSDGDMRþLK
QHFHPHQWQLKSURL]YRGRYPDWHULDORY

Influence of cementitious products on water intended for human consumption - Test

methods - Part 4: Migration of substances from site-applied cementititous materials and

associated non-cementitious products/materials
Einfluss zementgebundener Produkte auf Wasser für den menschlichen Gebrauch -
Prüfverfahren - Teil 4: Migration von Substanzen aus bauseits angewendeten
zementgebundenen Materialien und zugehörigen nicht zementgebundenen
Produkten/Materialien

Influence des produits à base de ciment sur l'eau destinée à la consommation humaine -

Méthodes d'essai - Partie 4 : Migration de substances à partir de matériaux à base de

ciment appliqués sur site et de produits/matériaux associés exempts de ciment
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 14944-4
ICS:
13.060.20 Pitna voda Drinking water
67.250 Materiali in predmeti v stiku z Materials and articles in
živili contact with foodstuffs
91.100.10 Cement. Mavec. Apno. Malta Cement. Gypsum. Lime.
Mortar
oSIST prEN 14944-4:2015 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 14944-4:2015
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oSIST prEN 14944-4:2015
EUROPEAN STANDARD
DRAFT
prEN 14944-4
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
July 2015
ICS 13.060.20; 67.250
English Version
Influence of cementitious products on water intended for human
consumption - Test methods - Part 4: Migration of substances
from site-applied cementititous materials and associated non-
cementitious products/materials

Influence des produits à base de ciment sur l'eau destinées Einfluss zementgebundener Produkte auf Wasser für den

à la consommation humaine - Méthodes d'essais - Partie 4 : menschlichen Gebrauch - Prüfmethoden - Teil 4 : Migration

Migration des substances issues de matériaux cimentaires von Substanzen aus bauseits angewendeten

et de produits/matériaux non cimentaires associés zementgebundenen Materialien und zugehörige nicht

appliqués sur site zementgebundene Produkte/Materialien

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 164.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which

stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language

made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to

provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without notice and

shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 14944-4:2015 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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prEN 14944-4:2015 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................4

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................5

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................6

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................6

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................7

4 Principle ..................................................................................................................................................8

5 Reagents .................................................................................................................................................9

5.1 General requirements ............................................................................................................................9

5.2 Sodium hypochlorite solution ..............................................................................................................9

5.3 Waters to be used for testing ...............................................................................................................9

5.4 Cleaning liquids for apparatus .......................................................................................................... 10

6 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................ 10

6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 10

6.2 Apparatus and materials for test piece preparation ....................................................................... 10

6.3 Apparatus and materials for preconditioning and migration procedure ...................................... 11

7 Samples and test pieces .................................................................................................................... 11

7.1 Sampling, transport and storage of samples .................................................................................. 11

7.2 Preparation of test pieces .................................................................................................................. 11

7.3 Surface area-to-volume ratio (S/V) for use in the test procedure .................................................. 12

8 Pre-treatment of samples (curing, preconditioning) ....................................................................... 12

8.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 12

8.2 Preconditioning ................................................................................................................................... 12

9 Test procedure .................................................................................................................................... 13

9.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 13

9.2 Preparation of migration water for analysis of substances ........................................................... 13

9.3 Control samples (procedural blank tests) ........................................................................................ 13

10 Analysis ............................................................................................................................................... 14

11 Calculation of test results .................................................................................................................. 14

11.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 14

11.2 Calculation of the concentration of the substances in the migration water ................................ 14

11.3 Calculation of the migration rate of the measured substances ..................................................... 15

11.4 Calculation of the mean migration rate ............................................................................................ 15

12 Test report ........................................................................................................................................... 15

12.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 15

12.2 General information ............................................................................................................................ 15

12.3 Information on the product ................................................................................................................ 15

12.4 Information on reference concrete mixes and test pieces ............................................................. 16

12.5 Information on the test procedure .................................................................................................... 16

12.6 Test results .......................................................................................................................................... 16

Annex A (normative) Testing and assessing migration of substances from the constituents of

concretes ............................................................................................................................................. 18

Annex B (normative) Testing and assessing migration of substances from the constituents of

mortars ................................................................................................................................................. 27

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Annex C (normative) Testing and assessing migration of substances from associated non-

cementitious products or materials .................................................................................................. 35

Annex D (informative) Examples of typical test pieces and test conditions as a function of S/V

ratio ....................................................................................................................................................... 40

Annex E (informative) Schematic description of the test procedure.......................................................... 41

Annex F (informative) Procedural tests using standard additions (positive control) ............................... 44

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 45

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oSIST prEN 14944-4:2015
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Foreword

This document (prEN 14944-4:2015) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 164 "Water

supply", the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.

This document describes a test method to produce migration waters for the assessment of inorganic and

organic substances.

This European Standard will result in one of a series of standards that support appropriate standards.

This European Standard consists of a series dealing with the influence of cementitious and associated non-

cementitious products/materials on water intended for human consumption, including:

— Part 1: Influence of migration from factory made cementitious products on the organoleptic parameters

— Part 2: Influence of migration from site-applied cementitious products and associated non-cementitious

products on the organoleptic parameters
— Part 3: Migration of substances from factory made cementitious products

— Part 4: Migration of substances from site-applied cementitious materials and associated non-cementitious

products/materials
This document consists of 12 clauses and the following annexes:

Annex A, which is normative, describes the testing and assessment of migration of substances from the

constituents of concretes.

Annex B, which is normative, describes the testing and assessment of migration of substances from the

constituents of mortars.

Annex C, which is normative, describes the testing and assessment of migration of substances from

associated non-cementitious products or materials.

Annex D, which is informative, provides examples of test pieces and test conditions as a function of S/V ratio.

Annex E, which is informative, provides a schematic description of the test (preconditioning and migration)

procedure.

Annex F, which is informative, gives recommendations for procedural tests using standard additions (positive

control).
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Introduction

With respect to any potential adverse effects of products and materials on the quality of water intended for

human consumption, it should be understood that relevant national regulations remain in force until verifiable

European acceptance criteria have been adopted.
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prEN 14944-4:2015 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard specifies a method to determine the potential migration of substances from hardened

cementitious site-applied or site-formed materials (including pre-packaged mortars) into test waters. It also

covers determination of migration from individual constituents of cementitious products and materials and from

associated non-cementitious products for approval purposes (see Annex C).

Site-applied or site-formed cementitious materials which cannot be cast as cubes or prisms, e.g. some spray

applied systems, should be tested as factory made cementitious products according to prEN 14944-3.

This European Standard is applicable to site-applied or site-formed cementitious materials intended to be

used for the transport and storage of water intended for human consumption, including raw water used for the

production of drinking water. It is also applicable to individual constituents of cementitious products and

materials and to associated non cementitious products and materials.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
EN 196-1:2005, Methods of testing cement - Part 1: Determination of strength

EN 197-1, Cement - Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements

EN 206:2013, Concrete - Specification, performance, production and conformity

EN 450-1, Fly ash for concrete - Part 1: Definition, specifications and conformity criteria

EN 480-1, Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout - Test methods - Part 1: Reference concrete and

reference mortar for testing
EN 12350-2, Testing fresh concrete - Part 2: Slump-test

EN 12390-1, Testing hardened concrete - Part 1: Shape, dimensions and other requirements for specimens

and moulds
EN 12620, Aggregates for concrete

EN 12878, Pigments for the colouring of building materials based on cement and/or lime - Specifications and

methods of test

prEN 13055, Lightweight aggregates for concrete, mortar, grout, bituminous mixtures, surface treatments and

for unbound and bound applications

EN 13263-1, Silica fume for concrete - Part 1: Definitions, requirements and conformity criteria

EN 13639, Determination of total organic carbon in limestone

prEN 14944-3:2015, Influence of cementitious products on water intended for human consumption - Test

methods - Part 3: Migration of substances from factory-made cementitious products

EN 15167-1, Ground granulated blast furnace slag for use in concrete, mortar and grout - Part 1: Definitions,

specifications and conformity criteria

EN ISO 3696, Water for analytical laboratory use - Specification and test methods (ISO 3696)

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EN ISO 7393-1, Water quality - Determination of free chlorine and total chlorine - Part 1: Titrimetric method

using N, N-diethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (ISO 7393-1)

EN ISO 7393-2, Water quality - Determination of free chlorine and total chlorine - Part 2: Colorimetric method

using N, N-diethyl-1, 4-phenylenediamine, for routine control purposes (ISO 7393-2)

EN ISO 10523, Water quality - Determination of pH (ISO 10523)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
cementitious product

factory made product containing a cementitious material supplied in the hardened state with a formed surface

prior to its incorporation into the construction works
3.2
cementitious material

material that contains a hydraulic cement in sufficient proportion to act as the main binder by forming a

hydrate structure which governs the performance of the material
3.3
associated non-cementitious product

product which is applied to the surface of a cementitious product, directly or indirectly, during manufacture (or

construction) and which either provides a porous seal to the product or which remains as a residue in contact

with water, e.g. porous seal coats, formwork release agents and curing compounds
3.4
porous seal coat

polymeric (usually organic) materials applied in a thin (25 μm to 200 μm) thickness surface layer to a cement

mortar lining in order to restrict (but not prevent) interactions between the mortar and conveyed water

Note 1 to entry: See ISO 16132.
3.5
test

technical operation that consists of the determination of one or more characteristics of a given product

3.6
test procedure
specified technical method for performing a test
3.7
sample

one or more units, or a specified quantity, drawn from a batch or lot, selected at random for inspection, e.g. at

the factory or in a laboratory
3.8
test piece

hardened concrete or mortar sample or portion which is to be conditioned, treated or otherwise prepared to be

tested to obtain a single test result
3.9
preconditioning

succession of contact periods of a test piece with the preconditioning water (3.14) before contact with the test

water
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prEN 14944-4:2015 (E)
3.10
preconditioning water
water used for preconditioning prepared as described in 5.3.1
3.11
test water

water used for testing purposes prepared as described in 5.3.2 and used in accordance with 5.3.3 and 5.3.4

3.12
migration water

test water which has been in contact with a test piece under specified conditions

3.13
blank water

test water which has been kept at the same specified conditions as migration water but without contact with

the test piece
3.14
tap water
drinking water distributed by a public supplier
3.15
demineralized water
water conforming to the requirements in EN ISO 3696 for Grade 3
3.16
Type I addition

nearly inert additions; general suitability as type I addition is established for:

— filler aggregate conforming to EN 12620 or prEN 13055
— pigments conforming to EN 12878
Note 1 to entry: See EN 206.
3.17
Type II addition

pozzolanic or latent hydraulic additions; general suitability as type II additions is established for:

— fly ash conforming to EN 450-1
— silica fume conforming to EN 13263-1
— ground granulated blast-furnace slag conforming to EN 15167-1
Note 1 to entry: See EN 206.
4 Principle

The procedure specifies the method for producing test pieces (normally in the form of cubes or prisms) from

the site applied or site formed material under test. It also specifies the method of producing concrete or mortar

test pieces for assessing individual unapproved constituents of these materials or associated non-

cementitious products/materials.

NOTE 1 The procedure for assessing unapproved constituents is based on the assumption that constituent-specific

limit values will be available for substances released from constituents where tested by a subtractive procedure within a

reference concrete mix that is broadly representative of the intended use.
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Each test piece is subjected to a specified preconditioning procedure where the surface which will be exposed

to water intended for human consumption is brought into contact with preconditioning water during five

sequential periods: three periods of 24 h, 1 period of 72 h and a final period of 24 h.

The preconditioned test piece is then brought into contact with test water, chlorinated and/or chlorine-free

during three sequential migration periods. A migration period is either:

a) 72 h at (23 ± 2) °C for products or materials intended to come into contact with chlorinated or chlorine-

free cold water;

b) 24 h at a specified elevated temperature for products or materials intended to come into contact with

warm or hot chlorine-free water.

Migration rates are calculated after each contact period by determination of the content of specified

substances in the corresponding migration water.

NOTE 2 The test is carried out under conditions that ensure that reliable migration rates are calculated. These

conditions are not meant to simulate any service condition. Relating the results obtained from this European Standard to

the service condition is carried out using a conversion procedure. This procedure will be specified in regulations.

NOTE 3 The selection of:

a) the appropriate test water, chlorinated and/or chlorine-free, from those made available in this European Standard;

b) the temperature of the test water;

is specified in product or system standards or in national or European regulations, as appropriate.

NOTE 4 Referring standards and/or national or European regulations may specify further sequential migration periods.

Reference is made to Annex E for further guidance on the sequence and number of migration periods that can be

specified.
5 Reagents
5.1 General requirements
Only use reagents of analytical quality unless otherwise stated.
5.2 Sodium hypochlorite solution

Prepared from a technical or general purpose reagent grade of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), using test water

(5.3.2) and having a known concentration of about 0,1 % by mass of free chlorine determined in accordance

with either EN ISO 7393-1 or EN ISO 7393-2.

Unless tests have proved otherwise the sodium hypochlorite solution should be considered unstable and be

prepared on the day of use.
5.3 Waters to be used for testing

5.3.1 Preconditioning water prepared by dissolving (222 ± 2) mg anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl ) and

(336 ± 2) mg sodium hydrogen-carbonate (NaHCO ) in one litre of demineralized water (3.15). The pH is

determined in accordance with EN ISO 10523 and adjusted to 7,4 ± 0,1 by bubbling air and/or CO into the

solution.

NOTE The target total hardness is 200 mg/l as CaCO and the target alkalinity is 244 mg/l as HCO .

3 3
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5.3.2 Test water, prepared by dissolving (110 ± 1) mg anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl ), (140 ± 1) mg

sodium hydrogen-carbonate (NaHCO ) and (48 ± 1) mg sodium silicate (Na SiO ·9H O) in one litre of

3 2 3 2

demineralized water (3.15). The pH is determined in accordance with EN ISO 10523 and adjusted to 7,0 ± 0,1

by bubbling air and/or CO into the solution.

NOTE The target total hardness is 100 mg/l as CaCO , the target alkalinity is 122 mg/l as HCO and the silica

3 3
concentration is 10 mg/l as SiO .

5.3.3 Test water without chlorine content (chlorine-free), shall consist of a batch of test water (5.3.2)

used for contact with test pieces and preparation of the blank water (3.17).

5.3.4 Test water with chlorine content (chlorinated), shall consist of test water (5.3.2) with a free

chlorine content of (1,0 ± 0,2) mg/l as Cl , determined in accordance with either EN ISO 7393-1 or

EN ISO 7393-2, after addition of sodium hypochlorite solution (5.2).
5.4 Cleaning liquids for apparatus
Use one of the following cleaning liquids:
— non-perfumed biodegradable detergent;
— hydrochloric acid, 2 mol/l;
— nitric acid, 10 % or 1,5 mol/l.
6 Apparatus
6.1 General

For cleaning the glassware, and appropriate apparatus, before use, the following general requirements apply:

a) Clean the glassware to be used, using detergent (5.4). Rinse the glassware in demineralized water

(3.15).

b) Clean the inner surface of the glassware with hydrochloric acid (5.4) and rinse it with demineralized

water. For stainless steel, clean with nitric acid (5.4) and then rinse with demineralized water (3.15).

c) Before use, rinse the glassware, and appropriate apparatus, at least three times using preconditioning

water before preconditioning (8.2) or test water before the test procedure (Clause 9).

6.2 Apparatus and materials for test piece preparation
6.2.1 Moulds for forming test pieces
6.2.1.1 Moulds for concrete or mortar

Moulds for preparing test pieces of concrete or mortar shall be made from alkali-resistant material that does

not interfere with analyses of migration waters.

A mould used to cast concrete test pieces shall normally give a test specimen with total surface area of

approximately 6,0 dm as appropriate to the tolerance permitted on S/V ratio, see Annex D (informative).

NOTE High density polyethylene (HDPE) containers have been found to be satisfactory for this use.

Where steel moulds conforming to the requirements of EN 12390-1 are used, the joints shall not be coated

with any wax, oil or grease to achieve water tightness.
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A mould used to cast mortar test pieces shall give a test specimen with total surface area of approximately

2,88 dm as appropriate to the tolerance permitted on S/V ratio, see Annex D (informative).

Other mould sizes for casting concrete or mortar may be used provided the permitted tolerance on S/V ratio

can be achieved during testing, see Annex D (informative).

Where a site-applied or site-formed cementitious product is not suitable for casting in a mould, e.g. some

spray applied products, it should be applied and tested according to prEN 14944-3.

6.2.1.2 Cleaning and use of moulds

Clean moulds and any filling frame used with a mould, by thoroughly washing with non-perfumed detergent

(5.4) and tap water (3.14), rinsing with copious amounts of tap water, followed by a final rinse with

demineralized water (3.15) and dry before use.

The use of release agents to coat the internal surfaces of moulds is not permitted by this European Standard.

NOTE Release agents for use with site-applied or site-formed cementitious materials are examples of associated

non-cementitious materials and are tested in accordance with Annex C (normative) of this European Standard.

6.3 Apparatus and materials for preconditioning and migration procedure

6.3.1 Vessels, containers, covers, connectors and stoppers, made of materials which do not affect the

odour, flavour, colour and turbidity assessment under the specified test conditions such as glass,

polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or stainless steel.

The material PTFE should only be used when there is a small contact area with the test water. Thus PTFE is

unsuitable for containers.

6.3.2 Equipment, capable of maintaining the test temperature (Clause 9) within ± 2 °C for the duration of

the test.

6.3.3 Where required, use only sealants that do not affect the determinations under the specified test

conditions (Clause 9).
7 Samples and test pieces
7.1 Sampling, transport and storage of samples

Sample products or materials at the point of release from the factory or production facility in accordance with

the relevant product standard, system standard or the national or European regulations.

Take care that the transport conditions do not influence the test results.

If it is necessary to store samples or test pieces before testing, ensure that they are protected from

contamination taking into account any written instructions that are provided.

Where appropriate, clean storage containers using the same procedures as used for the test containers.

Ensure that the surfaces of the test pieces intended to come into contact with the test water are free from any

contamination, e.g. adhesive tape, labels, ink or pencil marks.
7.2 Preparation of test pieces
In the preparation of a test piece the following general principles apply:
a) ensure that test pieces are representative of the finished product;
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b) ensure that the manufacturer’s recommendations are followed with respect to mixing and

...

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