Liquid petroleum products - Determination of indicated cetane number (ICN) of middle distillate fuels - Primary reference fuels calibration method using a constant volume combustion chamber

This European Standard specifies a test method for the quantitative determination of the indicated cetane number (ICN) of middle distillate fuels and blending components, intended for use in compression ignition engines. The test method utilizes a constant volume combustion chamber with direct fuel injection into heated compressed air. Calibration of the apparatus using blends of primary reference materials over a scale of 0 to 100 enables fuel ignition delays, measured from the resulting pressure increase, to be used to determine and report ICN results.
This European Standard is applicable to middle distillate fuels of both petroleum and non-petroleum origin, hydrocarbon oils, oil-sands based fuels, blending components, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), blends of fuel containing biodiesel material, diesel fuel oils containing cetane number improver additives, low-sulfur diesel fuel oils, aviation turbine fuels and polyoxymethylene dimethyl ether (OME). However, users applying this standard especially to unconventional distillate fuels are warned that the relationship between cetane number and combustion behaviour in real engines is not yet fully understood.
This European Standard covers the calibrated range of 35 ICN to 85 ICN.
NOTE 1   The analyser can measure ICN outside the calibrated range, but precision has not been determined.
NOTE 2   For the purpose of this standard, the expression "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction.
WARNING - The use of this standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

Flüssige Mineralölerzeugnisse - Bestimmung der indizierten Cetanzahl (ICZ) von Kraftstoffen aus Mitteldestillaten - Verfahren mittels Kalibrierung mit primären Bezugskraftstoffen unter Verwendung einer Verbrennungskammer mit konstantem Volumen

Diese Europäische Norm legt ein Prüfverfahren zur quantitativen Bestimmung der indizierten Cetanzahl (ICZ) von Kraftstoffen aus Mitteldestillaten und Blendkomponenten fest, die in Dieselmotoren eingesetzt werden. Das Verfahren verwendet eine Verbrennungskammer mit konstantem Volumen mit direkter Kraft-stoffeinspritzung in erwärmte und komprimierte Luft. Die Kalibrierung der Prüfeinrichtung mit Hilfe von primären Referenzmaterialien in einem Bereich von 0 bis 100 ermöglicht es, Zündverzüge, deren Werte anhand des resultierenden Druckanstiegs gemessen werden, zu verwenden, um ICZ-Ergebnisse zu bestimmen und anzugeben.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt für Mitteldestillatkraftstoffe mineralölstämmiger und nicht mineral-ölstämmiger Herkunft, für Kohlenwasserstoffe, ölsandbasierte Kraftstoffe, Blendkomponenten, Fettsäure-methylester (FAME), Biodiesel enthaltende Kraftstoffmischungen, Dieselkraftstoffe, welche Zündverbesserer enthalten, schwefelarme Dieselkraftstoffe, Flugturbinenkraftstoffe und Polyoxymethylen-Dimethylether (OME). Anwender, die diese Norm in erster Linie auf unkonventionelle Destillatkraftstoffe anwenden, werden jedoch darauf hingewiesen, dass die Beziehung zwischen der Cetanzahl und dem Verbrennungsverhalten in realen Motoren noch nicht völlig geklärt ist.
Diese Europäische Norm deckt den kalibrierten Bereich von 35 ICZ bis 85 ICZ ab.
ANMERKUNG 1   Das Prüfgerät kann die ICZ außerhalb des kalibrierten Bereichs messen, allerdings liegen dafür keine Präzisionsdaten vor.
ANMERKUNG 2   Für die Anwendung der vorliegenden Norm wird für den Volumenanteil einer Substanz der Ausdruck "% (V/V)" verwendet.
WARNUNG - Die Anwendung dieser Norm kann die Anwendung gefährlicher Stoffe, Arbeitsgänge und Geräte mit sich bringen. Diese Norm beansprucht nicht, alle damit verbundenen Sicherheitsprobleme zu behandeln. Es liegt in der Verantwortung des Anwenders dieser Norm, vor ihrer Anwendung geeignete Maßnahmen für die Sicherheit und den Gesundheitsschutz des Personals zu ergreifen, und dafür Sorge zu tragen, dass behördliche und gesetzliche Maßnahmen eingehalten werden.

Produits pétroliers liquides - Détermination de l'indice de cétane indiqué (ICI) des distillats moyens - Méthode d’étalonnage avec carburants de référence primaires et chambre de combustion à volume constant

La présente Norme européenne prescrit une méthode d'essai pour la détermination quantitative de l’indice de cétane indiqué (ICI) des distillats moyens et des composants de mélange destinés à être utilisés dans les moteurs à allumage par compression. La méthode d’essai utilise une chambre de combustion à volume constant avec injection directe de carburant dans de l'air comprimé et chauffé. L’étalonnage de l’appareillage à l’aide de mélanges de matériaux de référence primaires sur une échelle de 0 à 100 permet d’obtenir des résultats d’ICI à partir des délais d'inflammation du carburant, mesurés à la suite de l’augmentation de pression ainsi observée.
La présente Norme européenne s’applique aux distillats moyens d’origine pétrolière et non pétrolière, aux hydrocarbures liquides, aux carburants provenant de sables asphaltiques, aux composants de mélange, aux esters méthyliques d’acides gras (EMAG), aux mélanges de carburants contenant du biodiesel, aux carburants diesel contenant des additifs procétanes, aux carburants diesel ayant une basse teneur en soufre, aux carburéacteurs et à l'éther diméthylique de polyoxyméthylène (OME). Cependant, l'attention des utilisateurs de la présente norme, en particulier lorsqu’elle est appliquée aux distillats combustibles non conventionnels, est attirée sur le fait que la relation entre l'indice de cétane et les phénomènes de combustion dans les moteurs n’est pas encore parfaitement comprise.
La présente Norme européenne couvre la plage étalonnée de 35 ICI à 85 ICI.
NOTE 1   L’analyseur peut mesurer l’ICI en dehors de la plage étalonnée, mais la fidélité n’a pas été déterminée.
NOTE 2   Pour les besoins de la présente norme, l’expression « %(V/V) » représente la fraction volumique.
AVERTISSEMENT — L'utilisation de la présente Norme peut impliquer la mise en œuvre de produits, d'opérations et d'équipements à caractère dangereux. La présente norme n’est pas censée aborder tous les problèmes de sécurité concernés par son usage. Il incombe aux utilisateurs de la présente norme de prendre les mesures appropriées pour assurer la sécurité et préserver la santé du personnel avant l’application de la norme, et satisfaire aux exigences légales et réglementaires applicables à cet effet.

Tekoči naftni proizvodi - Določevanje označenega cetanskega števila (ICN) srednjih destilacijskih goriv - Osnovna referenčna metoda kalibracije goriv z uporabo komore s konstantno prostornino

Ta standard določa metodo za kvantitativno ugotavljanje G-CN srednjih destilacijskih goriv in komponent za mešanje, namenjenih za uporabo v motorjih s kompresijskim vžigom. Metoda se uporablja tudi za srednja destilacijska goriva naftnega in nenaftnega izvora, olja na osnovi ogljikovodikov, goriva na osnovi oljnega peska, komponente za mešanje, metilne estre maščobnih kislin (FAME), mešanice goriv z biodizlom, dizelska kurilna olja z aditivi za izboljšanje cetanskega števila in dizelska kurilna olja z nizko vsebnostjo žvepla v območju umerjanja 35–85 G-CN

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Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Jul-2018
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
18-Jul-2018
Completion Date
18-Jul-2018

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Flüssige Mineralölerzeugnisse - Bestimmung der generischen Cetanzahl (GCZ) von Kraftstoffen aus Mitteldestillaten - Verfahren zur Kalibrierung mit primären Bezugskraftstoffen unter Verwendung einer Verbrennungskammer mit konstantem VolumenProduits pétroliers liquides - Détermination de l'indice de cétane indicative (ICI) des distillats moyens - Méthode du calibration par combustibles du reference primaire et combustion dans une chambre à volume constantLiquid petroleum products - Determination of indicated cetane number (ICN) of middle distillate fuels - Primary reference fuels calibration method using a constant volume combustion chamber75.160.20Liquid fuelsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 17155:2018SIST EN 17155:2018en,fr,de01-oktober-2018SIST EN 17155:2018SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 17155:2018
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 17155
July
t r s z ICS
y wä s x rä t r English Version

Liquid petroleum products æ Determination of indicated reference fuels calibration method using a constant volume combustion chamber Produits pétroliers liquides æ Détermination de l 5indice d 5étalonnage avec carburants de référence primaires et chambre de combustion à volume constant

Flüssige Mineralölerzeugnisse æ Bestimmung der Mitteldestillaten æ Verfahren mittels Kalibrierung mit primären Bezugskraftstoffen unter Verwendung einer Verbrennungskammer mit konstantem Volumen This European Standard was approved by CEN on

t r April
t r s zä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Serbiaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23,
B-1040 Brussels

t r s z CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s y s w wã t r s z ESIST EN 17155:2018

EN 17155:2018 (E) 2 Contents Page European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6 3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6 4 Principle ............................................................................................................................................................. 8 5 Reagents and materials ................................................................................................................................. 8 6 Apparatus ........................................................................................................................................................ 10 7 Sampling .......................................................................................................................................................... 11 8 Sample handling and preparation ......................................................................................................... 11 9 Apparatus installation ................................................................................................................................ 11 10 Preparation of apparatus .......................................................................................................................... 11 10.1 System start-up and warm-up ................................................................................................................. 11 10.2 Standard operating and test conditions .............................................................................................. 12 11 Calibration, verification and quality control...................................................................................... 12 11.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 12 11.2 PRF Calibration ............................................................................................................................................. 12 11.3 Apparatus verification ............................................................................................................................... 13 11.4 Quality control (QC) .................................................................................................................................... 13 12 Test procedure .............................................................................................................................................. 14 13 Calculation ...................................................................................................................................................... 14 14 Expression of results ................................................................................................................................... 14 15 Precision .......................................................................................................................................................... 15 15.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 15 15.2 Repeatability .................................................................................................................................................. 16 15.3 Reproducibility ............................................................................................................................................. 16 16 Test report ...................................................................................................................................................... 16 Annex A (normative)

Combustion analyser with auto-sampler description ....................................... 17 A.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17 A.2 Apparatus description ................................................................................................................................ 17 A.2.1 Combustion chamber .................................................................................................................................. 17 A.2.2 Fuel injection system .................................................................................................................................. 17 A.2.3 Waste container ............................................................................................................................................ 18 A.2.4 Coolant system .............................................................................................................................................. 19 A.2.5 Combustion Charge Air and exhaust system ...................................................................................... 19 A.2.6 Automatic carousel ...................................................................................................................................... 20 SIST EN 17155:2018

EN 17155:2018 (E) 3 A.3 Control and data acquisition .................................................................................................................... 20 Annex B (normative)

Operation details in support of the standard test procedure ......................... 21 B.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 21 B.2 Test sequence after the combustion chamber is at a stable temperature ............................... 21 B.3 Unit shutdown ................................................................................................................................................ 22 Annex C (informative)

Preparation of calibration and verification fluids ............................................ 23 C.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 23 C.2 Checks ............................................................................................................................................................... 23 C.3 Blending ........................................................................................................................................................... 23 C.4 Recording......................................................................................................................................................... 24 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 25

SIST EN 17155:2018

EN 17155:2018 (E) 4 European foreword This document (EN 17155:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 19 “Gaseous and liquid fuels, lubricants and related products of petroleum, synthetic and biological origin”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2019, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by January 2019. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 17155:2018

EN 17155:2018 (E) 5 Introduction This document is derived from standardization work within the Energy Institute (IP 617) and ASTM International. A similar technically equivalent test method is under development by ASTM International. The described method is an alternative quantitative determination of the cetane number of middle distillate fuels intended for use in compression ignition engines. A correlation study between this method and EN ISO 5165 [1] is fully reported in Research Report IP 617 ILS [2]. This method is based on calibration by blends of primary reference fuels on a scale of 0 (1-Methylnaphthalene) and 100 (n-hexadecane) with the units of measurement being designated Indicated Cetane Number (ICN). The on-going performance of this test method will be monitored and evaluated through the existing European and American fuel exchange programmes. The ICN value determined by this test method can provide a measure of the ignition characteristics of middle distillate fuels used in compression ignition engines. This test is for use by engine manufacturers, petroleum refiners and marketers, and in commerce as a specification aid to relate or match fuels and engines. This test is also applicable to non-conventional middle distillate fuels. For the purpose of this standard, the abbreviation ICN (Indicated Cetane Number) is being used to discriminate it from other techniques. For the moment the basics of one type of apparatus are described. Once more correlation data on different types of indicated cetane number testing equipment is available, CEN/TC 19 will consider revising this European Standard. SIST EN 17155:2018

EN 17155:2018 (E) 6 1 Scope This European Standard specifies a test method for the quantitative determination of the indicated cetane number (ICN) of middle distillate fuels and blending components, intended for use in compression ignition engines. The test method utilizes a constant volume combustion chamber with direct fuel injection into heated compressed air. Calibration of the apparatus using blends of primary reference materials over a scale of 0 to 100 enables fuel ignition delays, measured from the resulting pressure increase, to be used to determine and report ICN results. This European Standard is applicable to middle distillate fuels of both petroleum and non-petroleum origin, hydrocarbon oils, oil-sands based fuels, blending components, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), blends of fuel containing biodiesel material, diesel fuel oils containing cetane number improver additives, low-sulfur diesel fuel oils, aviation turbine fuels and polyoxymethylene dimethyl ether (OME). However, users applying this standard especially to unconventional distillate fuels are warned that the relationship between cetane number and combustion behaviour in real engines is not yet fully understood. This European Standard covers the calibrated range of 35 ICN to 85 ICN. NOTE 1 The analyser can measure ICN outside the calibrated range, but precision has not been determined. NOTE 2 For the purpose of this standard, the expression “% (V/V)” is used to represent the volume fraction. WARNING — The use of this standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN ISO 3170, Petroleum liquids — Manual sampling (ISO 3170) EN ISO 3171, Petroleum liquids — Automatic pipeline sampling (ISO 3171) EN ISO 3696, Water for analytical laboratory use — Specification and test methods (ISO 3696) ISO 1998-2, Petroleum industry — Terminology — Part 2: Properties and tests ASTM D3703, Hydroperoxide Number of Aviation Turbine Fuels, Gasoline and Diesel Fuels 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 1998-2 and the following apply. 3.1 cetane number CN measure of the ignition performance of a diesel fuel oil obtained by comparing it to reference fuels in a standardized engine test SIST EN 17155:2018

EN 17155:2018 (E) 7 Note 1 to entry: Ignition performance is understood to mean the ignition delay of the fuel as determined when the standard test engine is operated under controlled conditions of fuel flow rate, injection timing and compression ratio. 3.2 ignition delay ID period of time, in milliseconds (ms), between the start of fuel injection and the start of combustion Note 1 to entry: In the context of this test method it is the mean of ID0 and ID150. 3.2.1 Ignition delay – 0 kPa pressure recovery ID0 period of time, in milliseconds (ms), between the start of fuel injection and the point where the relative pressure recovers to 0 kPa Note 1 to entry: See Figure B.1 for visual explanation. 3.2.2 ignition delay – 150 kPa threshold ID150 period of time, in milliseconds (ms), between the start of fuel injection and the point where the relative pressure reaches 150 kPa Note 1 to entry: See Figure B.1 for visual explanation. Note 2 to entry: In the context of this test method, the start of fuel injection is interpreted as the start of the electronic signal that opens the piezoelectric injector; timings for the ID0 and ID150 ignition delays commence at this start point. 3.3 indicated cetane number ICN measure of the ignition performance of a middle distillate fuel obtained by comparing it to primary reference fuels that have been blended to a scale; where 0 and 100 are represented by 1-methylnaphthalylene and n-hexadecane respectively to create a calibration curve Note 1 to entry: It is in principle a number indicated from a calibration curve that has been generated on the analyser under test using primary reference fuel blend calibration points. The calibration curve, ICN = function of ignition delay (ID); details and examples of the equation are given in the research report. 3.4 quality control sample QC sample stable and homogenous material(s) similar in nature to the materials under test, stored to ensure integrity, and available in sufficient quantity for repeated long term testing 3.5 primary reference fuels PRF n-hexadecane (n-cetane) and 1-methylnaphthalene(1-MN) Note 1 to entry: Volumetrically proportioned blends, at 20 °C, of these materials define the indicated cetane number by the relationship shown in Formula (1): SIST EN 17155:2018

EN 17155:2018 (E) 8 indicated cetane number (ICN) = percentage n-hexadecane (V/V) (1) 3.6 calibration and verification fluids blends of n-hexadecane and 1-methylnaphthalene Note 1 to entry: These define the indicated cetane number in specific volume ratios according to the relationship shown in Formula (1). 4 Principle The indicated cetane number (ICN) of a diesel fuel is determined by comparing its ignition performance with blends of primary reference fuels of known ICN under standard operating conditions. A test portion of the material under test is automatically drawn from a sample vial located in the auto-sampler carousel, heated during pressurization, and then, at the start of a combustion cycle, a sub-portion is injected into a temperature and pressure controlled, constant volume combustion chamber, which has previously been charged with compressed air of a specified quality. Each injection, and its resulting combustion, causes a rapid pressure rise in the combustion chamber that is detected by the dynamic pressure sensor. The test sequence, using the test portion, comprises a cleaning stage and combustion cycles to obtain ignition delay (ID) values. The ICN result is determined using the mean of the combustion cycles’ IDs and the primary reference fuel (PRF) blends calibration curve. Each analyser is calibrated with seven fluids created from blends of PRFs, with known ICN calculated from Formula (1); this links test results to those obtained using EN ISO 5165 [1]. Test results outside the calibration range are determined by extrapolation using the calibration curve but are subject to increased uncertainty. 5 Reagents and materials 5.1 Primary reference fuels (PRF) and blended fluids CAUTION — When blending PRFs take appropriate safety precautions in keeping with the relevant safety data sheets, such as using a fume hood. 5.1.1 n-hexadecane, minimum purity of 99,0 % (V/V), the designated 100 ICN component, required for blending the calibration and verification fluids. 5.1.1.1 Store n-hexadecane in a dark cool place to avoid possible UV light and temperature effects. n-hexadecane solidifies at temperatures below approximately 18 °C and can require gentle warming before use. 5.1.1.2 The hydroperoxide level, measured immediately before blending, shall be

1,0 mg/kg measured using ASTM D3703 or an equivalent national standard. C.2.1 and the instrument manufacturer’s instructions give advice on the use of a molecular sieve if the hydroperoxide level is too high. Alternatively a new batch of the material may be obtained and tested for hydroperoxide level. 5.1.2 1-methylnaphthalene, minimum purity of 97,0 % (V/V), the designated 0 ICN component, required for blending the calibration and verification fluids. 5.1.2.1 Store 1-methylnaphthalene in a dark cool place to avoid possible UV light and temperature effects. SIST EN 17155:2018

EN 17155:2018 (E) 9 5.1.2.2 The hydroperoxide level, measured immediately before blending, shall be

1,0 mg/kg measured using ASTM D3703 or an equivalent national standard. C.2.1 and the instrument manufacturer’s instructions give advice on the use of a molecular sieve if the hydroperoxide level is too high. Alternatively a new batch of the material may be obtained and tested for hydroperoxide level. 5.1.3 Calibration fluids, 7 volumetric blends of n-hexadecane and 1-methylnaphthalene in accordance with Formula (1) and Table 1 with values within 0,5 ICN of the required values to an accuracy of ± 0,01 ICN. 5.1.3.1 Calibration fluids shall be stored in sealed containers (6.7.1) of 40 ml to 100 ml in volume under an inert gas (5.7), in a dark cool place to avoid possible effects of UV light. 40 ml is required for the test. Table 1 — ICN of calibration fluids ICN 35,00 40,00 46,00 53,00 60,00 70,00 85,00 5.1.3.2 Calibration fluids are available commercially or may be made up locally. Annex C outlines a recommended procedure. 5.1.3.3 The ICN number of the blend is calculated using Formula (1). The precise ICN of the blend shall be determined by mass measurements and density to provide volumetric equivalence. The volumes of PRFs used shall be accurately dispensed and recorded so that the validity of the ICN determination can be checked. See Annex C. 5.1.4 Verification fluid, a volumetric blend of n-hexadecane and 1-methylnaphthalene in accordance with Formula (1) with a known ICN to an accuracy of ± 0,01 ICN. The ICN shall be different to those shown in Table 1, by at least 1 ICN, and be made from different batches of PRFs. 5.1.4.1 Verification fluids shall be stored in sealed containers of 40 ml to 100 ml in volume under an inert gas (5.7), in a dark cool place to avoid possible effects of UV light. 40 ml is required for the test. 5.1.4.2 Verification fluids are available commercially or may be made up locally. See Annex C for additional information. 5.1.4.3 The ICN number of the blend shall be determined by mass measurements and density to provide volumetric equivalence. The volumes of PRFs used shall be accurately dispensed and recorded so that the validity of the ICN determination can be checked. See Annex C for additional information. 5.2 Quality control (QC) sample, stable and homogenous distillate fuel, similar in nature to the materials under test. For sampling and handling see Clause 8. 5.3 Combustion charge air, compressed air containing (20,9 ± 0,5) % (V/V) oxygen with the balance nitrogen, less than 0,003 % (V/V) hydrocarbons, and less than 0,025 % (V/V) water and capable of delivering a regulated pressure of 2,5 MPa to 3,0 MPa. 5.3.1 Air compressed locally can meet the above requirements. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions regarding filtration and cleanliness of the air. NOTE The oxygen content of combustion charge air can vary between batches (cylinders). Significant variation can lead to changes in ignition delay (higher oxygen content leads to shorter ignition delays). Combustion charge air produced locally by a compressor can minimize variations. 5.4 Cleaning fluid, 1-decanol, minimum purity 99,0 %, filtered through a 0,45 micrometre, or less, PTFE media filter. SIST EN 17155:2018

EN 17155:2018 (E) 10 5.5 Water, unless otherwise specified, meeting the requirements of grade 3 of EN ISO 3696 or a similar national or international standard. 5.6 Coolant system fluid, 30:70 volumetric mixture of commercial grade ethylene radiator antifreeze (glycol-type, aluminium compatible, with algae inhibitor), with water (5.5) respectively. 5.7 Inert gas, argon or nitrogen, (optional), for use as a blanket over calibration and verification fluids, and samples. 5.8 Activated 4Å molecular sieves, (optional) for reducing the amount of hydroperoxides in the PRFs. 6 Apparatus 6.1 Combustion analyser with auto-sampler The apparatus as shown in Figure A.1 and outlined in 6.1.1, 6.1.2, 6.1.3 and 6.1.4, is described in more detail in Annex A. For the installation and set-up procedures, and for a detailed system description, refer to the manufacturer’s instructions. 6.1.1 Electronics, comprising power supplies (including an integral uninterruptable power supply) for the programmable logic controllers, data acquisition units and associated interfaces. 6.1.2 Combustion chamber assembly, comprising the heated constant volume combustion chamber, cooled dynamic pressure sensor as well as regulating and shut-off valves, and temperature and pressure sensors. 6.1.2.1 Combustion chamber, a stainless steel combustion chamber. 6.1.3 Common rail injection, comprising a cooled piezoelectric injector, high pressure piston pump, heated piping, and temperature and pressure sensors. 6.1.4 Auto sampler/carousel, providing space for up to 36 sample vials and cleaning fluid. 6.2 Sample vials, 40 ml (nominal) headspace vials with screw caps and silicone/PTFE or natural rubber/PTFE septa, approximately 1,3 mm thick, Shore [3] A hardness of approximately 45. The PTFE side of the septum shall be on the inside of the vial. 6.2.1 The vials shall be amber or dark brown to help avoid effects of UV light. See 8.1 and its notes. 6.3 Syringe filter, disposable, 25 mm to 28 mm diameter with a nominal pore size of 0,45 micrometres or less, PTFE filter media, to be attached onto a syringe (6.4). 6.4 Syringe, disposable,

20 ml plastic, suitable for use with a syringe filter (6.3). 6.5 Recirculating cooler capable of recirculating coolant to the injector assembly and the dynamic pressure sensor and maintaining a bath temperature of 65 °C ± 5 °C. 6.6 Computer, for inputting and outputting data, printing functions and interfacing with the analyser and networks. 6.7 Apparatus for in-house PRF blending (optional). 6.7.1 Amber glass bottles, with suitable closures, capacity as required (40 to 100 ml), for storing in-house blended PRFs. SIST EN 17155:2018

EN 17155:2018 (E) 11 6.7.2 Fluid dispenser or electronic pipette metering device, for volume blending, accuracy < 0,2 %. 6.7.3 Analytical balance, capable of weighing to the nearest 0,1 mg. 7 Sampling Unless otherwise specified, obtain samples in accordance with the procedures given in EN ISO 3170 or EN ISO 3171 and/or in accordance with the requirements of national regulations for the sampling of the product under test. 8 Sample handling and preparation 8.1 To minimize exposure to UV emissions that can induce chemical reactions, which can affect ignition delay measurements, collect and store samples in containers that are constructed of materials that minimize light reaching the sample, such as a dark brown bottle or epoxy lined metal containers. If samples are collected in containers that do not minimize light reaching the sample they shall be wrapped or boxed in light-proof containers immediately after filling. If the sample is not to be analysed within 24 h, retain in a dark, cool environment, and preferably under an inert gas. NOTE 1 Exposure of petroleum fuels to UV wavelengths for even a short period of time has been shown to affect ignition delay [4]. NOTE 2 The formation of peroxides and free radicals, which affect the ignition delay, is minimized when the sample is stored in the dark, under an inert gas blanket, such as nitrogen or argon, in a cool environment. 8.2 Bring the sample and its container to a temperature of approximately 18 °C to 32 °C before opening the container. 8.3 Inspect the sample for wax precipitation. If precipitates are present, bring the test sample to a temperature of at least 14 °C above the expected cloud point of the material being tested, taking care not to lose any lower boiling range components. Gently agitate the sample to return precipitates back into the solution, ensuring the sample is homogeneous before filtering. 8.4 Filter at least 40 ml of sample through the syringe filter (6.3) using the syringe (6.4) at ambient temperature, without vacuum, into a new sample vial (6.2) and immediately fit a new screw cap and septum (PTFE side inside the vial). 9 Apparatus installation Follow the manufacturer’s instructions regarding apparatus assembly and installation. Annex A gives more details of the apparatus. 10 Preparation of apparatus 10.1 System start-up and warm-up 10.1.1 Open the valve at the source of the combustion charge air supply and adjust the pressure regulator as needed to provide the required 2,5 MPa to 3,0 MPa pressure (see 5.3). 10.1.2 Follow the manufacturer’s instructions to switch on power to the analyser. This activates the electronic components in the analyser and the uninterruptable

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