Solid biofuels - Safe handling and storage of solid biofuel pellets in commercial and industrial applications (ISO 20024:2020)

This document provides principles and requirements for safe handling and storage of solid biofuels pellets in commercial and industrial applications. This document is using a risk-based approach to determine what safety measures should be considered.
Facilities with a storage capacity <100 t are covered by ISO 20023. Generally, for end-user facilities with a storage capacity of <1 000 t, ISO 20023 could also be applicable if storage principle and facility complexity is in-line with the objectives of ISO 20023.
This document covers the handling and storage process of pellets in the following applications:
—     at a pellet production plant from the outlet of the cooler unit until loaded for transportation;
—     at a commercial distributor from the receiving station until loaded for transportation; and
—     at an industrial end-user from the receiving station until fed into the fuel preparation or combustion process.
Although unloading and loading of e.g. vessels, trains or trucks are included in the operational envelops defined above, the safety aspect of the transportation itself is beyond the scope of this document.
This document also gives specific guidance on detection and suppression systems and preparatory measures to enable safe and efficient firefighting operations. Guidance on the management of fire and explosion incidents is also specified.

Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Sicherer Umgang und Lagerung von Pellets aus biogenen Festbrennstoffen in gewerblichen und industriellen Anwendungen (ISO 20024:2020)

Dieses Dokument enthält die Grundsätze für und Anforderungen an den sicheren Umgang mit und die sichere Lagerung von Pellets aus biogenen Festbrennstoffen in gewerblichen und industriellen Anwendungen. In diesem Dokument wird ein risikobasierter Ansatz angewendet um zu bestimmen, welche Sicherheitsmaßnahmen in Betracht gezogen werden sollten.
Anlagen mit einer Lagerkapazität von < 100 t fallen in den Anwendungsbereich von ISO 20023. Im Allgemeinen könnte ISO 20023 auch für Anlagen beim Endverbraucher mit einer Lagerkapazität von < 1 000 t anzuwenden sein, wenn das Lagerprinzip und die Komplexität der Anlage mit den Zielen von ISO 20023 übereinstimmen.
Dieses Dokument umfasst den Prozess der Förderung und Lagerung von Pellets in den folgenden Anwendungen:
- in einer Anlage zur Pelletherstellung vom Abgang unter der Kühlereinheit bis zum Beladen für den Transport;
- bei einem gewerblichen Anlagenbetreiber (Vertreiber) von der Annahmestelle bis zum Beladen für den Transport und
- bei einem industriellen Endverbraucher von der Annahmestelle bis zum Einbringen in den Prozess der Brennstoffvorbereitung oder Verbrennung.
Auch wenn das Ent  und Beladen von z. B. Behältern/Schiffen (en: vessels), Zügen oder Lastkraftwagen in den vorstehend definierten Betriebsbereichen enthalten ist, fällt der Sicherheitsaspekt des Transports selbst nicht in den Anwendungsbereich dieses Dokuments.
Das vorliegende Dokument enthält außerdem eine spezifische Anleitung zu Erkennungs  und Unterdrückungssystemen sowie vorbereitenden Maßnahmen, um sichere und wirksame Brandbekämpfungsmaßnahmen zu ermöglichen. Eine Anleitung zum Management von Brand  und Explosionsvorfällen ist ebenfalls festgelegt.

Biocombustibles solides - Manipulation et stockage en toute sécurité des granulés de biocombustibles solides dans des applications commerciales et industrielles (ISO 20024:2020)

Le présent document fournit les principes et exigences pour la manutention et le stockage en toute sécurité des granulés de biocombustibles solides dans des applications commerciales et industrielles. Le présent document utilise une approche basée sur les risques pour déterminer quelles mesures de sécurité il convient de prendre en compte.
Les installations ayant une capacité de stockage <100 t sont couvertes par l'ISO 20023. De manière générale, pour les installations chez les utilisateurs finaux ayant une capacité de stockage <1 000 t, l'ISO 20023 peut également être applicable si les principes de stockage et la complexité de l'installation sont conformes aux objectifs de l'ISO 20023.
Le présent document couvre le processus de manutention et de stockage des granulés dans les applications suivantes:
—          dans une usine de production de granulés, à partir de la sortie du refroidisseur jusqu'à leur chargement pour le transport;
—          chez un distributeur commercial, du poste de réception jusqu'au chargement pour le transport; et
—          chez un utilisateur final industriel, du poste de réception jusqu'à l'ajout dans le processus de préparation du combustible ou de combustion.
Bien que le déchargement et le chargement des navires, des trains ou des camions (par exemple) soient inclus dans les cadres opérationnels définis ci-dessus, les aspects liés à la sécurité du transport en lui-même ne relèvent pas du domaine d'application du présent document.
Le présent document fournit également des recommandations spécifiques au sujet des systèmes de détection et d'extinction et des mesures préparatoires afin de permettre des opérations de lutte contre l'incendie sûres et efficaces. Des recommandations relatives à la gestion des incendies et des explosions sont également spécifiées.

Trdna biogoriva - Varno skladiščenje in ravnanje s peleti trdnega biogoriva za komercialno in industrijsko uporabo (ISO 20024:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
10-Mar-2020
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
11-Mar-2020
Completion Date
11-Mar-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 20024:2020
01-maj-2020
Trdna biogoriva - Varno skladiščenje in ravnanje s peleti trdnega biogoriva za
komercialno in industrijsko uporabo (ISO 20024:2020)

Solid biofuels - Safe handling and storage of solid biofuel pellets in commercial and

industrial applications (ISO 20024:2020)
Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Sicherer Umgang und Lagerung von Pellets aus biogenen
Festbrennstoffen in kommerziellen und industriellen Anwendungen (ISO 20024:2020)

Biocombustibles solides - Manipulation et stockage en toute sécurité des granulés de

biocombustibles solides dans des applications commerciales et industrielles (ISO
20024:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 20024:2020
ICS:
75.160.40 Biogoriva Biofuels
75.200 Oprema za skladiščenje Petroleum products and
nafte, naftnih proizvodov in natural gas handling
zemeljskega plina equipment
SIST EN ISO 20024:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 20024:2020
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SIST EN ISO 20024:2020
EN ISO 20024
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
March 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 27.190; 75.160.40
English Version
Solid biofuels - Safe handling and storage of solid biofuel
pellets in commercial and industrial applications (ISO
20024:2020)

Biocombustibles solides - Manipulation et stockage en Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Sicherer Umgang und

toute sécurité des granulés de biocombustibles solides Lagerung von Pellets aus biogenen Festbrennstoffen in

dans des applications commerciales et industrielles kommerziellen und industriellen Anwendungen (ISO

(ISO 20024:2020) 20024:2020)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 9 February 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 20024:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 20024:2020
EN ISO 20024:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 20024:2020
EN ISO 20024:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 20024:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238 "Solid

biofuels" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 335 “Solid biofuels” the secretariat of

which is held by SIS.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2020, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 20024:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 20024:2020 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 20024:2020
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SIST EN ISO 20024:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20024
First edition
2020-02
Solid biofuels — Safe handling
and storage of solid biofuel pellets
in commercial and industrial
applications
Biocombustibles solides — Manutention et stockage en toute sécurité
des granulés de biocombustibles solides dans des applications
commerciales et industrielles
Reference number
ISO 20024:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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SIST EN ISO 20024:2020
ISO 20024:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20024:2020
ISO 20024:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General terms ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Risk management ................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

3.3 Storage, handling and operation .............................................................................................................................................. 6

3.4 Extinguishing media, extinguishing systems and detection ............................................................................ 9

4 Guidance on how to use this document ........................................................................................................................................ 9

5 Risk management .............................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.2 Introduction to the risk management process .........................................................................................................12

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.2.2 Definition of scope ...................................................................... .................................................................................12

5.2.3 Hazard identification.................................................................................................................................................12

5.2.4 Risk estimation ...............................................................................................................................................................12

5.2.5 Risk evaluation ...............................................................................................................................................................13

5.2.6 Risk reduction/control ............................................................................................................................................13

6 Requirements for design and construction ...........................................................................................................................14

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.2 Specific risk considerations for handling of solid biofuel pellets .............................................................15

6.3 Risk areas ..................................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.4 General requirements and recommendations for safe handling ..............................................................17

7 Requirements for safe operation and maintenance .....................................................................................................18

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.2 General requirement for operation, maintenance and manuals ...............................................................18

7.3 Documentation of operation procedures ......................................................................................................................19

7.4 Safety during operation ................................................................................................................................................................20

7.4.1 Operation .............................................................................................................................................................................20

7.4.2 Housekeeping ..................................................................................................................................................................20

7.4.3 Maintenance .....................................................................................................................................................................21

7.4.4 Guidelines for visitors/contractors ..............................................................................................................22

7.5 Pre-planning of emergency operations ..........................................................................................................................23

7.6 Personnel risks.....................................................................................................................................................................................24

8 Conveyor system and transfer points ...........................................................................................................................................24

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................24

8.2 Detection ...................................................................................................................................................................................................24

8.3 Preparatory measures ...................................................................................................................................................................25

8.3.1 Fire protection ................................................................................................................................................................25

8.3.2 Explosion protection .................................................................................................................................................26

8.4 Additional information, recommendation and requirements on design and

protection of conveyor systems .............................................................................................................................................27

8.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................27

8.4.2 Detection systems ........................................................................................................................................................27

8.4.3 Fire protection ................................................................................................................................................................27

8.4.4 Explosion protection .................................................................................................................................................28

9 Silos .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................28

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................28

9.2 Detection and temperature and gas monitoring .....................................................................................................29

9.3 Preparatory measures ...................................................................................................................................................................29

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 20024:2020
ISO 20024:2020(E)

9.3.1 Fire protection ................................................................................................................................................................29

9.3.2 Explosion protection .................................................................................................................................................30

9.4 Additional information, recommendation and requirements on design and

protection of silos ..............................................................................................................................................................................31

9.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................31

9.4.2 Detection systems ........................................................................................................................................................31

9.4.3 Fire protection systems...........................................................................................................................................31

9.4.4 Explosion protection .................................................................................................................................................35

10 Large scale bunkers ........................................................................................................................................................................................35

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................35

10.2 Detection and temperature and gas monitoring in bunkers ........................................................................36

10.3 Preparatory measures ...................................................................................................................................................................37

10.3.1 Fire protection ................................................................................................................................................................37

10.3.2 Explosion protection .................................................................................................................................................37

10.4 Additional information, recommendation and requirements on design and

protection of bunkers .....................................................................................................................................................................38

10.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................38

10.4.2 Detection systems ........................................................................................................................................................38

10.4.3 Fire protection systems...........................................................................................................................................38

10.4.4 Explosion protection .................................................................................................................................................40

11 Warehouse ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................41

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................41

11.2 Detection ...................................................................................................................................................................................................41

11.3 Preparatory measures ...................................................................................................................................................................42

11.3.1 Fire protection ................................................................................................................................................................42

11.3.2 Explosion protection .................................................................................................................................................42

11.4 Additional information, recommendation and requirements on design and

protection of warehouse ..............................................................................................................................................................43

11.4.1 Detection systems ........................................................................................................................................................43

11.4.2 Fire protection ................................................................................................................................................................43

11.4.3 Explosion protection .................................................................................................................................................44

Annex A (informative) Description of solid biofuel pellets supply chain and general safety

guidelines for unit operations .............................................................................................................................................................45

Annex B (informative) Self-heating and off-gassing ..........................................................................................................................60

Annex C (informative) Dust as a fire and explosion hazard and mitigation of risks........................................66

Annex D (informative) Safety aspects and guidance on handling various emergency situations .....82

Annex E (informative) Ventilation for cooling of bulk material ............................................................................................97

Annex F (informative) Principle design of inert gas distribution system and inlet openings ...............98

Annex G (informative) Examples of arrangement of various sensors and detection systems

relevant to the biofuel pellet industry ....................................................................................................................................101

Annex H (informative) Example for the risk assessment in a commercial medium size wood

pellet store ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................107

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................120

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20024:2020
ISO 20024:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238, Solid biofuels.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 20024:2020
ISO 20024:2020(E)
Introduction

There is a continuous global growth in production, storage, handling, bulk transport and use of solid

biofuels especially in the form of pelletized biofuels.

The handling and storage of solid biofuels and their physical characteristics can lead to a risk for fire

and/or explosion, but also health risks, for example intoxication due to exposure to carbon monoxide

(CO), asphyxiation due to oxygen depletion, and allergic reactions.

There is a risk of injury or fatality associated with pellet storage so the implementation of safety

measures is important. The possibility of fire and explosion incidents is a clear indicator that safety

is to be prioritized, first of all for human safety but also because interruptions in energy supply will

have significant consequences. The market confidence in solid biofuels as a reliable energy source will

be jeopardized, and financial losses due to business interruptions could occur. Difficulty to obtain

insurance coverage will also increase.

This document provides support, advice and guidance to facility owners, logistics providers, equipment

suppliers/manufacturers, consultants, authorities and insurance providers to assess and mitigate risk

when handling and storing solid biofuel pellets. General guidance is provided for personnel safety

protection and personal precautions in accordance with generally accepted work safety requirements.

As part of the determination and assessment of risks for solid biofuels, applicable quality standards and

related test methods are discussed and recommendations for additional methodologies are indicated.

As made of living materials, solid biofuels are subject to degradation such as ageing and moisture

contamination causing variability in reactivity which requires margins in risks assessments. One

shipment of solid biofuels may have substantially different physical and chemical characteristics in

terms of self-heating and off-gassing than another, and therefore diligent monitoring, frequent testing

and house-keeping are recommended.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20024:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20024:2020(E)
Solid biofuels — Safe handling and storage of solid biofuel
pellets in commercial and industrial applications
1 Scope

This document provides principles and requirements for safe handling and storage of solid biofuels

pellets in commercial and industrial applications. This document is using a risk-based approach to

determine what safety measures should be considered.

Facilities with a storage capacity <100 t are covered by ISO 20023. Generally, for end-user facilities

with a storage capacity of <1 000 t, ISO 20023 could also be applicable if storage principle and facility

complexity is in-line with the objectives of ISO 20023.

This document covers the handling and storage process of pellets in the following applications:

— at a pellet production plant from the outlet of the cooler unit until loaded for transportation;

— at a commercial distributor from the receiving station until loaded for transportation; and

— at an industrial end-user from the receiving station until fed into the fuel preparation or combustion

process.

Although unloading and loading of e.g. vessels, trains or trucks are included in the operational envelops

defined above, the safety aspect of the transportation itself is beyond the scope of this document.

This document also gives specific guidance on detection and suppression systems and preparatory

measures to enable safe and efficient firefighting operations. Guidance on the management of fire and

explosion incidents is also specified.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 12100, Safety of machinery — General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk reduction

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in
...

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