Eurocode 3 - Design of steel structures - Part 5: Piling

Complementary to Part 1. Varied general rules and additional detailed rules for the structural design of steel bearing piles and sheet piles and concrete filled steel piles.

Eurocode 3 - Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten - Teil 5: Pfähle und Spundwände

Eurocode 3 - Calcul des structures en acier - Partie 5: Pieux et palplanches

Les Etats Membres de l'UE et de l'AELE reconnaissent que les Eurocodes servent de documents de référence pour les usages suivants :
   comme moyen de prouver la conformité de bâtiments et d'ouvrages de génie civil aux exigences essentielles de la Directive 89/106/CEE du Conseil, en particulier à l'Exigence Essentielle N°1  Stabilité et Résistance mécanique  et à l'Exigence Essentielle N°2  Sécurité en cas d'incendie ;
   comme base de spécification des contrats pour les travaux de construction et les services techniques associés ;
   comme cadre d'établissement de spécifications techniques harmonisées pour les produits de construction (EN et ATE).
Les Eurocodes, dans la mesure où ils concernent les ouvrages eux-mêmes, ont une relation directe avec les Documents Interprétatifs  visés à l'Article 12 de la DPC, bien qu'ils soient d'une nature différente de celle des normes harmonisées de produits . Par conséquent, les aspects techniques résultant des travaux effectués pour les Eurocodes nécessitent d'être pris en considération de façon adéquate par les Comités techniques du CEN et/ou les Groupes de travail de l'EOTA travaillant sur les normes de produits en vue d'obtenir une totale compatibilité de ces spécifications techniques avec les Eurocodes.
Les normes Eurocodes donnent des règles de calcul structural communes d'usage quotidien pour le calcul des structures entières et des composants, de nature tant traditionnelle qu'innovante. Les formes de construction ou les conceptions inhabituelles ne sont pas spécifiquement couvertes, et il appartiendra en ces cas au concepteur de se procurer des bases de calcul spécialisées supplémentaires.

Evrokod 3: Projektiranje jeklenih konstrukcij - 5. del: Pilotiranje

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
27-Feb-2007
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
28-Feb-2007
Completion Date
28-Feb-2007

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Eurocode 3 - Design of steel structures - Part 5: PilingEvrokod 3: Projektiranje jeklenih konstrukcij - 5. del: PilotiranjeEurocode 3 - Calcul des structures en acier - Partie 5: Pieux et palplanchesEurocode 3 - Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten - Teil 5: Pfähle und SpundwändeTa slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 1993-5:2007SIST EN 1993-5:2007en;de91.080.10Kovinske konstrukcijeMetal structures91.010.30Technical aspectsICS:SIST ENV 1993-5:20011DGRPHãþDSLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 1993-5:200701-junij-2007

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 1993-5February 2007ICS 91.010.30; 91.080.10Supersedes ENV 1993-5:1998

English VersionEurocode 3 - Design of steel structures - Part 5: PilingEurocode 3 - Calcul des structures en acier - Partie 5:Pieux et palplanchesEurocode 3 - Bemessung und Konstruktion vonStahlbauten - Teil 5: Pfähle und SpundwändeThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 12 June 2006.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as theofficial versions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2007 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 1993-5:2007: E

EN 1993-5: 2007 (E)

2 Content Page Foreword..........................................................................................................................................................4 1 General.....................................................................................................................................................7 1.1 Scope.................................................................................................................................................7 1.2 Normative references.........................................................................................................................8 1.3 Assumptions......................................................................................................................................8 1.4 Distinction between principles and application rules........................................................................9 1.5 Definitions.........................................................................................................................................9 1.6 Symbols.............................................................................................................................................9 1.7 Units................................................................................................................................................10 1.8 Terminology....................................................................................................................................11 1.9 Convention for sheet pile axes.........................................................................................................19 2 Basis of design........................................................................................................................................20 2.1 General............................................................................................................................................20 2.2 Ultimate limit state criteria..............................................................................................................20 2.3 Serviceability limit state criteria......................................................................................................21 2.4 Site investigation and soil parameters.............................................................................................21 2.5 Analysis...........................................................................................................................................22 2.6 Design assisted by testing................................................................................................................23 2.7 Driveability......................................................................................................................................24 3 Material properties................................................................................................................................25 3.1 General............................................................................................................................................25 3.2 Bearing piles....................................................................................................................................25 3.3 Hot rolled steel sheet piles...............................................................................................................25 3.4 Cold formed steel sheet piles...........................................................................................................25 3.5 Sections used for waling and bracing..............................................................................................26 3.6 Connecting devices..........................................................................................................................26 3.7 Steel members used for anchors......................................................................................................26 3.8 Steel members used for combined walls.........................................................................................26 3.9 Fracture toughness...........................................................................................................................27 4 Durability...............................................................................................................................................28 4.1 General............................................................................................................................................28 4.2 Durability requirements for bearing piles........................................................................................29 4.3 Durability requirements for sheet piling..........................................................................................30 4.4 Corrosion rates for design................................................................................................................30 5 Ultimate limit states...............................................................................................................................32 5.1 Basis................................................................................................................................................32 5.2 Sheet piling......................................................................................................................................32 5.3 Bearing piles....................................................................................................................................46 5.4 High modulus walls.........................................................................................................................48 5.5 Combined walls...............................................................................................................................49 6 Serviceability limit states......................................................................................................................52 6.1 Basis................................................................................................................................................52 6.2 Displacements of retaining walls.....................................................................................................52 6.3 Displacements of bearing piles........................................................................................................52 6.4 Structural aspects of steel sheet piling.............................................................................................52 7 Anchors, walings, bracing and connections........................................................................................54 7.1 General............................................................................................................................................54

EN 1993-5: 2007 (E)

3 7.2 Anchorages......................................................................................................................................54 7.3 Walings and bracing........................................................................................................................56 7.4 Connections.....................................................................................................................................56 8 Execution................................................................................................................................................64 8.1 General............................................................................................................................................64 8.2 Steel sheet piling..............................................................................................................................64 8.3 Bearing piles....................................................................................................................................64 8.4 Anchorages......................................................................................................................................64 8.5 Walings, bracings and connections.................................................................................................64 A [normative] - Thin walled steel sheet piling........................................................................................65 A.1 General............................................................................................................................................65 A.2 Basis of design.................................................................................................................................66 A.3 Properties of materials and cross-sections.......................................................................................66 A.4 Local buckling.................................................................................................................................70 A.5 Resistance of cross-sections............................................................................................................72 A.6 Design by calculation......................................................................................................................76 A.7 Design assisted by testing................................................................................................................77 B [informative] - Testing of thin walled steel sheet piles.......................................................................79 B.1 General............................................................................................................................................79 B.2 Single span beam test......................................................................................................................79 B.3 Intermediate support test.................................................................................................................80 B.4 Double span beam test.....................................................................................................................81 B.5 Evaluation of test results..................................................................................................................82 C [informative] - Guidance for the design of steel sheet piling.............................................................84 C.1 Design of sheet pile cross section at ultimate limit state.................................................................84 C.2 Serviceability limit state..................................................................................................................87 D [informative] - Primary elements of combined walls.........................................................................89 D.1 I-sections used as primary elements................................................................................................89 D.2 Tubular piles used as primary elements...........................................................................................91

EN 1993-5: 2007 (E)

4 Foreword This European Standard EN 1993-5, “Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures: Part 5 Piling”, has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC250 « Structural Eurocodes », the Secretariat of which is held by BSI. CEN/TC250 is responsible for all Structural Eurocodes.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a National Standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2007, and conflicting National Standards shall be withdrawn at latest by March 2010.

This Eurocode supersedes ENV 1993-5:1998.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the National Standard Organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom..

Background to the Eurocode programme In 1975, the Commission of the European Community decided on an action programme in the field of construction, based on article 95 of the Treaty. The objective of the programme was the elimination of technical obstacles to trade and the harmonisation of technical specifications.

Within this action programme, the Commission took the initiative to establish a set of harmonised technical rules for the design of construction works which, in a first stage, would serve as an alternative to the national rules in force in the Member States and, ultimately, would replace them.

For fifteen years, the Commission, with the help of a Steering Committee with Representatives of Member States, conducted the development of the Eurocodes programme, which led to the first generation of European codes in the 1980’s.

In 1989, the Commission and the Member States of the EU and EFTA decided, on the basis of an agreement1 between the Commission and CEN, to transfer the preparation and the publication of the Eurocodes to the CEN through a series of Mandates, in order to provide them with a future status of European Standard (EN). This links de facto the Eurocodes with the provisions of all the Council's Directives and/or Commission’s Decisions dealing with European standards (e.g. the Council Directive 89/106/EEC on construction products - CPD - and Council Directives 93/37/EEC, 92/50/EEC and 89/440/EEC on public works and services and equivalent EFTA Directives initiated in pursuit of setting up the internal market).

The Structural Eurocode programme comprises the following standards generally consisting of a number of Parts: EN 1990

Eurocode:
Basis of structural design EN 1991
Eurocode 1:
Actions on structures EN 1992
Eurocode 2:
Design of concrete structures EN 1993
Eurocode 3:
Design of steel structures EN 1994
Eurocode 4:
Design of composite steel and concrete structures EN 1995
Eurocode 5:
Design of timber structures EN 1996
Eurocode 6:
Design of masonry structures EN 1997
Eurocode 7:
Geotechnical design EN 1998
Eurocode 8:
Design of structures for earthquake resistance EN 1999
Eurocode 9:
Design of aluminium structures

1 Agreement between the Commission of the European Communities and the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) concerning the work on EUROCODES for the design of building and civil engineering works (BC/CEN/03/89).

EN 1993-5: 2007 (E)

5 Eurocode standards recognise the responsibility of regulatory authorities in each Member State and have safeguarded their right to determine values related to regulatory safety matters at national level where these continue to vary from State to State. Status and field of application of Eurocodes The Member States of the EU and EFTA recognise that Eurocodes serve as reference documents for the following purposes:

as a means to prove compliance of building and civil engineering works with the essential requirements of Council Directive 89/106/EEC, particularly Essential Requirement Nº1 – Mechanical resistance and stability - and Essential Requirement Nº2 - Safety in case of fire; - as a basis for specifying contracts for construction works and related engineering services; - as a framework for drawing up harmonised technical specifications for construction products (ENs and ETAs)

The Eurocodes, as far as they concern the construction works themselves, have a direct relationship with the Interpretative Documents2 referred to in Article 12 of the CPD, although they are of a different nature from harmonised product standard3. Therefore, technical aspects arising from the Eurocodes work need to be adequately considered by CEN Technical Committees and/or EOTA Working Groups working on product standards with a view to achieving a full compatibility of these technical specifications with the Eurocodes. The Eurocode standards provide common structural design rules for everyday use for the design of whole structures and component products of both a traditional and an innovative nature. Unusual forms of construction or design conditions are not specifically covered and additional expert consideration will be required by the designer in such cases. National Standards implementing Eurocodes The National Standards implementing Eurocodes will comprise the full text of the Eurocode (including any annexes), as published by CEN, which may be preceded by a National title page and National foreword, and may be followed by a National Annex (informative). The National Annex (informative) may only contain information on those parameters which are left open in the Eurocode for national choice, known as Nationally Determined Parameters, to be used for the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the country concerned, i.e.:

- values for partial factors and/or classes where alternatives are given in the Eurocode, - values to be used where a symbol only is given in the Eurocode, - geographical and climatic data specific to the Member State, e.g. snow map, - the procedure to be used where alternative procedures are given in the Eurocode, - references to non-contradictory complementary information to assist the user to apply the Eurocode.

According to Art. 3.3 of the CPD, the essential requirements (ERs) shall be given concrete form in interpretative documents for the creation of the necessary links between the essential requirements and the mandates for hENs and ETAGs/ETAs.

According to Art. 12 of the CPD the interpretative documents shall: (a) give concrete form to the essential requirements by harmonising the terminology and the technical bases and indicating classes or levels for each requirement where necessary; (b) indicate methods of correlating these classes or levels of requirement with the technical specifications, e.g. methods of calculation and of proof, technical rules for project design, etc.; (c) serve as a reference for the establishment of harmonised standards and guidelines for European technical approvals. The Eurocodes, de facto, play a similar role in the field of the ER 1 and a part of ER 2.

EN 1993-5: 2007 (E)

Links between Eurocodes and product harmonised technical specifications (ENs and ETAs) There is a need for consistency between the harmonised technical specifications for construction products and the technical rules for works4. Furthermore, all the information accompanying the CE Marking of the construction products which refer to Eurocodes should clearly mention which Nationally Determined Parameters have been taken into account. Additional information specific to EN 1993-5 EN 1993-5 gives design rules for steel sheet piling and bearing piles to supplement the generic rules in EN 1993-1. EN 1993-5 is intended to be used with Eurocodes EN 1990 - Basis of design, EN 1991 - Actions on structures and Part 1 of EN 1997 Geotechnical Design.

Matters that are already covered in those documents are not repeated.

EN 1993-5 is intended for use by - committees drafting design related product, testing and execution standards, - clients (e.g. for the formulation of their specific requirements) - designers and constructors - relevant authorities.

Numerical values for partial factors and other parameters are recommended as basic values that provide an acceptable level of safety. They have been selected assuming that an appropriate level of workmanship and quality management applies. Annex A and Annex B have been prepared to complement the provisions of EN 1993-1-3 for class 4 steel sheet piles. Annex C gives guidance on the plastic design of steel sheet pile retaining structures.

Annex D gives one possible set of design rules for primary elements of combined walls.

Reference should be made to EN 1997 for geotechnical design which is not covered in this document.

National Annex for EN 1993-5 This standard gives alternative procedures, values and recommendations for classes with notes indicating where national choices may have to be made. Therefore the National Standard implementing EN 1993-5 should have a National Annex containing all Nationally Determined Parameters to be used for the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the relevant country.

National choice is allowed in EN 1993-5 through clauses:
3.7 (1) 3.9 (1)P 4.4 (1)
5.1.1 (4) 5.2.2 (2) 5.2.2 (13) 5.2.5 (7) 5.5.4 (2) 6.4 (3)
7.1 (4) 7.2.3 (2) 7.4.2 (4) A.3.1 (3) B.5.4 (1) D.2.2 (5)

See Art. 3.3 and Art. 12 of the CPD, as well as clauses 4.2, 4.3.1, 4.3.2 and 5.2 of ID 1.

EN 1993-5: 2007 (E)
7 1 General 1.1 Scope

(1) Part 5 of EN 1993 provides principles and application rules for the structural design of bearing piles and sheet piles made of steel. (2) It also provides examples of detailing for foundation and retaining wall structures.

(3) The field of application includes: - steel piled foundations for civil engineering works on land and over water;

temporary or permanent structures needed to carry out steel piling work;

- temporary or permanent retaining structures composed of steel sheet piles, including all kinds of combined walls.

(4) The field of application excludes: - offshore platforms;
dolphins.

(5) Part 5 of EN 1993 also includes application rules for steel piles filled with concrete.

(6) Special requirements for seismic design are not covered. Where the effects of ground movements caused by earthquakes are relevant see EN 1998. (7) Design provisions are also given for walings, bracing and anchorages, see section 7.

(8) The design of steel sheet piling using class 1, 2 and 3 cross-sections is covered in sections 5 and 6, whereas the design of class 4 cross-sections is covered in annex A.

NOTE: The testing of class 4 sheet piles is covered in annex B.

(9) The design procedures for crimped U-piles and straight web steel sheet piles utilise design resistances obtained by testing. Reference should be made to EN 10248 for testing procedures.

(10) Geotechnical aspects are not covered in this document. Reference is made to EN 1997.

(11) Provisions for taking into account the effects of corrosion in the design of piling are given in section 4.

(12) Allowance for plastic global analysis in accordance with 5.4.3 of EN 1993-1-1 is given in 5.2.

NOTE: Guidance for the design of steel sheet pile walls allowing for plastic global analysis is given in Annex C. (13) The design of combined walls at ultimate limit states is covered in section 5 including general provisions for the design of primary elements. NOTE: Guidance for the design of both tubular piles and I-sections used as primary elements is given in Annex D.

EN 1993-5: 2007 (E)

1.2 Normative references This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter.

For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to applies. EN 1990 Eurocode:

Basis of structural design EN 1991 Eurocode 1:
Actions on structures EN 1992 Eurocode 2:
Design of concrete structures EN 1993 Eurocode 3:
Design of steel structures Part 1.1:
General rules: General rules and rules for buildings; Part 1.2:
General rules: Structural fire design; Part 1.3:

General rules: Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting; Part 1.5: General rules:

Plated structural elements;
Part 1.6: General rules:
Strength and stability of shell structures Part 1.8: General rules:
Design of joints Part 1.9: General rules:
Fatigue Part 1.10: General rules:
Material toughness and through-thickness properties Part 1.11: General rules:
Design of structures with tension components made of steel EN 1994 Eurocode 4:
Design of composite steel and concrete structures EN 1997 Eurocode 7:
Geotechnical design EN 1998 Eurocode 8:

Earthquake resistant design of structures; EN 10002 Metallic materials; tensile testing; EN 10027 Designation systems for steel; EN 10210 Hot finished structural hollow sections of non-alloy fine grain structural steels; EN 10219 Cold formed structural hollow sections of non-alloy fine grain structural steels; EN 10248 Hot rolled sheet piling of non alloy steels; EN 10249 Cold formed sheet piling of non alloy steels; EN 1536 Execution of special geotechnical work - Bored piles; EN 1537 Execution of special geotechnical work - Ground anchors; EN 12063 Execution of special geotechnical work - Sheet-pile walls; EN 12699 Execution of special geotechnical work - Displacement piles; EN 14199 Execution of special geotechnical work - Micro piles; EN 10045 Metallic materials; Charpy impact test; EN 1090-2 Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures, Part 2: Technical requirements for steel structures. 1.3 Assumptions (1) In addition to the general assumptions in EN 1990 the following assumptions apply:

Installation and fabrication of steel piles and steel sheet piles are in accordance with EN 12699, EN 14199 and EN 12063.

EN 1993-5: 2007 (E)
9 1.4 Distinction between principles and application rules
(1)P Reference shall be made to 1.4 of EN 1990. 1.5 Definitions
For the purpose of this standard, the following definitions apply:
1.5.1

foundation: Part of a construction work including piles and possibly their pile cap.

1.5.2

retaining structure: A construction element including walls retaining soil, similar material and/or water, and, where relevant, their support systems (e.g. anchorages).

1.5.3

soil-structure interaction: The mutual influence of deformations on soil and a foundation or a retaining structure. 1.6 Symbols

(1) In addition to those given in EN 1993-1-1, the following main symbols are used:

c Slant height of the web of steel sheet piles, see Figure 5-1;
a Inclination of the web, see Figure 5-1.

(2) In addition to those given in EN 1993-1-1, the following subscripts are used:

red
Reduced.

(3) In addition to those given in EN 1993-1-1, the following major symbols are used:

Av Projected shear area, see Figure 5-1;
FEd Design value of the anchor force;

FQ,Ed Additional horizontal force resulting from global buckling to be resisted by the toe of a sheet pile to allow for the assumption of a non-sway buckling mode, see Figure 5-4;

Ft,Rd Design tension resistance of an anchor;
Ft,Ed Design value of the circumferential tensile force in a cellular cofferdam;
Ft,ser Axial force in an anchor under characteristic loading;
Fta,Ed Design tensile force in the arc cell of a cellular cofferdam;
Ftc,Ed Design tensile force in the common wall of a cellular cofferdam;
Ftg,Rd Design tensile resistance of shafts of anchors;
Ftm,Ed Design tensile force in the main cell of a cellular cofferdam;
EN 1993-5: 2007 (E)
10 Fts,Rd Design tensile resistance of simple straight web steel sheet piles;
Ftt,Rd Design tensile resistance of threads of anchors;
Rc,Rd Design resistance of a sheet pile to a local transverse force;

Rtw,Rd Design tensile resistance of the webs of a sheet pile to the introduction of a local transverse force;

RVf,Rd Design shear resistance of the flange of a sheet pile to the introduction of a local transverse force;

pm,Ed Design value of the internal pressure acting in the main cell of a cellular cofferdam;

ra Initial radius of the arc cell in a cellular coff
...

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