1.1   Scope of FprEN 1993-1-8
(1) FprEN 1993-1-8 provides rules for structural design of joints subject to predominantly static loading using all steel grades from S235 up to and including S700, unless otherwise stated in individual clauses.
NOTE   As an alternative to the design rules provided in Clause 9, the design rules given in CEN/TR 1993-1-801 "Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1 801: Hollow section joints design according to the component method" can be used.
(2) The provisions in this document apply to steels complying with the requirements given in EN 1993 1 1 and to material thickness greater than or equal to 3 mm, unless otherwise stated in individual clauses.
1.2   Assumptions
(1) Unless specifically stated, EN 1990, EN 1991 (all parts) and the other relevant parts of EN 1993-1 (all parts) apply.
(2) The design methods given in FprEN 1993-1-8 are applicable if:
-   the execution quality is as specified in EN 1090-2,
and
-   the construction materials and products used are as specified in the relevant parts of EN 1993 (all parts), or in the relevant material and product specifications.

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1.1   Scope of prEN 1993-1-3
(1) This document provides rules for structural design of cold-formed steel members and sheeting.
(2) This document applies to cold-formed steel products made from coated or uncoated hot- or cold-rolled sheet or strip, which have been cold-formed by processes such as roll-forming or press braking. It also covers sheeting and members which are curved during fabrication by continuous bending or roll-forming. Sheeting which has the curvature created by crushing the inner flanges is not included. This document is also applicable to the design of profiled steel sheeting for composite steel and concrete slabs at the construction stage, see EN 1994. The execution of steel structures made of cold-formed steel members and sheeting is covered in EN 1090 4. Provisions for bolted connections are provided in EN 1090 2.
NOTE   The rules in prEN 1993 1 3 complement the rules in other parts of EN 1993 1.
(3) Methods are also given for stressed-skin design, using steel sheeting as a structural diaphragm.
(4) This document does not apply to cold-formed circular and rectangular structural hollow sections supplied to EN 10219, for which reference is made to EN 1993 1 1 and EN 1993 1 8.
(5) This document provides methods for design by calculation and for design assisted by testing. The methods for design by calculation apply only within the stated ranges of material properties and geometric proportions, for which sufficient experience and test evidence is available. These limitations do not apply to design assisted by testing.
1.2   Assumptions
(1) Unless specifically stated, EN 1990, EN 1991 (all parts) and EN 1993 1 1 apply.
(2) The design methods given in prEN 1993 1 3 are applicable if:
-   the execution quality is as specified in EN 1090 4, the execution quality of bolted connections is as specified in EN 1090 2, and
-   the construction materials and products are as specified in the relevant parts of EN 1993 (all parts), or in the relevant material and product specifications.
(2) EN 1993 is intended to be used in conjunction with:
-   the parts of EN 1992 to EN 1999 where steel structures or steel components are referred to within those documents;
-   EN, EAD and ETA standards for construction products relevant to steel structures.

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(1) This document provides guidance for the development or improvement of rules deemed to help with the choosing of appropriate glazing for protection against injuries and falling, hereafter called "the Specifications". The Specifications to be written or revised can be a national regulation, a national standard, recommendations from a professional association, requirements for a particular project, etc.
(2) This document deals with the choice of the mode of breakage (see 5.2) with regard to the safety of people against:
-   the risk of injury in the event of a collision with a glazed element, e.g. a partition,
-   the risk of falling through or over a glazed element, e.g. a balustrade, and
-   the risk of accidental falling of glass fragments on people not having caused the breakage, e.g. an overhead glazing.
(3) These risks can be evaluated in the function of a normal use of the building or construction work. This includes use by the elderly, children and people with disabilities, but excludes deliberate risk taking. It presupposes a rational and responsible behaviour of the users or, in case of children, of those responsible for supervising them.
(4) The information contained in this document can be used to define minimum glass configuration. It does not exempt from the verification according to CEN/TS 19100-1 and CEN/TS 19100-2 and where appropriate CEN/TS 19100-3.
(5) Safety against burglary, vandalism, bullet attack, explosion, exposition to fire and seismic actions are not covered in this document. Preventing these risks needs further appropriate requirements.
(6) This document does not apply to the following glass products:
-   glass blocks and paver units;
-   channel-shaped glass.
(7) It also does not apply to the following applications:
-   escalators and moving walkway;
-   lifts;
-   accesses to machinery;
-   animal enclosures and aquariums;
-   greenhouses and agricultural installations;
-   temporary scaffolds.

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1.1   Scope of EN 1991 1 2
(1)   The methods given in this Eurocode are applicable to buildings and civil engineering works, with a fire load related to the building and its occupancy.
(2)   EN 1991 1 2 deals with thermal and mechanical actions on structures exposed to fire. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the fire design Parts of EN 1992 to EN 1996 and EN 1999 which give rules for designing structures for fire resistance.
(3)   EN 1991 1 2 contains thermal actions either nominal or physically based. More data and models for physically based thermal actions are given in annexes.
(4)   EN 1991 1 2 does not cover the assessment of the damage of a structure after a fire.
(5)   EN 1991 1 2 does not cover supplementary requirements concerning, for example:
-   the possible installation and maintenance of sprinkler systems;
-   conditions on occupancy of building or fire compartment;
-   the use of approved insulation and coating materials, including their maintenance.
1.2   Assumptions
(1)   In addition to the general assumptions of EN 1990 the following assumptions apply:
-   any active and passive fire protection systems taken into account in the design will be adequately maintained;
-   the choice of the relevant design fire scenario is made by appropriate qualified and experienced personnel, or is given by the relevant national regulation.

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1.1   Scope of prEN 1993-1-2
(1) This document provides rules for the design of steel structures for the accidental situation of fire exposure. This Part of EN 1993 only identifies differences from, or supplements to, normal temperature design.
(2) This document applies to steel structures required to fulfil a loadbearing function.
(3) This document does not include rules for separating function.
(4) This document gives principles and application rules for the design of structures for specified requirements in respect of the aforementioned function and the levels of performance.
(5) This document applies to structures, or parts of structures, that are within the scope of EN 1993 1 1 and are designed accordingly.
(6) This document is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1991-1-2, EN 1993-1-1, EN 1993 1-3, EN 1993-1-4, EN 1993-1-5, EN 1993-1-6, EN 1993-1-7, EN 1993-1-8, EN 1993-1-11, EN 1993-1-13 or EN 1993-1-14.
1.2   Assumptions
(1) Unless specifically stated, EN 1990, EN 1991(all parts) and EN 1993-1-1 apply.
(2) The design methods given in prEN 1993-1-2 are applicable if
-   the execution quality is as specified in EN 1090-2 and/or EN 1090-4, and
-   the construction materials and products used are as specified in prEN 1993-1-1:2020, Table 5.1 and Table 5.2 and in prEN 1993-1-3:2022, Table 5.1 and Table 5.2, or in the relevant material and product specifications.
(3) In addition to the general assumptions of EN 1990 the following assumptions apply:
-   the choice of the relevant design fire scenario is made by appropriate qualified and experienced personnel, or is given by the relevant national regulation;
-   any fire protection measure taken into account in the design will be adequately maintained.

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1.1   Scope of EN 1993-1-5
(1) This document provides rules for structural design of stiffened and unstiffened nominally flat plates which are subject to in-plane forces.
(2) Non-uniform stress distributions due to shear lag, in-plane load introduction and plate buckling are covered. The effects of out-of-plane loading are outside the scope of this document.
NOTE 1   The rules in this part complement the rules for class 1, 2, 3 and 4 sections, see EN 1993-1-1.
NOTE 2   For the design of slender plates which are subject to repeated direct stress and/or shear and also fatigue due to out-of-plane bending of plate elements ("breathing"), see EN 1993-2 and EN 1993-6.
NOTE 3   For the effects of out-of-plane loading and for the combination of in-plane effects and out-of-plane loading effects, see EN 1993-2 and EN 1993-1-7.
(3) Single plate elements are considered as nominally flat where the curvature radius r in the direction perpendicular to the compression satisfies, as illustrated in Figure 1.1:
r≥b^2/t   (1.1)
where
b   is the panel width;
t   is the plate thickness.
Figure 1.1 - Definition of plate curvature
1.2   Assumptions
(1) Unless specifically stated, EN 1990, the EN 1991 series and EN 1993-1-1 apply.
(2) The design methods given in EN 1993-1-5 are applicable if
-   the execution quality is as specified in EN 1090-2 and
-   the construction materials and products used are as specified in the relevant parts of the EN 1993 series or in the relevant material product specifications.

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1.1   Scope of CEN/TS 19102
(1) This document applies to the design of buildings and structural works, made of structural membrane material. It provides guidance for the design of tensioned membrane structures, either mechanically or pneumatically tensioned at a defined prestress level.
NOTE 1   Membrane materials comprise structural fabrics, coated structural fabrics and foils.
NOTE 2   For elements of tensile surface structures not governed by this Technical Specification (for example made of steel, aluminium, wood or other structural materials), see relevant Eurocode parts.
(2) This document is concerned with the requirements for resistance, serviceability and durability of tensioned membrane structures, as given in EN 1990.
NOTE 1   The safety criteria follow EN 1990 and will consider specific limit states for tensioned membrane structures.
NOTE 2   Specific requirements concerning seismic design are not considered.
(3) Design and verification in this document is based on limit state design in conjunction with the partial factor method.
NOTE   Special attention goes to the action of prestress, snow, wind and rain action on membrane structures and the combined effect of wind and rain or snow.
(4) This document covers analysis methodologies appropriate for tensioned membrane structures, from analytical to full numerical simulation methods.
(5) This document considers connections between membrane materials and between membrane materials and others.
(6) This document is applicable for hybrid membrane structures integrating different kinds of load bearing behaviour (tension, compression, bending, inflation…), in a way that the structural membrane shares loadbearing capacity with other structural elements made of different materials.
NOTE   The term ‘hybrid structure’ refers to this combined structural behaviour or use of materials.
1.2   Assumptions
(1) The assumptions of EN 1990 apply to this document.
(2) This document is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1990, the EN 1991 series, the EN 1993 series, the EN 1999 series, ENs, EADs and ETAs for construction products relevant to tensioned membrane structures.

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1.1   Scope of prEN 1992 1 2
(1)   This document deals with the design of concrete structures for the accidental situation of fire exposure and is intended to be used in conjunction with prEN 1992 1 1 and EN 1991 1 2. This document identifies differences from, or supplements to, normal temperature design.
(2)   This document applies to concrete structures required to fulfil a loadbearing function, separating function or both.
(3)   This document gives principles and application rules for the design of structures for specified requirements in respect of the aforementioned functions and the levels of performance.
(4)   This document applies to structures, or parts of structures, that are within the scope of prEN 1992 1 1 and are designed accordingly.
(5)   The methods given in this document are applicable to normal weight concrete up to strength class C100/115 and lightweight concrete up to strength class LC50/60.
1.2   Assumptions
(1)   In addition to the general assumptions of prEN 1990 the following assumptions apply:
-   the choice of the relevant design fire scenario is made by appropriate qualified and experienced personnel or is given by the relevant national regulation;
-   any fire protection measure taken into account in the design will be adequately maintained.

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1.1    Scope of FprEN 1992-1-1
(1)   This document gives the general basis for the design of structures in plain, reinforced and prestressed concrete made with normal weight, lightweight and heavyweight aggregates. It gives specific rules for buildings, bridges and civil engineering structures, including temporary structures; additional requirements specific to bridges are given in Annex K. The rules are valid under temperature conditions between −40 °C and +100 °C generally. This document complies with the principles and requirements for the safety, serviceability, durability and robustness of structures, the basis of their design and verification that are given in EN 1990.
(2)   This document is only concerned with the requirements for resistance, serviceability, durability, robustness and fire resistance of concrete structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not considered.
(3)    This document does not cover:
-   resistance to fire (see EN 1992 1 2);
-   fastenings in concrete (see EN 1992 4);
-   seismic design (see EN 1998 (all parts));
-   particular aspects of special types of civil engineering works (such as dams, pressure vessels);
-   structures made with no-fines concrete, aerated or cellular concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure components;
-   structures containing steel sections considered in design (see EN 1994 (all parts)) for composite steel and concrete structures;
-   structural parts made of concrete with a smallest value of the upper sieve aggregate size Dlower < 8 mm (or if known Dmax < 8 mm) unless otherwise stated in this Eurocode.
1.2   Assumptions
(1)   The assumptions of EN 1990 apply to FprEN 1992-1-1.
(2)   It is assumed that the requirements for execution and workmanship given in EN 13670 are complied with.

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(1)   This document defines imposed loads (models and representative values) associated with road traffic, pedestrian actions and rail traffic which include, when relevant, dynamic effects and centrifugal, braking and acceleration actions and actions for accidental design situations.
(2)   Imposed loads defined in this document are applicable for the design of new bridges, including piers, abutments, upstand walls, wing walls and flank walls, noise barriers, canopies etc., and their foundations. Where appropriate, the loads can also be considered as a basis for assessment or modification of existing structures in combination with complementary conditions if necessary.
(3)   The load models and values given in this document are also applicable for the design of retaining walls adjacent to roads and railway lines and the design of earthworks subject to road or rail traffic actions. This document also provides applicability conditions for specific load models.
(4)   This document is intended to be used with prEN 1990, the other parts of the EN 1991 series and the EN 1992 series to EN 1999 series for the design of structures.

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1.1   Scope of EN 1996-3
(1)   This document provides simplified calculation methods to facilitate the design of the following unreinforced masonry walls, subject to certain conditions of application:
-   walls subjected to vertical and wind loading;
-   walls subjected to concentrated loads;
-   shear walls;
-   basement walls subjected to lateral earth pressure and vertical loading;
-   walls subjected to lateral loading but not subjected to vertical loading.
NOTE 1   For those types of masonry structures or parts of structures not covered by (1), the design can be based on EN 1996-1-1.
NOTE 2   The rules given in this document are consistent with those given in EN 1996-1-1 but are more conservative in respect of the conditions and limitations of their use.
(2) This document applies only to those masonry structures, or parts thereof, that are described in EN 1996-1-1 and EN 1996-2.
(3) The simplified calculation methods given in this document do not cover the design of double-leaf walls.
(4) The simplified calculation methods given in this document do not cover the design for accidental situations.
1.2   Assumptions
(1) The assumptions of EN 1990 apply to this document.
(2) This document is intended to be used, for direct application, together with EN 1990, the EN 1991 series, EN 1996 1-1, EN 1996-1-2 and EN 1996-2.
(3) The rules given in this document assume that concrete floors are designed according to EN 1992-1-1.

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1.1   Scope of EN 1999-1-4
(1)   EN 1999-1-4 gives design requirements for cold-formed trapezoidal aluminium sheeting. It applies to cold-formed aluminium products made from hot rolled or cold rolled sheet or strip that have been cold-formed by such processes as cold-rolled forming or press-breaking.
NOTE 1   The rules in this part complement the rules in other parts of EN 1999-1.
NOTE 2   The execution of aluminium structures made of cold-formed structures for roof, ceiling, floor and wall applications is covered in EN 1090-5.
(2)   EN 1999-1-4 gives methods for stressed-skin design using aluminium sheeting as a structural diaphragm.
(3)   EN 1999-1-4 does not apply to cold-formed aluminium profiles like C- and Z- profiles nor cold-formed and welded circular or rectangular hollow sections.
(4)   EN 1999-1-4 gives methods for design by calculation and for design assisted by testing. The methods for the design by calculation apply only within stated ranges of material properties and geometrical properties for which sufficient experience and test evidence is available. These limitations do not apply to design by testing.
(5)   EN 1999-1-4 does not cover load arrangement for loads during execution and maintenance.
1.2   Assumptions
(1) For the design of new structures, EN 1999 is intended to be used, for direct application, together with EN 1990, EN 1991, EN 1992, EN 1993, EN 1994, EN 1995, EN 1997 and EN 1998.
EN 1999 is intended to be used in conjunction with:
-   European Standards for construction products relevant for aluminium structures;
-   EN 1090-1, Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 1: Requirements for conformity assessment of structural components;
-   EN 1090-5, Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 5: Technical requirements for cold-formed structural aluminium elements and cold-formed structures for roof, ceiling, floor and wall applications.

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Scope of FprEN 1990
(1) This document establishes principles and requirements for the safety, serviceability, robustness and durability of structures, including geotechnical structures, appropriate to the consequences of failure.
(2) This document is intended to be used in conjunction with the other Eurocodes for the design of buildings and civil engineering works, including temporary structures.
(3) This document describes the basis for structural and geotechnical design and verification according to the limit state principle.
(4) The verification methods in this document are based primarily on the partial factor method.
NOTE 1   Alternative methods are given in the other Eurocodes for specific applications.
NOTE 2   The Annexes to this document also provide general guidance concerning the use of alternative methods.
(5) This document is also applicable for:
-   structural assessment of existing structures;
-   developing the design of repairs, improvements and alterations;
-   assessing changes of use.
NOTE   Additional or amended provisions can be necessary.
(6) This document is applicable for the design of structures where materials or actions outside the scope of EN 1991 (all parts) to EN 1999 (all parts) are involved.
NOTE   In this case, additional or amended provisions can be necessary.
1.2   Assumptions
(1) It is assumed that reasonable skill and care appropriate to the circumstances is exercised in the design, based on the knowledge and good practice generally available at the time the structure is designed.
(2) It is assumed that the design of the structure is made by appropriately qualified and experienced personnel.
(3) The design rules provided in the Eurocodes assume that:
-   execution will be carried out by personnel having appropriate skill and experience;
-   adequate control and supervision will be provided during design and execution of the works, whether in factories, plants, or on site;
-   construction materials and products will be used in accordance with the Eurocodes, in the relevant product and execution standards, and project specifications;
-   the structure will be adequately maintained;
-   the structure will be used in accordance with the design assumptions.
NOTE   Guidance on management measures to satisfy the assumptions for design and execution is given in
Annex B.

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1.1   Scope of EN 1999-1-5
(1)   EN 1999-1-5 applies to the structural design of aluminium structures, stiffened and unstiffened, that have the form of a shell of revolution or of a round panel in monocoque structures.
(2)   EN 1999-1-5 covers additional provisions to those given in the relevant parts of EN 1999 for design of aluminium structures.
NOTE   Supplementary information for certain types of shells is given in EN 1993-1-6 and the relevant application parts of EN 1993 which include:
-   Part 3-1 for towers and masts;
-   Part 3-2 for chimneys;
-   Part 4-1 for silos;
-   Part 4-2 for tanks;
-   Part 4-3 for pipelines.
(4)   The provisions in EN 1999-1-5 apply to axisymmetric shells (cylinders, cones, spheres) and associated circular or annular plates, beam section rings and stringer stiffeners, where they form part of the complete structure.
(5)   Single shell panels (cylindrical, conical or spherical) are not explicitly covered by EN 1999-1-5. However, the provisions can be applicable if the appropriate boundary conditions are duly taken into account.
(6)   Types of shell walls covered in EN 1999-1-5 can be (see Figure 1.1):
-   shell wall constructed from flat rolled sheet with adjacent plates connected with butt welds, termed “isotropic”;
-   shell wall with lap joints formed by connecting adjacent plates with overlapping sections, termed “lap-jointed”;
-   shell wall with stiffeners attached to the outside, termed “externally stiffened” irrespective of the spacing of stiffeners;
-   shell wall with the corrugations running up the meridian, termed “axially corrugated”;
-   shell wall constructed from corrugated sheets with the corrugations running around the shell circumference, termed “circumferentially corrugated”.
[Figure 1.1 - Illustration of cylindrical shell form]
(7)   The provisions of EN 1999-1-5 are intended to be applied within the temperature range defined in EN 1999-1-1. The maximum temperature is restricted so that the influence of creep can be neglected. For structures subject to elevated temperatures associated with fire, see EN 1999-1-2.
(8)   EN 1999-1-5 does not cover the aspect of leakage.
1.2   Assumptions
(1)   The general assumptions of EN 1990 apply.
(2)   The provisions of EN 1999-1-1 apply.
(3)   The design procedures are valid only when the requirements for execution in EN 1090-3 or other equivalent requirements are complied with.
(4)   For the design of new structures, EN 1999 is intended to be used, for direct application, together with EN 1990, EN 1991, EN 1992, EN 1993, EN 1994, EN 1995, EN 1997 and EN 1998.
(5)   EN 1999 is intended to be used in conjunction with:
-   European Standards for construction products relevant for aluminium structures;
-   EN 1090-1, Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 1: Requirements for conformity assessment of structural components;
-   EN 1090-3, Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 3: Technical requirements for aluminium structures.

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1.1 Scope of FprEN 1999-1-1
(1) FprEN 1999-1-1 gives basic design rules for structures made of wrought aluminium alloys and limited guidance for cast alloys (see Clause 5 and Annex C).
This document does not cover the following, unless otherwise explicitly stated in this document:
- components with material thickness less than 0,6 mm;
- welded components with material thickness less than 1,5 mm;
- connections with:
- steel bolts and pins with diameter less than 5 mm;
- aluminium bolts and pins with diameter less than 8 mm;
- rivets and thread forming screws with diameter less than 3,9 mm.
1.2 Assumptions
(1) In addition to the general assumptions of EN 1990 the following assumptions apply:
- execution complies with EN 1090-3 and EN 1090-5;
- the mechanical properties comply with the product standards listed in 5.2.2.
(2) EN 1999 is intended to be used in conjunction with:
- European Standards for construction products relevant for aluminium structures;
- EN 1090-1, Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 1: Requirements for conformity assessment of structural components;
- EN 1090-3, Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 3: Technical requirements for aluminium structures;
- EN 1090-5, Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 5: Technical requirements for cold-formed structural aluminium elements and cold-formed structures for roof, ceiling, floor and wall applications.

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1.1   Scope of EN 1999-1-2
(1)   EN 1999-1-2 deals with the design of aluminium structures for the accidental situation of fire exposure and is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1999-1-1, EN 1999-1-2, EN 1999-1-3, EN 1999-1-4 and EN 1999-1-5. This document only identifies differences from, or supplements to, normal temperature design.
(2)   EN 1999-1-2 applies to aluminium structures required to fulfil a load bearing function.
(3)   EN 1999-1-2 gives principles and application rules for the design of structures for specified requirements in respect of the aforementioned function and the levels of performance.
(4)   EN 1999-1-2 applies to structures, or parts of structures, that are within the scope of EN 1999 1 1 and are designed accordingly.
(5)   The methods given in EN 1999-1-2 are applicable to the following aluminium alloys:
EN AW-3004 - H34   EN AW-5083 - O and H12   EN AW-6063 - T5 and T6
EN AW-5005  -  O and H34   EN AW-5454 - O and H34   EN AW-6082 - T4 and T6
EN AW-5052  - H34      EN AW-6061 - T6   
(6)   The methods given in EN 1999-1-2 are applicable also to other aluminium alloy/tempers of EN 1999 1-1, if reliable material properties at elevated temperatures are available or the simplified assumptions in 5.2.1 are applied.
1.2   Assumptions
(1)   In addition to the general assumptions of EN 1990, the following assumptions apply:
-   the choice of the relevant design fire scenario is made by appropriate qualified and experienced personnel, or is given by the relevant national regulation.
-   any active and passive fire protection systems taken into account in the design will be adequately maintained.
(2)   For the design of new structures, EN 1999 is intended to be used, for direct application, together with EN 1990, EN 1991, EN 1992, EN 1993, EN 1994, EN 1995, EN 1997, EN 1998 and EN 1999.
(3)   EN 1999 is intended to be used in conjunction with:
-   European Standards for construction products relevant for aluminium structures
-   EN 1090-1, Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 1: Requirements for conformity assessment of structural components
-   EN 1090-3, Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 3: Technical requirements for aluminium structures

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1.1 Scope of EN 1999-1-3
(1) This document gives the basis for the design of aluminium alloy structures subject to fatigue in the ultimate limit state.
(2) This document gives rules for:
- safe life design;
- damage tolerant design;
- design assisted by testing.
(3) This document does not cover pressurized containment vessels or pipework.
1.2 Assumptions
(1) The general assumptions of EN 1990 apply.
(2) The provisions of EN 1999-1-1 apply.
(3) EN 1999-1-3 is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1990, EN 1991 (all parts), relevant parts in EN 1992 to EN 1999, EN 1090-1 and EN 1090-3 for requirements for execution, and ENs, EADs and ETAs for construction products relevant to aluminium structures.

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1.1   Scope of FprEN 1993 1 1
(1) FprEN 1993 1 1 gives basic design rules for steel structures.
(2) It also gives supplementary provisions for the structural design of steel buildings. These supplementary provisions are indicated by the letter "B" after the paragraph number, thus (  )B.
1.2   Assumptions
(1) The assumptions of EN 1990 apply to FprEN 1993 1 1.
(2) EN 1993 is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1990, EN 1991 (all parts), the parts of EN 1992 to EN 1999 where steel structures or steel components are referred to within those documents, EN 1090 2, EN 1090 4 and ENs, EADs and ETAs for construction products relevant to steel structures.

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(1) This document provides an alternative method for the stability verification of steel members under compression axial force and bending moment, with reference to EN 1993 1 1.
NOTE   For the applicability of this document, see Clause 4.
(2) The method given in this document applies to uniform steel members with double symmetric cross-section under axial compression force and bi-axial bending.

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1.1   Scope of FprCEN/TS 19101
(1) This document applies to the design of buildings, bridges and other civil engineering structures in fibre-polymer composite materials, including permanent and temporary structures. It complies with the principles and requirements for the safety, serviceability and durability of structures, the basis of their design and verification that are given in EN 1990.
NOTE   In this document, fibre-polymer composite materials are referred to as composite materials or as composites.
(2) This document is only concerned with the requirements for resistance, serviceability, durability and fire resistance of composite structures.
NOTE 1   Specific requirements concerning seismic design are not considered.
NOTE 2   Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or acoustic insulation, are not considered.
(3) This document gives a general basis for the design of composite structures composed of (i) composite members, or (ii) combinations of composite members and members of other materials (hybrid-composite structures), and (iii) the joints between these members.
(4) This document applies to composite structures in which the values of material temperature in members, joints and components in service conditions are (i) higher than -40 °C and (ii) lower than   - 20 °C, where   is the glass transition temperature of composite, core and adhesive materials, defined according to 5.1(1).
(5) This document applies to:
(i) composite members, i.e. profiles and sandwich panels, and
(ii) bolted, bonded and hybrid joints and their connections.
NOTE 1   Profiles and sandwich panels can be applied in structural systems such as beams, columns, frames, trusses, slabs, plates and shells.
NOTE 2   Sandwich panels include homogenous core and web-core panels. In web-core panels, the cells between webs can be filled (e.g. with foam) or remain empty (e.g. panels from pultruded profiles).
NOTE 3   This document does not apply to sandwich panels made of metallic face sheets.
NOTE 4   Built-up members can result from the assembly of two or more profiles, through bolting and/or adhesive bonding.
NOTE 5   The main manufacturing processes of composite members include pultrusion, filament winding, hand layup, resin transfer moulding (RTM), resin infusion moulding (RIM), vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM).
NOTE 6   This document does not apply to composite cables or special types of civil engineering works (e.g. pressure vessels, tanks or chemical storage containers).
(6) This document applies to:
(i) the composite components of composite members, i.e. composite plies, composite laminates, sandwich cores and plates or profiles, and
(ii) the components of joints or their connections, i.e. connection plates or profiles (e.g. cleats), bolts, and adhesive layers.
NOTE 1   Composite components are composed of composite materials (i.e. fibres and matrix resins) and core materials. Components of joints and their connections are also composed of composite, steel or adhesive materials.
NOTE 2   The fibre architecture of composite components can comprise a single type of fibres or a hybrid of two or more types of fibres.
NOTE 3   This document does not apply to composite components used for internal reinforcement of concrete structures (composite rebars) or strengthening of existing structures (composite rebars, strips or sheets).
(7) This document applies to composite materials, comprising:
(i) glass, carbon, basalt or aramid fibres, and
(ii) a matrix based on unsaturated polyester, vinylester, epoxy or phenolic thermoset resins.

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(1) The basis for the design of building and civil engineering works in masonry is given in this Part 1-1 of EN 1996, which deals with unreinforced masonry, reinforced masonry and confined masonry. Principles for the design of prestressed masonry are also given. This Part 1-1 of EN 1996 is not valid for masonry elements with a plan area of less than 0,04 m2.
(2) For those types of structures not covered entirely, for new structural uses for established materials, for new materials, or where actions and other influences outside normal experience have to be resisted, the provisions given in this Part 1-1 of EN 1996 may be applicable, but may need to be supplemented.
(3) Part 1-1 of EN 1996 gives detailed rules which are mainly applicable to ordinary buildings. The applicability of these rules may be limited, for practical reasons or due to simplifications; any limits of applicability are given in the text where necessary.
(4) Part 1-1 of EN 1996 does not cover:
-   resistance to fire (which is dealt with in EN 1996-1-2);
-   particular aspects of special types of building (for example, dynamic effects on tall buildings);
-   particular aspects of special types of civil engineering works (such as masonry bridges, dams, chimneys or liquid-retaining structures);
-   particular aspects of special types of structures (such as arches or domes);
-   masonry where gypsum, with or without cement, mortars are used;
-   masonry where the units are not laid in a regular pattern of courses (rubble masonry);
-   masonry reinforced with other materials than steel.

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1.1   Scope of CEN/TS 19103
(1)   CEN/TS 19103 gives general design rules for timber-concrete composite structures.
(2)   It provides requirements for materials, design parameters, connections, detailing and execution for timber-concrete composite structures. Recommendations for environmental parameters (temperature and moisture content), design methods and test methods are given in the Annexes.
(3)   It includes rules common to many types of timber-concrete composite, but does not include details for the design of glued timber-concrete composites, nor for bridges.
NOTE   For the design of glued timber-concrete composites or bridges alternative references are available.
(4)   It covers the design of timber-concrete composite structures in both quasi-constant and variable environmental conditions. For ease of use, it provides simple design rules for quasi-constant environmental conditions and more complex rules for variable environmental conditions.
1.2   Assumptions
(1)   The general assumptions of EN 1990 apply.
(2)   CEN/TS 19103 is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1990, EN 1991 (all parts), EN  1992 (all parts), EN  1994 (all parts), EN 1995 (all parts), EN 1998 (all parts) when timber structures are built in seismic regions, and ENs for construction products relevant to timber structures.

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1.1      Scope of CEN/TS 19100 3
(1) This document gives design rules for mechanically supported glass components primarily subjected to in-plane loading. It also covers construction rules for mechanical joints for in-plane loaded glass components.
NOTE   In-plane loaded glass elements are primarily subjected to in-plane loads, e.g. transferred from adjacent parts of a structure. They can also be subjected to out-of-plane loading.
1.2      Assumptions
(1) The assumptions of EN 1990 apply to this document.
(2) This document is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1990, EN 1991 (all parts), EN 1993-1-1, EN 1995 1 1, EN 1998 1, EN 1999 1 1 and EN 12488.

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1.1   Scope of FprCEN/TS 19100-1
(1) FprCEN/TS 19100-1 gives basic design rules for mechanically supported glass components. This document is concerned with the requirements for resistance, serviceability, fracture characteristics and glass component failure consequences in relation to human safety, robustness, redundancy and durability of glass structures.
(2) This document covers the basis of design, materials, durability and structural design.
(3) This document also covers construction rules for the structural design of glass components.
1.2   Assumptions
(1) The assumptions of EN 1990 apply to FprCEN/TS 19100-1.
(2) This document is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1990, EN 1991 (all parts), EN 1993-1-1, EN 1995 1 1, EN 1998 1, EN 1999 1 1 and EN 12488.

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1.1   Scope of FprCEN/TS 19100 2
(1) FprCEN/TS 19100 2 gives basic structural design rules for mechanically supported glass components primarily subjected to out of plane loading. Out of plane loaded glass components are made of flat or curved glass components.
NOTE   Out of plane loads are loads acting normal (e.g wind) to or having a component (e.g dead load, snow, ...) acting normal to the glass plane.
1.2   Assumptions
(1) The assumptions of EN 1990 apply to FprCEN/TS 19100-2.
(2) This document is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1990, EN 1991 (all parts), EN 1993-1-1, EN 1995 1 1, EN 1998 1, EN 1999 1 1 and EN 12488.

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1.1   Scope of CEN/TS 17440
(1)This document provides additional or amended provisions to EN 1990 to cover the assessment of existing structures (see EN 1990:2002, 1.1(4)), and the retained parts of existing structures that are being modified, extended, strengthened or retrofitted.
NOTE 1   The assessment of an existing structure is, in many aspects, different from the design of a new structure, see Introduction.
NOTE 2   There can be some aspects of EN 1990 that are required for design but are not applicable for assessment. The definition of those aspects of EN 1990 that are not applicable can be included in the definition of the assessment objectives and the approach to the assessment, see 5.
NOTE 3   This document is based on the general requirements and principles of structural reliability provided in Eurocodes EN 1990 and EN 1991.
(2) This document covers general principles regarding actions for assessment complementing EN 1991.
NOTE   Supplementary provisions for seismic actions due to earthquake are provided in EN 1998.
(3) This document includes general principles for the assessment of the structural resistance of existing structures.
NOTE   The specific models used to assess resistance are not provided in this document and will depend on the materials and structure types.
(4) This document does not provide specific rules for initiation of assessment.
(5) This document does not provide specific rules on how to undertake interventions that can be carried out as a result of an assessment.
(6) This document does not cover the design of new elements that will be integrated into an existing structure.
NOTE   For the design of new elements, see EN 1990.
1.2   Assumptions
(1) The general assumptions of CEN/TS 17440 are:
-   the assessment of the structure is made by appropriately qualified and experienced personnel;
-   adequate supervision and quality control is provided during the assessment process;
-   the structure will be used in accordance with the assessment assumptions;
-   the structure will be maintained in accordance with the assessment assumptions.

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1.1   Scope of EN 1993-1-13
1.1.1   General
(1) This document gives supplementary provisions that extend the application of EN 1993-1-1 and EN 1993-1-5 to the design of rolled and welded steel sections with various shapes of web openings. The following cases are considered:
-   rolled or welded beams with single or widely spaced web openings;
-   rolled or welded beams with closely spaced web openings;
-   cellular beams with circular openings made by cutting and re-welding two parts of steel sections that may be different in dimensions;
-   beams with hexagonal and sinusoidal openings made by cutting and re-welding two parts of steel sections that may be different in dimensions.
(2) This document applies to uniform members with I or H profiles, which are symmetric about the weak axis. It does not apply to non-prismatic or curved beams although the same principles can apply.
(3) This document applies to steel beams with web openings that are subjected to sagging (positive) or to hogging (negative) bending moments.
(4) This document covers the verification of the resistance at the openings and their effects on the global behaviour of the beam, including lateral torsional buckling.
(5) Alternative methods are presented for beams with circular openings and with sinusoidal openings in which the forces and resistances are calculated by increments around or along the openings and which are suitable for computer methods.
(6) This document applies to web slenderness, hw/tw, not exceeding 121ε. The local checks at and between adjacent openings apply to web slenderness up to this limit. The material parameter ε is defined in EN 1993-1-1:2022, 5.2.5 (2).
NOTE   The limit of 121ε is the limit of a Class 4 web for a steel section with equal flanges. It is used as a convenient limit for the application of this document, including mono-symmetric sections.
(7) This document does not cover fatigue. In case of fatigue, EN 1993-1-9 applies.
(8) This document does not cover fire design. For the design in case of fire, EN 1993-1-2 applies.
(9) This document does not cover the buckling verification of members with web openings under axial force.
1.1.2   Shapes of web openings
(1) The different shapes of web openings that are considered in this document are shown in Figure 1.1.
Figure 1.1 - Different shapes of web openings in steel beams
1.1.3   Stiffened openings
(1) This document also covers openings in the web of beams that are reinforced by longitudinal stiffeners and/or transverse stiffeners on one or both sides of the web, see Figure 1.2.
NOTE   The National Annex can give rules for alternative types of stiffener.
Figure 1.2 - Stiffening of openings in beam webs
1.2   Assumptions
(1) Unless specifically stated, EN 1990, the EN 1991 series and EN 1993-1-1 apply.
(2) The design methods given in EN 1993-1-13 are applicable if:
-   the execution quality is as specified in EN 1090-2, and
-   the construction materials and products used are as specified in the relevant parts of the EN 1993 series, or in the relevant material and product specifications.

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1.1   General
(1) This European Standard provides a design method for fastenings (connection of structural elements and non-structural elements to structural components), which are used to transmit actions to the concrete. This design method uses physical models which are based on a combination of tests and numerical analysis consistent with EN 1990:2002, 5.2.
The requirements for the transmission of the fastener loads within the concrete member to its supports are given in EN 1992-1-1 and Annex A of this EN.
Inserts embedded in precast concrete elements during production, under Factory Production Control (FPC) conditions and with the due reinforcement, intended for use only during transient situations for lifting and handling, are covered by CEN/TR 15728.
(2) This EN is intended for safety related applications in which the failure of fastenings may result in collapse or partial collapse of the structure, cause risk to human life or lead to significant economic loss. In this context it also covers non-structural elements.
(3) The support of the fixture can be either statically determinate or statically indeterminate. Each support can consist of one fastener or a group of fasteners.
(4) This EN is valid for applications which fall within the scope of the EN 1992 series. In applications where special considerations apply, e.g. nuclear power plants or civil defence structures, modifications can be necessary.
(5) This EN does not cover the design of the fixture. The requirements for the design of the fixture are given in the appropriate Standards and fulfil the requirements on the fixture as given in this EN.
(6) This document relies on characteristic resistances and distances which are stated in a European Technical Product Specification (see Annex E). At least the characteristics of Annex E are given in a European Technical Product Specification for the corresponding loading conditions providing a basis for the design methods of this EN.
NOTE   The numerical values for certain parameters given in Notes can be used for pre-dimensioning. The values for verification are given in the European Technical Product Specifications and may be different.
1.2   Type of fasteners and fastening groups
(1)   This EN uses the fastener design theory ) (see Figure 1.1) and applies to:
a)   cast-in fasteners such as headed fasteners, anchor channels with rigid connection (e.g. welded, forged) between anchor and channel;
b)   post-installed mechanical fasteners such as expansion fasteners, undercut fasteners and concrete screws;
c)   post-installed bonded fasteners and bonded expansion fasteners.
(2)   For other types of fasteners modifications of the design provisions can be necessary.
(3)   This EN applies to fasteners with established suitability for the specified application in concrete covered by provisions, which refer to this EN and provide data required by this EN. The suitability of the fastener is stated in the relevant European Technical Product Specification.
(...)
(4)   This EN applies to single fasteners and groups of fasteners. In a group of fasteners the loads are applied to the individual fasteners of the group by means of a common fixture. In a group of fasteners this European Standard applies only if fasteners of the same type and size are used.
(5)   The configurations of fastenings with cast-in place headed fasteners and post-installed fasteners covered by this EN are shown in Figure 1.2.
(6)   For anchor channels the number of anchors is not limited.
(...)
(7)   Post-installed ribbed reinforcing bars used to connect concrete members are covered by a European Technical Product Specification. This EN applies when connections are designed in accordance with EN 1992-1-1.
1.3   Fastener dimensions and materials
(1)   This EN applies to fasteners with a minimum diameter or a minimum thread size of 6 mm (M6) or a corresponding cross section. (....)

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1.1   General
This Technical Report provides design rules for fasteners used to connect statically indeterminate non-structural light weight systems (e.g. suspended ceilings, pipe work, ducting) to concrete members such as walls or floors (see Figure 1)).
The proposed design model may be applied to post-installed mechanical and bonded anchors covered by EN 1992-4:2017, 1.2. Their suitability will be confirmed in a European Technical Product Specification.
The design rules assume the following:
-   under extreme conditions (e.g. large crack width) excessive slip or failure of a fastener might occur;
-   elements or systems are attached with at least three fixing points with one or more fasteners at each fixing point;
-   where more than one fastener is used at a fixing point (MF, see Figure 1), only fasteners of the same type, size and length are used;
-   the attached system is sufficiently stiff to transfer the load at any fixing point to adjacent fixing points without significantly impairing the performance characteristics of the system both at serviceability and ultimate limit states.
(...)
This Technical Report applies to non-structural applications in structures covered by EN 1992-1-1. In applications where special considerations apply, e.g. nuclear power plants or civil defence structures, modifications may be necessary.
This document does not cover the design of the fixture. The design of the fixture will be carried out to comply with the appropriate Standards.
1.2   Type of fasteners
Post-installed fasteners according to EN 1992-4.
1.3   Fastener dimensions and materials
EN 1992-4:2017, 1.3 applies with the following addition: In precast pre-stressed hollow core elements the minimum embedment depth may be reduced to a value to ensure proper functioning if placed in a flange (wall) of minimum thickness of 17 mm. In this case the minimum embedment depth and the admissible position of the fastener in the hollow core slab given in the relevant European Technical Product Specification will be observed (Figure 2).
(...)-
1.4   Fastener loading
Loading on the fastenings will only be quasi static. Fatigue, impact and seismic loads are not covered.
Any axial compression on the fixture will be transmitted to the concrete either without acting on the fastener or via fasteners suitable for resisting compression.
1.5   Concrete strength
EN 1992-4 applies.
1.6   Concrete member loading
EN 1992-4 applies. However, fatigue, impact and seismic loads are not covered.
1.7   Concrete member dimensions
The minimum thickness of members in which fasteners are installed is at least 80 mm unless otherwise specified in the European Technical Product Specification. For precast pre-stressed hollow core elements, the minimum wall thickness is 17 mm.

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EN 1992-4:2018 covers anchor channels located in cracked or uncracked concrete subjected to tensile loads and/or shear loads transverse to the longitudinal channel axis as well as combinations of these loads. Shear loads acting in direction of the longitudinal axis of the channel and combinations of shear loads acting transverse and in direction of the longitudinal axis of the channel, combinations of tensile loads and shear loads acting in direction of the longitudinal axis of the channel and combinations of loads in all three directions are excluded.
This Technical Report provides design rules for anchor channels under static and quasi-static shear loads acting in direction of the longitudinal channel axis and all possible combinations of shear and tension loads acting on the channel as well as design rules for anchor channels with supplementary reinforcement to take up shear loads, additional and alternative to the provisions of EN 1992- 4:2018. All relevant failure modes are considered and will be verified. Fatigue, impact and seismic loads are not covered.
The design rules in this document are only valid for anchor channels with a European Technical Product Specification. The design provisions for shear loads acting in direction of the longitudinal axis of the channel cover the following anchor channels and applications:
-   Anchor channels with 2 or 3 anchors.
-   Anchor channels where the shear load in the longitudinal axis of the channel is transferred to the channel by corresponding locking channel bolts creating mechanical interlock by means of a notch in the channel lips or serrated channel bolts which interlock with serrated lips of the channel (Figure 1).
-   Anchor channels produced from steel with at least two metal anchors rigidly connected to the back of the channel (e.g. by welding, forging or screwing). The anchor channels are placed flush with the concrete surface. A fixture is connected to the anchor channel by channel bolts with nut and washer.
-   Anchor channels close to the edge placed either parallel or transverse to the edge of the concrete member. The design provisions for concrete edge failure do not cover channel orientations inclined to the concrete edge.
The design method for anchor channels loaded in shear in direction of the longitudinal axis of the channel follows closely the existing design model for headed fasteners. For reasons of simplicity modifications specific for anchor channels are used where necessary.
The design provisions for the supplementary reinforcement to take up shear loads in case of anchor channels situated parallel to the edge and loaded in shear transverse to the longitudinal axis apply to anchor channels with unlimited number of anchors.
Examples of anchor channels and channel bolts ensuring mechanical interlock are given in Figure 1.

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This Technical Report gives provisions for design of ultimate limit states in addition to EN 1992 4 for headed and post-installed fasteners excluding concrete screws, which only transmit static actions to the concrete, when the loads on individual fasteners are determined according to plastic analysis of the joint where only equilibrium conditions but no compatibility conditions are considered. Fatigue, impact and seismic loads are not covered.

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This Technical Report reviews current practice with regard to designing, constructing and maintaining the parts of bridges and tracks where railway rails are installed across discontinuities in supporting structures. Current Standards and Codes of Practice are examined and some particular case histories are reviewed. The Technical Report gives guidance with respect to current best practice and makes recommendations for future standards development and also identifies areas in which further research and development is needed.

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DOP of 12 months! * 2017-03-22 FJD - No xml version as mother version was not originally published as xml.

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DOP of 12 months!
2017-03-29 FJD - No xml version as the mother standard EN 1993-4-2:2007 was not edited as an xml deliverable.

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Assessment of loads imposed by snow to be used in the structural design of buildings and civil engineering works on sites at altitudes below 1500 m.

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- Grades of stainless steel covered in EN 1993-1-4
- Section classification
- Shear buckling
- Cold worked grads (including undermatched welding)
- Grade selection and durability

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Assessment of actions arising from accidental human activity including impact and collisions from wheeled vehicles, ships, derailed trains and helicopters on roofs and gas explosions in buildings - their analysis and determination of design values to be used in the structural design of buildings and civil engineering works. Procedures for risk analysis and technical measures to reduce consequences.

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General rules for the structural design of buildings and civil engineering works made of timber and/or wood-based panels, either singly or compositely with concrete, steel or other materials. Detailed rules for structural design of buildings.

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Supplementary to Part 1-1. Additional and varied rules to be used for the design of composite structures which are required to avoid premature structural collapse and to limit the spread of fire in the accidental situation of exposure to fire.

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Complementary to Eurocodes 1 to 7 and 9. Additional provisions for the structural design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in seismic regions where risk to life and/or risk of structural damage are required to be reduced. General requirements and rules for assessment of seismic actions and combinations with other actions. General rules for earthquake resistant design of buildings and specific rules for buildings and elements constructed with each of the various structural materials.

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TC - Modifications from EN 1998-3:2005/AC:2010 on the English mother reference version regarding the "National annex for EN 1998-3", Clauses 2 and 4 and Annexes A, B and C + New modifications in Annex A.

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TC - Modifications to the National Annex, 1.1, 4.2, 4.6 and A.2.4.

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CEN/TC 250 - Modifications in Sections 1 and 2.

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CEN/TC 250 - Editorial modifications to 1.2, 2.5, 5.2.1.1, 5.2.2.2, 5.2.2.3, 6.1.2 and Annex C.

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(1)   The scope of Eurocode 8 is defined in EN 1998-1:2004, 1.1.1 and the scope of this Standard is defined in 1.1.1. Additional parts of Eurocode 8 are indicated in EN 1998-1:2004, 1.1.3.
(2)   Within the framework of the scope set forth in EN 1998-1:2004, this part of the Standard contains the particular Performance Requirements, Compliance Criteria and Application Rules applicable to the design of earthquake resistant bridges.
(3)   This Part primarily covers the seismic design of bridges in which the horizontal seismic actions are mainly resisted through bending of the piers or at the abutments; i.e. of bridges composed of vertical or nearly vertical pier systems supporting the traffic deck superstructure. It is also applicable to the seismic design of cable-stayed and arched bridges, although its provisions should not be considered as fully covering these cases.
(4)   Suspension bridges, timber and masonry bridges, moveable bridges and floating bridges are not included in the scope of this Part.
(5)   This Part contains only those provisions that, in addition to other relevant Eurocodes or relevant Parts of EN 1998, should be observed for the design of bridges in seismic regions. In cases of low seismicity, simplified design criteria may be established (see 2.3.7(1)).
(6)   The following topics are dealt with in the text of this Part:
Basic requirements and Compliance Criteria,
Seismic Action,
Analysis,
Strength Verification,
Detailing.
This Part also includes a special section on seismic isolation with provisions covering the application of this method of seismic protection to bridges.
(7)   Annex G contains rules for the calculation of capacity design effects.
(8)   Annex J contains rules regarding the variation of design properties of seismic isolator units and how such variation may be taken into account in design.

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(1)  EN 1991-1-4 gives guidance on the determination of natural wind actions for the structural design of building and civil engineering works for each of the loaded areas under consideration. This includes the whole structure or parts of the structure or elements attached to the structure, e. g. components, cladding units and their fixings, safety and noise barriers.
(2)  This Part is applicable to:
   .  Buildings and civil engineering works with heights up to 200 m. See also (11).  
   .  Bridges  having  no  span  greater  than  200 m,  provided  that they satisfy the criteria for dynamic response, see (11) and 8.2.
(3)  This  part  is  intended  to  predict  characteristic  wind actions  on land-based structures, their components and appendages.
(4)  Certain aspects necessary to determine wind actions on a structure are dependent on the location and on the availability and quality of meteorological  data, the type of terrain, etc. These need to be provided in the National Annex and Annex A, through National choice by notes in the text as indicated. Default values and methods are given in the main text, where the National Annex does not provide information.
(5)  Annex A gives illustrations of the terrain categories and provides rules for the effects of orography including  displacement  height,  roughness  change,  influence  of  landscape  and  influence  of neighbouring structures.
(6)  Annex B and C give alternative procedures for calculating the structural factor cscd.
(7)  Annex D gives cscd factors for different types of structures.
(8)  Annex E gives rules for vortex induced response and some guidance on other aeroelastic effects.
(9)  Annex F gives dynamic characteristics of structures with linear behaviour
(10) This part does not give guidance on local thermal effects on the characteristic wind, e.g. strong arctic thermal surface inversion or funnelling or tornadoes.
11) This part does not give guidance on the following aspects:

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TC - Modifications to the English mother version to the Foreword, to Clauses 1, 2 and 5 and to Annexes B, C and D.
2013: Originator of XML version: first setup pilot of CCMC in 2012

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TC - Modifications in the English mother reference version to the Table of Contents, Clauses 1, 4, 5 and Annexes A, B, D, E, F, I, J, K and X.
2013: Originator of XML version: first setup pilot of CCMC in 2012

  • Corrigendum
    9 pages
    English language
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