Additive manufacturing - Design - Requirements, guidelines and recommendations (ISO/ASTM 52910:2018)

This document gives requirements, guidelines and recommendations for using additive manufacturing (AM) in product design.
It is applicable during the design of all types of products, devices, systems, components or parts that are fabricated by any type of AM system. This document helps determine which design considerations can be utilized in a design project or to take advantage of the capabilities of an AM process.
General guidance and identification of issues are supported, but specific design solutions and process-specific or material-specific data are not supported.
The intended audience comprises three types of users:
—          designers who are designing products to be fabricated in an AM system and their managers;
—          students who are learning mechanical design and computer-aided design; and
—          developers of AM design guidelines and design guidance systems.

Additive Fertigung - Konstruktion - Anforderungen, Richtlinien und Empfehlungen (ISO/ASTM 52910:2018)

Dieses Dokument enthält Anforderungen, Richtlinien und Empfehlungen für die Anwendung der additiven Fertigung (en: Additive Manufacturing, AM) in der Produktgestaltung.
Das Dokument gilt während der Konstruktion aller Arten von Produkten, Geräten, Systemen, Bauteilen oder Teilen, die durch irgendeine Art von additivem Fertigungssystem hergestellt werden. Dieses Dokument hilft dabei, zu bestimmen, welche Designerwägungen in einem Konstruktionsprojekt genutzt werden können, oder die Vorteile der Möglichkeiten des AM Prozesses zu nutzen.
Eine allgemeine Anleitung und eine Identifizierung von Problemen werden unterstützt, spezifische Designlösungen und prozess- oder materialspezifische Daten hingegen nicht.
Die vorgesehene Zielgruppe umfasst drei Arten von Anwendern:
- Designer, die Produkte für die Fertigung in einem AM System gestalten, und ihre Manager;
- Studenten, die mechanische Konstruktion und computergestützte Konstruktion lernen und
- Entwickler von AM-Konstruktionsrichtlinien und -Konstruktionsleitsystemen.

Fabrication additive - Conception - Exigences, lignes directrices et recommandations (ISO/ASTM 52910:2018)

Le présent document donne les exigences, les lignes directrices et les recommandations relatives à l'utilisation de la fabrication additive (FA) dans la conception des produits.
Il est applicable lors de la conception de tous les types de produits, dispositifs, systèmes, composants ou pièces devant être manufacturés par tout type de système FA. Le présent document aide à déterminer les considérations relatives à la conception qui peuvent être utilisées dans le cadre d'un projet de conception ou pour mettre à profit les capacités d'un processus FA.
Le document fournit des recommandations générales et identifie les problèmes, mais ne fournit pas des solutions de conceptions spécifiques et des données spécifiques aux processus ou spécifiques aux matériaux.
Le public visé comprend trois types d'utilisateurs:
—          les concepteurs qui mettent au point des produits destinés à être manufacturés dans un système de fabrication additive ainsi que leurs responsables hiérarchiques;
—          les étudiants apprenant la conception mécanique et la conception assistée par ordinateur; et
—          les personnes qui élaborent les lignes directrices pour la conception en fabrication additive (FA) et les recommandations pour la conception.

Aditivna proizvodnja - Načrtovanje - Zahteve, smernice in priporočila (ISO/ASTM 52910:2018)

Ta dokument določa zahteve, smernice in priporočila za uporabo aditivne proizvodnje (AM) pri načrtovanju izdelkov.
Uporablja se med načrtovanjem vseh vrst izdelkov, naprav, sistemov, komponent ali delov, ki se proizvajajo z aditivnim proizvodnim sistemom katere koli vrste. Ta dokument pomaga določiti, katere vidike načrtovanja je mogoče uporabiti v projektu načrtovanja, oziroma ali je mogoče izkoristiti prednosti zmogljivosti aditivnega proizvodnega procesa.
Podprte so splošne smernice in identifikacija vidikov, medtem ko posamezne rešitve načrtovanja in podatki, značilni za procese ali materiale, niso podprti.
Ciljna skupina zajema tri vrste uporabnikov:
– načrtovalce, ki načrtujejo izdelke, ki bodo proizvedeni v aditivnem proizvodnem sistemu, in njihove vodje;
– študente, ki se učijo mehanskega in računalniško podprtega načrtovanja; ter
– razvijalce smernic za aditivno proizvodno načrtovanje in sistemov za vodenje načrtovanja.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
30-Jan-2020
Withdrawal Date
29-Apr-2020
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Start Date
09-Oct-2019
Due Date
24-May-2021
Completion Date
09-Oct-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
01-december-2019
Aditivna proizvodnja - Načrtovanje - Zahteve, smernice in priporočila (ISO/ASTM
52910:2018)
Additive manufacturing - Design - Requirements, guidelines and recommendations
(ISO/ASTM 52910:2018)
Additive Fertigung - Konstruktion - Anforderungen, Richtlinien und Empfehlungen
(ISO/ASTM 52910:2018)

Fabrication additive - Conception - Exigences, lignes directrices et recommandations

(ISO/ASTM 52910:2018)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
ICS:
25.030 3D-tiskanje Additive manufacturing
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
EN ISO/ASTM 52910
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
October 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 25.030
English Version
Additive manufacturing - Design - Requirements,
guidelines and recommendations (ISO/ASTM 52910:2018)

Fabrication additive - Conception - Exigences, lignes Additive Fertigung - Konstruktion - Anforderungen,

directrices et recommandations (ISO/ASTM Richtlinien und Empfehlungen (ISO/ASTM
52910:2018) 52910:2018)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 12 August 2019.

This European Standard was corrected and reissued by the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre on 30 October 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIO N
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUN G
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO/ASTM 52910:2018 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 261 "Additive

manufacturing” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over as

EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 438 “Additive Manufacturing” the

secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2020, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by April 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO/ASTM 52910:2018 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019 without

any modification.
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO/ASTM
STANDARD 52910
First edition
2018-07
Additive manufacturing — Design
— Requirements, guidelines and
recommendations
Fabrication additive — Conception — Exigences, lignes directrices et
recommandations
Reference number
ISO/ASTM 52910:2018(E)
ISO/ASTM International 2018
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
ISO/ASTM 52910:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/ASTM International 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may be

reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester. In the United States, such requests should be sent to ASTM International.

ISO copyright office ASTM International
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, USA
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11 Phone: +610 832 9634
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47 Fax: +610 832 9635
Email: copyright@iso.org Email: khooper@astm.org
Website: www.iso.org Website: www.astm.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/ASTM International 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
ISO/ASTM 52910:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Purpose .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Design opportunities and limitations ............................................................................................................................................ 6

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Design opportunities ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Design limitations................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6 Design considerations .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Product considerations .................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3 Product usage considerations .................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.2 Thermal environment ..............................................................................................................................................10

6.3.3 Chemical exposure ......................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.4 Radiation exposure .....................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.5 Other exposure ...............................................................................................................................................................11

6.4 Sustainability considerations ..................................................................................................................................................11

6.5 Business considerations ..............................................................................................................................................................12

6.6 Geometry considerations ............................................................................................................................................................14

6.7 Material property considerations ........................................................................................................................................16

6.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.7.2 Mechanical properties .............................................................................................................................................16

6.7.3 Thermal properties.....................................................................................................................................................17

6.7.4 Electrical properties ..................................................................................................................................................17

6.7.5 Other ........................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.8 Considerations related to different process categories ....................................................................................18

6.8.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.8.2 Specific considerations for different process categories............................................................18

6.8.3 Other considerations .................................................................................................................................................20

6.9 Communication considerations ............................................................................................................................................20

7 Warnings to designers .................................................................................................................................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO/ASTM International 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
ISO/ASTM 52910:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by ISO/TC 261, Additive manufacturing, in cooperation with ASTM F42,

Additive Manufacturing Technologies, on the basis of a partnership agreement between ISO and ASTM

International with the aim to create a common set of ISO/ASTM standards on additive manufacturing.

iv © ISO/ASTM International 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/ASTM 52910:2018(E)
Additive manufacturing — Design — Requirements,
guidelines and recommendations

CAUTION — This document does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any,

associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish

appropriate Health and Safety (H&S) practices and determine the applicability of limitations

prior to use.
1 Scope

This document gives requirements, guidelines and recommendations for using additive manufacturing

(AM) in product design.

It is applicable during the design of all types of products, devices, systems, components or parts that

are fabricated by any type of AM system. This document helps determine which design considerations

can be utilized in a design project or to take advantage of the capabilities of an AM process.

General guidance and identification of issues are supported, but specific design solutions and process-

specific or material-specific data are not supported.
The intended audience comprises three types of users:

— designers who are designing products to be fabricated in an AM system and their managers;

— students who are learning mechanical design and computer-aided design; and
— developers of AM design guidelines and design guidance systems.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/ASTM 52921, Standard terminology for additive manufacturing — Coordinate systems and test

methodologies
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/ASTM 52921 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
© ISO/ASTM International 2018 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
ISO/ASTM 52910:2018(E)
3.1 Additive manufacturing process categories
3.1.1
binder jetting

additive manufacturing process in which a liquid bonding agent is selectively deposited to join powder

materials
[SOURCE: ISO/ASTM 52900:— , 3.2.1]
3.1.2
directed energy deposition

additive manufacturing process in which focused thermal energy is used to fuse materials by melting

as they are being deposited
[SOURCE: ISO/ASTM 52900:—, 3.2.2 — Note 1 to entry has been deleted]
3.1.3
material extrusion

additive manufacturing process in which material is selectively dispensed through a nozzle or orifice

[SOURCE: ISO/ASTM 52900:—, 3.2.3]
3.1.4
material jetting

additive manufacturing process in which droplets of build material are selectively deposited

[SOURCE: ISO/ASTM 52900:—, 3.2.4 — Note 1 to entry has been deleted]
3.1.5
powder bed fusion

additive manufacturing process in which thermal energy selectively fuses regions of a powder bed

[SOURCE: ISO/ASTM 52900:—, 3.2.5]
3.1.6
sheet lamination

additive manufacturing process in which sheets of material are bonded to form an object

[SOURCE: ISO/ASTM 52900:—, 3.2.6 — “a part” has been replaced with “an object”]
3.1.7
vat photopolymerization

additive manufacturing process in which liquid photopolymer in a vat is selectively cured by light-

activated polymerization
[SOURCE: ISO/ASTM 52900:—, 3.2.7]
3.2 Other definitions
3.2.1
design consideration
topic that can influence decisions made by a part designer

Note 1 to entry: The designer determines to what extent the topic can affect the part being designed and takes

appropriate action.
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 52900:2018.
2 © ISO/ASTM International 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
ISO/ASTM 52910:2018(E)
3.2.2
process chain

sequence of manufacturing processes that is necessary for the part to achieve all of its desired

properties
4 Purpose

4.1 This document provides requirements, guidelines and recommendations for designing parts

and products to be produced by AM processes. Conditions of the part or product that favour AM are

highlighted. Similarly, conditions that favour conventional manufacturing processes are also highlighted.

The main elements include the following:
— the opportunities and design freedoms that AM offers designers (Clause 5);

— the issues that designers should consider when designing parts for AM, which comprises the main

content of these guidelines (Clause 6); and

— warnings to designers, or “red flag” issues, that indicate situations that often lead to problems in

many AM systems (Clause 7).

4.2 The overall strategy of design for AM is illustrated in Figure 1. It is a representative process for

designing mechanical parts for structural applications, where cost is the primary decision criterion.

The designer could replace cost with quality, delivery time, or other decision criterion, if applicable.

In addition to technical considerations related to functional, mechanical or process characteristics, the

designer should also consider risks associated with the selection of AM processes.

4.3 The process for identifying general potential for fabrication by AM is illustrated in Figure 2. This is

an expansion of the “identification of general AM potential” box on the left side of Figure 1. As illustrated,

the main decision criteria focus on material availability, whether or not the part fits within a machine’s

build volume, and the identification of at least one part characteristic (customization, lightweighting,

complex geometry) for which AM is particularly well suited. These criteria are representative of many

mechanical engineering applications for technical parts, but are not meant to be complete.

4.4 An expansion for the “AM process selection” box in Figure 1 is presented in Figure 3, illustrating

that the choice of material is critical in identifying a suitable process or processes. If a suitable material

and process combination can be identified, then consideration of other design requirements can proceed,

including surface considerations and geometry, static physical and dynamic physical properties, among

others. These figures are meant to be illustrative of typical practice for many types of mechanical parts,

but should not be interpreted as prescribing necessary practice.
© ISO/ASTM International 2018 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
ISO/ASTM 52910:2018(E)
Figure 1 — Overall strategy for design for AM
4 © ISO/ASTM International 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
ISO/ASTM 52910:2018(E)
Figure 2 — Procedure for identification of AM potential
© ISO/ASTM International 2018 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
ISO/ASTM 52910:2018(E)
Material: metal
Powder bed Material
Main technical issues Material jetting Sheet lamination
fusion extrusion
Surface
Roughness
Staircase effect
Geometrical properties
Geometrical accuracy
Static physical properties
Porosity
Tensile strength
Ductility
Dynamic physical properties
Life cycle fatigue
Figure 3 — Parameters for the AM process selection
5 Design opportunities and limitations
5.1 General

Additive manufacturing differs from other manufacturing processes for several reasons and these

differences lead to unique design opportunities and freedoms that are highlighted here. As a general

rule, if a part can be fabricated economically using a conventional manufacturing process, that part

should probably not be produced using AM. Instead, parts that are good candidates for AM tend to have

complex geometries, custom geometries, low production volumes, special combinations of properties

or characteristics, or some combination of these characteristics. As processes and materials improve,

the emphasis on these characteristics will likely change. In Clause 5, some design opportunities are

highlighted and some typical limitations are identified.
6 © ISO/ASTM International 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
ISO/ASTM 52910:2018(E)
5.2 Design opportunities

5.2.1 Background — AM fabricates parts by adding material in a layer-by-layer manner. Due to the

nature of AM processes, AM has many more degrees of freedom than other manufacturing processes.

For example, a part can be composed of millions of droplets if fabricated in a material jetting process.

Discrete control over millions of operations at micro to nano scales is both an opportunity and a challenge.

Unprecedented levels of interdependence are evident among considerations and manufacturing process

variables, which distinguishes AM from conventional manufacturing processes. Capabilities to take

advantage of design opportunities can be limited by the complexities of process planning.

5.2.2 Overview — The layer-based, additive nature means that virtually any part shapes can be fabricated

without hard tooling, such as moulds, dies or fixtures. Geometries that are customized to individuals

(customers or patients) can be economically fabricated. Very sophisticated geometric constructions

are possible using cellular structures (honeycombs, lattices, foams) or more general structures. Often,

multiple parts that were conventionally manufactured can be replaced with a single part, or smaller

number of parts, that is geometrically more complex than the parts being replaced. This can lead to the

development of parts that are lighter and perform better than the assemblies they replace. Furthermore,

such part count reduction (called part consolidation) has numerous benefits for downstream activities.

Assembly time, repair time, shop floor complexity, replacement part inventory and tooling can be reduced,

leading to cost savings throughout the life of the product. An additional consideration is that geometrically

complex medical models can be fabricated easily from medical image data.

5.2.3 In many AM processes, material compositions or properties can be varied throughout a part. This

capability leads to functionally graded parts, in which desired mechanical property distributions can be

fabricated by varying either material composition or material microstructure. If effective mechanical

properties are desired to vary throughout a part, the designer can achieve this by taking advantage of

the geometric complexity capability of AM processes. If varying material composition or microstructure

is desired, then such variations can often be achieved, but with limits dependent on the specific process

and machine. Across the range of AM processes, some processes enable point-by-point material variation

control, some provide discrete control within a layer, and almost all processes enable discrete control

between layers (vat photopolymerization is the exception). In the material jetting and binder jetting

processes, material composition can be varied in virtually a continuous manner, droplet-to-droplet or

even by mixing droplets. Similarly, the directed energy deposition process can produce variable material

compositions by varying the powder composition that is injected into the melt pool. Discrete control

of material composition can be achieved in material extrusion processes by using multiple deposition

heads, as one example. Powder bed fusion (PBF) processes can have limitations since difficulties can

arise in separating unmelted mixed powders. It is important to note that specific machine capabilities

will change and evolve over time, but the trend is toward increasing material composition flexibility and

property control capability.

5.2.4 A significant opportunity exists to optimize the design of parts to yield unprecedented structural

properties. The concept of “design for functionality” can be realized, meaning that if a part’s functions

can be defined mathematically, the part can be optimized to achieve those functions. Novel topology

and shape optimization methods have been developed in this regard. Resulting designs can have very

complex geometric constructions, utilizing honeycomb, lattice or foam internal structures, can have

complex material compositions and variations, or can have a combination of both. Research is needed in

this area, but some examples of this are emerging.

5.2.5 Other opportunities involve some business considerations. Since no tooling is required for part

fabrication using AM, lead times can be very short. Little investment in part-specific infrastructure is

needed, which enables mass customization and responsiveness to market changes. In the case of repair,

remanufacturing of components could be highly advantageous both from cost as well as lead time

perspectives.
© ISO/ASTM International 2018 – All rights reserved 7
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
ISO/ASTM 52910:2018(E)
5.3 Design limitations

5.3.1 Overview — It is useful to point out design characteristics that indicate situations when AM should

probably not be used. Stated concisely, if a part can be fabricated economically using a conventional

manufacturing process and can meet requirements, then it is not likely to be a good candidate for AM.

The designer should balance cost, value delivered and risks when deciding whether to pursue AM.

5.3.2 A primary advantage of AM processes is their flexibility in fabricating a variety of part shapes,

complex and customized shapes, and possibly complex material distributions. If one desires mass

production of simple part shapes in large production volumes, then AM is not likely to be suitable without

significant improvements in fabrication time and cost.

5.3.3 A designer shall be aware of the material choices available, the variety and quality of feedstocks,

and how the material’s mechanical and other physical properties vary from those used in other

manufacturi
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
01-december-2019
Aditivna proizvodnja - Načrtovanje - Zahteve, smernice in priporočila (ISO/ASTM
52910:2018)
Additive manufacturing - Design - Requirements, guidelines and recommendations
(ISO/ASTM 52910:2018)
Additive Fertigung - Konstruktion - Anforderungen, Richtlinien und Empfehlungen
(ISO/ASTM 52910:2018)

Fabrication additive - Conception - Exigences, lignes directrices et recommandations

(ISO/ASTM 52910:2018)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
ICS:
25.030 3D-tiskanje Additive manufacturing
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
EN ISO/ASTM 52910
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
October 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 25.030
English Version
Additive manufacturing - Design - Requirements,
guidelines and recommendations (ISO/ASTM 52910:2018)

Fabrication additive - Conception - Exigences, lignes Additive Fertigung - Konstruktion - Anforderungen,

directrices et recommandations (ISO/ASTM Richtlinien und Empfehlungen (ISO/ASTM
52910:2018) 52910:2018)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 12 August 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

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United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
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© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO/ASTM 52910:2018 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 261 "Additive

manufacturing” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over as

EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 438 “Additive Manufacturing” the

secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2020, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by April 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO/ASTM 52910:2018 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019 without

any modification.
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO/ASTM
STANDARD 52910
First edition
2018-07
Additive manufacturing — Design
— Requirements, guidelines and
recommendations
Fabrication additive — Conception — Exigences, lignes directrices et
recommandations
Reference number
ISO/ASTM 52910:2018(E)
ISO/ASTM International 2018
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ISO/ASTM 52910:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/ASTM International 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may be

reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester. In the United States, such requests should be sent to ASTM International.

ISO copyright office ASTM International
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/ASTM International 2018 – All rights reserved
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Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Purpose .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Design opportunities and limitations ............................................................................................................................................ 6

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Design opportunities ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Design limitations................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6 Design considerations .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Product considerations .................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3 Product usage considerations .................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.2 Thermal environment ..............................................................................................................................................10

6.3.3 Chemical exposure ......................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.4 Radiation exposure .....................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.5 Other exposure ...............................................................................................................................................................11

6.4 Sustainability considerations ..................................................................................................................................................11

6.5 Business considerations ..............................................................................................................................................................12

6.6 Geometry considerations ............................................................................................................................................................14

6.7 Material property considerations ........................................................................................................................................16

6.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.7.2 Mechanical properties .............................................................................................................................................16

6.7.3 Thermal properties.....................................................................................................................................................17

6.7.4 Electrical properties ..................................................................................................................................................17

6.7.5 Other ........................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.8 Considerations related to different process categories ....................................................................................18

6.8.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.8.2 Specific considerations for different process categories............................................................18

6.8.3 Other considerations .................................................................................................................................................20

6.9 Communication considerations ............................................................................................................................................20

7 Warnings to designers .................................................................................................................................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO/ASTM International 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by ISO/TC 261, Additive manufacturing, in cooperation with ASTM F42,

Additive Manufacturing Technologies, on the basis of a partnership agreement between ISO and ASTM

International with the aim to create a common set of ISO/ASTM standards on additive manufacturing.

iv © ISO/ASTM International 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52910:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/ASTM 52910:2018(E)
Additive manufacturing — Design — Requirements,
guidelines and recommendations

CAUTION — This document does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any,

associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish

appropriate Health and Safety (H&S) practices and determine the applicability of limitations

prior to use.
1 Scope

This document gives requirements, guidelines and recommendations for using additive manufacturing

(AM) in product design.

It is applicable during the design of all types of products, devices, systems, components or parts that

are fabricated by any type of AM system. This document helps determine which design considerations

can be utilized in a design project or to take advantage of the capabilities of an AM process.

General guidance and identification of issues are supported, but specific design solutions and process-

specific or material-specific data are not supported.
The intended audience comprises three types of users:

— designers who are designing products to be fabricated in an AM system and their managers;

— students who are learning mechanical design and computer-aided design; and
— developers of AM design guidelines and design guidance systems.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/ASTM 52921, Standard terminology for additive manufacturing — Coordinate systems and test

methodologies
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/ASTM 52921 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
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3.1 Additive manufacturing process categories
3.1.1
binder jetting

additive manufacturing process in which a liquid bonding agent is selectively deposited to join powder

materials
[SOURCE: ISO/ASTM 52900:— , 3.2.1]
3.1.2
directed energy deposition

additive manufacturing process in which focused thermal energy is used to fuse materials by melting

as they are being deposited
[SOURCE: ISO/ASTM 52900:—, 3.2.2 — Note 1 to entry has been deleted]
3.1.3
material extrusion

additive manufacturing process in which material is selectively dispensed through a nozzle or orifice

[SOURCE: ISO/ASTM 52900:—, 3.2.3]
3.1.4
material jetting

additive manufacturing process in which droplets of build material are selectively deposited

[SOURCE: ISO/ASTM 52900:—, 3.2.4 — Note 1 to entry has been deleted]
3.1.5
powder bed fusion

additive manufacturing process in which thermal energy selectively fuses regions of a powder bed

[SOURCE: ISO/ASTM 52900:—, 3.2.5]
3.1.6
sheet lamination

additive manufacturing process in which sheets of material are bonded to form an object

[SOURCE: ISO/ASTM 52900:—, 3.2.6 — “a part” has been replaced with “an object”]
3.1.7
vat photopolymerization

additive manufacturing process in which liquid photopolymer in a vat is selectively cured by light-

activated polymerization
[SOURCE: ISO/ASTM 52900:—, 3.2.7]
3.2 Other definitions
3.2.1
design consideration
topic that can influence decisions made by a part designer

Note 1 to entry: The designer determines to what extent the topic can affect the part being designed and takes

appropriate action.
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 52900:2018.
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3.2.2
process chain

sequence of manufacturing processes that is necessary for the part to achieve all of its desired

properties
4 Purpose

4.1 This document provides requirements, guidelines and recommendations for designing parts

and products to be produced by AM processes. Conditions of the part or product that favour AM are

highlighted. Similarly, conditions that favour conventional manufacturing processes are also highlighted.

The main elements include the following:
— the opportunities and design freedoms that AM offers designers (Clause 5);

— the issues that designers should consider when designing parts for AM, which comprises the main

content of these guidelines (Clause 6); and

— warnings to designers, or “red flag” issues, that indicate situations that often lead to problems in

many AM systems (Clause 7).

4.2 The overall strategy of design for AM is illustrated in Figure 1. It is a representative process for

designing mechanical parts for structural applications, where cost is the primary decision criterion.

The designer could replace cost with quality, delivery time, or other decision criterion, if applicable.

In addition to technical considerations related to functional, mechanical or process characteristics, the

designer should also consider risks associated with the selection of AM processes.

4.3 The process for identifying general potential for fabrication by AM is illustrated in Figure 2. This is

an expansion of the “identification of general AM potential” box on the left side of Figure 1. As illustrated,

the main decision criteria focus on material availability, whether or not the part fits within a machine’s

build volume, and the identification of at least one part characteristic (customization, lightweighting,

complex geometry) for which AM is particularly well suited. These criteria are representative of many

mechanical engineering applications for technical parts, but are not meant to be complete.

4.4 An expansion for the “AM process selection” box in Figure 1 is presented in Figure 3, illustrating

that the choice of material is critical in identifying a suitable process or processes. If a suitable material

and process combination can be identified, then consideration of other design requirements can proceed,

including surface considerations and geometry, static physical and dynamic physical properties, among

others. These figures are meant to be illustrative of typical practice for many types of mechanical parts,

but should not be interpreted as prescribing necessary practice.
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Figure 1 — Overall strategy for design for AM
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Figure 2 — Procedure for identification of AM potential
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Material: metal
Powder bed Material
Main technical issues Material jetting Sheet lamination
fusion extrusion
Surface
Roughness
Staircase effect
Geometrical properties
Geometrical accuracy
Static physical properties
Porosity
Tensile strength
Ductility
Dynamic physical properties
Life cycle fatigue
Figure 3 — Parameters for the AM process selection
5 Design opportunities and limitations
5.1 General

Additive manufacturing differs from other manufacturing processes for several reasons and these

differences lead to unique design opportunities and freedoms that are highlighted here. As a general

rule, if a part can be fabricated economically using a conventional manufacturing process, that part

should probably not be produced using AM. Instead, parts that are good candidates for AM tend to have

complex geometries, custom geometries, low production volumes, special combinations of properties

or characteristics, or some combination of these characteristics. As processes and materials improve,

the emphasis on these characteristics will likely change. In Clause 5, some design opportunities are

highlighted and some typical limitations are identified.
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5.2 Design opportunities

5.2.1 Background — AM fabricates parts by adding material in a layer-by-layer manner. Due to the

nature of AM processes, AM has many more degrees of freedom than other manufacturing processes.

For example, a part can be composed of millions of droplets if fabricated in a material jetting process.

Discrete control over millions of operations at micro to nano scales is both an opportunity and a challenge.

Unprecedented levels of interdependence are evident among considerations and manufacturing process

variables, which distinguishes AM from conventional manufacturing processes. Capabilities to take

advantage of design opportunities can be limited by the complexities of process planning.

5.2.2 Overview — The layer-based, additive nature means that virtually any part shapes can be fabricated

without hard tooling, such as moulds, dies or fixtures. Geometries that are customized to individuals

(customers or patients) can be economically fabricated. Very sophisticated geometric constructions

are possible using cellular structures (honeycombs, lattices, foams) or more general structures. Often,

multiple parts that were conventionally manufactured can be replaced with a single part, or smaller

number of parts, that is geometrically more complex than the parts being replaced. This can lead to the

development of parts that are lighter and perform better than the assemblies they replace. Furthermore,

such part count reduction (called part consolidation) has numerous benefits for downstream activities.

Assembly time, repair time, shop floor complexity, replacement part inventory and tooling can be reduced,

leading to cost savings throughout the life of the product. An additional consideration is that geometrically

complex medical models can be fabricated easily from medical image data.

5.2.3 In many AM processes, material compositions or properties can be varied throughout a part. This

capability leads to functionally graded parts, in which desired mechanical property distributions can be

fabricated by varying either material composition or material microstructure. If effective mechanical

properties are desired to vary throughout a part, the designer can achieve this by taking advantage of

the geometric complexity capability of AM processes. If varying material composition or microstructure

is desired, then such variations can often be achieved, but with limits dependent on the specific process

and machine. Across the range of AM processes, some processes enable point-by-point material variation

control, some provide discrete control within a layer, and almost all processes enable discrete control

between layers (vat photopolymerization is the exception). In the material jetting and binder jetting

processes, material composition can be varied in virtually a continuous manner, droplet-to-droplet or

even by mixing droplets. Similarly, the directed energy deposition process can produce variable material

compositions by varying the powder composition that is injected into the melt pool. Discrete control

of material composition can be achieved in material extrusion processes by using multiple deposition

heads, as one example. Powder bed fusion (PBF) processes can have limitations since difficulties can

arise in separating unmelted mixed powders. It is important to note that specific machine capabilities

will change and evolve over time, but the trend is toward increasing material composition flexibility and

property control capability.

5.2.4 A significant opportunity exists to optimize the design of parts to yield unprecedented structural

properties. The concept of “design for functionality” can be realized, meaning that if a part’s functions

can be defined mathematically, the part can be optimized to achieve those functions. Novel topology

and shape optimization methods have been developed in this regard. Resulting designs can have very

complex geometric constructions, utilizing honeycomb, lattice or foam internal structures, can have

complex material compositions and variations, or can have a combination of both. Research is needed in

this area, but some examples of this are emerging.

5.2.5 Other opportunities involve some business considerations. Since no tooling is required for part

fabrication using AM, lead times can be very short. Little investment in part-specific infrastructure is

needed, which enables mass customization and responsiveness to market changes. In the case of repair,

remanufacturing of components could be highly advantageous both from cost as well as lead time

perspectives.
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5.3 Design limitations

5.3.1 Overview — It is useful to point out design characteristics that indicate situations when AM should

probably not be used. Stated concisely, if a part can be fabricated economically using a conventional

manufacturing process and can meet requirements, then it is not likely to be a good candidate for AM.

The designer should balance cost, value delivered and risks when deciding whether to pursue AM.

5.3.2 A primary advantage of AM processes is their flexibility in fabricating a variety of part shapes,

complex and customized shapes, and possibly complex material distributions. If one desires mass

production of simple part shapes in large production volumes, then AM is not likely to be suitable without

significant improvements in fabrication time and cost.

5.3.3 A designer shall be aware of the material choices available, the variety and quality of feedstocks,

and how the material’s mechanical and other physical properties vary from those used in other

manufacturing processes. Materials in AM have different characteristics and properties because they are

processed differently than
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