Metallic coatings - Electroplated coatings of nickel for engineering purposes (ISO 4526:2004)

ISO 4526:2004 specifies requirements for electroplated nickel and nickel alloy coatings applied to ferrous and non-ferrous basis metals for engineering purposes.
Binary nickel alloys in which nickel is a minor constituent are outside the scope of this International Standard.
The designation provides a means of specifying the type and thickness of nickel and nickel alloy coatings appropriate for engineering applications.

Metallische Überzüge - Galvanische Nickelüberzüge für technische Zwecke (ISO 4526:2004)

Diese Internationale Norm enthält Anforderungen für galvanische Nickel - und Nickellegierungsüberzüge, die auf Eisenwerkstoffen oder Nichteisenmetallen für technische Zwecke abgeschieden werden.
Binäre Nickellegierungen, in denen Nickel der kleinere Legierungsbestandteil ist, gehören nicht zum Anwendungsgebiet dieser Norm.
Die Bezeichnung der Überzüge erlaubt es, die Dicke und den Typ der Nickel - und der Nickellegierungsüberzüge, die für typische technische Anwendungen geeignet sind, festzulegen.

Revêtements métalliques - Depôts électrolytiques de nickel pour usages industriels (ISO 4526:2004)

L'ISO 4526:2004 spécifie les exigences relatives aux dépôts électrolytiques de nickel et d'alliages de nickel sur des métaux de base ferreux et non ferreux pour usages industriels.
Les alliages binaires de nickel dans lesquels le nickel représente un élément constitutif mineur ne sont pas couverts par l'ISO 4526:2004.
La désignation permet de spécifier le type et l'épaisseur des dépôts de nickel et d'alliages de nickel appropriés pour des applications industrielles.

Kovinske prevleke – Galvanske prevleke niklja za tehnično uporabo (ISO 4256:2004)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Jun-2004
Current Stage
9093 - Decision to confirm - Review Enquiry
Due Date
02-Nov-2009
Completion Date
02-Nov-2009

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 4526:2004
01-september-2004
.RYLQVNHSUHYOHNH±*DOYDQVNHSUHYOHNHQLNOMD]DWHKQLþQRXSRUDER ,62


Metallic coatings - Electroplated coatings of nickel for engineering purposes (ISO

4526:2004)
Metallische Überzüge - Galvanische Nickelüberzüge für technische Zwecke (ISO
4526:2004)

Revetements métalliques - Depôts électrolytiques de nickel pour usages industriels (ISO

4526:2004)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 4526:2004
ICS:
25.220.40 Kovinske prevleke Metallic coatings
SIST EN ISO 4526:2004 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 4526:2004
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SIST EN ISO 4526:2004
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SIST EN ISO 4526:2004
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SIST EN ISO 4526:2004
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 4526
Second edition
2004-05-15
Metallic coatings — Electroplated
coatings of nickel for engineering
purposes
Revêtements métalliques — Dépôts électrolytiques de nickel pour
usages industriels
Reference number
ISO 4526:2004(E)
ISO 2004
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SIST EN ISO 4526:2004
ISO 4526:2004(E)
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© ISO 2004

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
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ii © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 4526:2004
ISO 4526:2004(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 2

4 Information to be supplied to the electroplater .................................................................................2

5 Designation............................................................................................................................................ 3

6 Requirements ........................................................................................................................................ 6

7 Sampling ................................................................................................................................................ 8

Annex A (informative) Typical composition and operating conditions of Watts and nickel

sulfamate solutions, and mechanical properties of nickel electrodeposited from those

solutions ................................................................................................................................................ 9

Annex B (informative) Test methods for determining thickness................................................................. 10

Annex C (normative) Hot water porosity test ................................................................................................ 11

Annex D (normative) Modified ferroxyl test................................................................................................... 12

Annex E (informative) Additional information for different applications.................................................... 13

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 14

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 4526:2004
ISO 4526:2004(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 4526 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 107, Metallic and other inorganic coatings,

Subcommittee SC 3, Electrodeposited coatings and related finishes.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 4526:1984), which has been technically

revised.
iv © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 4526:2004
ISO 4526:2004(E)
Introduction

Engineering nickel coatings are specified for various applications such as improved hardness, wear and

corrosion resistance, load-bearing characteristics, heat-scaling resistance, corrosion fatigue resistance and

other improvements in surface properties. Electrodeposited nickel is also, used in engineering applications to

salvage worn or incorrectly machined manufactured articles, and function as diffusion barriers in combination

with other metallic coatings. Engineering nickel coatings usually contain greater than 99 % nickel and are

most frequently electrodeposited from additive-free Watts or nickel sulfamate solutions. Typical solution

compositions, operating conditions and mechanical properties of electrodeposits from these solutions are

given in Annex A.

When increased hardness, greater wear resistance, modified deposit internal stress values and enhanced

levelling characteristics are required, particles of organic additives such as silicon carbide, tungsten carbide,

aluminium oxide, chromium carbide and other substances may be introduced into these solutions. The use of

sulfur-containing organic additives to increase hardness and to lower residual internal stress is feasible only

when the end-use involves exposure to low or moderate temperatures. High temperature exposure of nickel

coatings that contain sulfur may result in embrittlement and cracking of the coating. The effect is time-

dependent and may become evident at 150 °C if the time of heating is sufficiently long.

A notable trend is the growing utilisation of nickel alloy electroplating processes for engineering applications.

These include binary alloys of nickel with cobalt, iron, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus and tungsten.

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 4526:2004
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SIST EN ISO 4526:2004
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 4526:2004(E)
Metallic coatings — Electroplated coatings of nickel for
engineering purposes
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies requirements for electroplated nickel and nickel alloy coatings applied to

ferrous and non-ferrous basis metals for engineering purposes.

Binary nickel alloys in which nickel is a minor constituent are outside the scope of this International Standard.

The designation provides a means of specifying the type and thickness of nickel and nickel alloy coatings

appropriate for engineering applications.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1463, Metallic and oxide coatings — Measurement of coating thickness — Microscopical method

ISO 2064, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Definitions and conventions concerning the measurement

of thickness

ISO 2079, Surface treatment and metallic coatings — General classification of terms

ISO 2080, Electroplating and related processes — Vocabulary

ISO 2177, Metallic coatings — Measurement of coating thickness — Coulometric method by anodic

dissolution

ISO 2361, Electrodeposited nickel coatings on magnetic and non-magnetic substrates — Measurement of

coating thickness — Magnetic method

ISO 2819, Metallic coatings on metallic substrates — Electrodeposited and chemically deposited coatings —

Review of methods available for testing adhesion

ISO 3497, Metallic coatings — Measurement of coating thickness — X-ray spectrometric methods

ISO 3543, Metallic and non-metallic coatings — Measurement of thickness — Beta backscatter method

ISO 3882, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Review of methods of measurement of thickness

ISO 4516, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Vickers and Knoop microhardness tests

ISO 4519, Electrodeposited metallic coatings and related finishes — Sampling procedures for inspection by

attributes
ISO 8401, Metallic coatings — Review of methods of measurement of ductility

ISO 9220, Metallic coatings — Measurement of coating thickness — Scanning electron microscope method

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 4526:2004
ISO 4526:2004(E)

ISO 9587, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Pretreatments of iron or steel to reduce the risk of

hydrogen embrittlement

ISO 9588, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Post-coating treatments of iron or steel to reduce the risk

of hydrogen embrittlement

ISO 10289, Methods for corrosion testing of metallic and other inorganic coatings on metallic substrates —

Rating of test specimens and manufactured articles subjected to corrosion tests

ISO 10587, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Test for residual embrittlement in both metallic-coated

and uncoated externally-threaded articles and rods — Inclined wedge method

ISO 12686, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Automated controlled shot-peening of metallic articles

prior to nickel, autocatalytic nickel or chromium plating, or as a final finish

ISO 15724, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Electrochemical measurement of diffusible hydrogen in

steels — Barnacle electrode method

EN 12508, Corrosion protection of metals and alloys — Surface treatment, metallic and other inorganic

coatings — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 2064, ISO 2079, ISO 2080 and

EN 12508 apply.
4 Information to be supplied to the electroplater
4.1 Essential information

When ordering articles to be electroplated, in accordance with this International Standard, the purchaser shall

provide the following information in writing, e.g. in the contract or purchase order, or on engineering drawings.

a) The designation (see Clause 5).
b) The requirements for special test specimens (see 6.1).

c) The significant surface, indicated by drawings of the articles or by suitably marked samples (see 6.2).

d) The final surface finish, e.g. as-plated, ground, machined or polished. Alternatively, samples showing the

required finish shall be supplied or approved by the purchaser, and used for comparison purposes

(see 6.2 and 6.3).

e) The type and size of defects with the number of defects that can be tolerated per item, for the surface or

per square decimetre of surface (see 6.2).

f) Additional portions of the surface where minimum thickness requirements apply (see 6.4).

g) The test methods to be used to measure thickness, adhesion and porosity and, if required, those for

internal stress and ductility (see 6.4, 6.6, 6.7, 6.11 and 6.12, respectively).

h) The tensile strength of parts and the requirement for stress relief heat treatment before electroplating

(see 6.8).

i) The requirement for hydrogen embrittlement relief after electroplating, and the hydrogen embrittlement

test methods (see 6.9).
j) The sampling plan and acceptance levels (see Clause 7).
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SIST EN ISO 4526:2004
ISO 4526:2004(E)
4.2 Additional information

The following additional information may be provided by the purchaser, when appropriate:

a) the nominal composition or specification, and metallurgical condition of the basis metal including

hardness (see 5.3);

NOTE In the case of reclaimed articles, it may not be possible to supply this information, and it may, therefore, be

difficult to guarantee the quality of the coating.
b) the necessity for peening before or after electroplating (see 6.10);

c) any special requirements for, or restrictions on, pre-treatment, e.g., vapour blasting instead of acid pre-

treatment;
d) requirements for undercoats and/or overcoats (see 5.5);

e) where appropriate, any special requirements for surface finish, hardness and adhesion (see 6.3, 6.5 and

6.6, respectively).
5 Designation
5.1 General

The designation shall appear on engineering drawings, in the purchase order, the contract or in the detailed

product specification.

The designation specifies, in the order given, the basis material, its standard designation (optional), stress

relief requirements, the type and thickness of undercoats, the type and thickness of the nickel or nickel alloy

coating, the type and thickness of coatings applied over the nickel or nickel alloy coating, and post-treatments

including heat treatment.
5.2 Components
The designation shall comprise the following:
a) the term, “Electrodeposited coating”;
b) the number of this International Standard, i.e ISO 4526;
c) a hyphen;
d) the chemical symbol of the basis metal (see 5.3);
e) a solidus (/);

f) symbols for the nickel or nickel alloy coating, as well as coatings applied prior to and after electroplating,

separated by solidi (/) for each stage in the coating sequence in the order of application. The coating

designation shall include the thickness of the coatings in micrometres (see 5.5) as well as heat treatment

requirements (see 5.4). Double solidi or separators (//) shall be used to indicate that a step has been

omitted or is not a requirement.

NOTE It is recommended that the specific alloy be identified by its standard designation following the chemical

symbol of the basis metal; e.g., its UNS number, or the national or regional equivalent may be placed between the

symbols < >.
EXAMPLE Fe is the UNS designation for a high-strength steel.
See [1] to [5].
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 4526:2004
ISO 4526:2004(E)
5.3 Designation of the basis metal

The basis metal shall be designated by its chemical symbol or, if an alloy, its principal constituent.

For example;
a) Fe for iron and steel;
b) Zn for zinc alloys;
c) Cu for copper and copper alloys;
d) Al for aluminium and aluminium alloys.

NOTE To ensure proper surface preparation and hence adherence of the coating to the substrate, it is important to

identify the specific alloy and its metallurgical condition (tempered, nitrided, etc.).

5.4 Designation of heat treatment requirements
The heat treatment requirements shall be in brackets and designated as follows:

a) the letters SR, for heat treatment for stress relief purposes; the letters ER, for heat treatment for the

purpose of reducing susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement; the letters, HT, for heat treatment for other

purposes;
b) in parentheses, the minimum temperature, in degrees centigrade;
c) the duration of the heat treatment, in hours.
EXAMPLE [SR(210)1] designates stress relief heat treatment at 210 °C for 1 h.

When heat treatment is specified, the requirements shall be included in the designation. See the last example

in 5.6.
5.5 Type and thickness of metal layers

The electroplated nickel shall be designated by the chemical symbol for nickel, Ni, followed by a number

giving the specified minimum local thickness of the coating in micrometres. The type of nickel shall be

designated by the symbols given in Table 1 placed after the number that designates coating thickness.

In the case of nickel alloy coatings, the symbols for the alloy coating given in Table 2 shall be followed by a

whole number in parentheses giving the nominal composition of the alloy coating, followed by a number giving

the specified minimum local thickness of the coating, in micrometres.

EXAMPLE NiCo(35)25 designates a nickel-cobalt alloy coating containing 35 % mass fraction cobalt and which is

25 µm thick.

Metallic undercoats and overcoats deposited electrolytically or by other means shall be designated by the

chemical symbol(s) for the deposited metal(s) followed by a number specifying the minimum local thickness of

the layer in micrometres.
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SIST EN ISO 4526:2004
ISO 4526:2004(E)

Table 1 — Symbols, sulfur content and ductility of different types of nickel coatings

Sulfur content Ductility
Type of nickel Symbol
% mass fraction %
Sulfur-free sf
< 0,005 > 8
Sulfur-containing sc > 0,04 —
Sulfur-free nickel containing
particles dispersed throughout the pd < 0,005 > 8
nickel matrix

Table 2 — Symbols and nominal compositions of electrodeposited binary nickel alloys

Nominal compositions
Nickel alloy Symbol
% mass fraction
Nickel-cobalt NiCo 5 to 50 cobalt
Nickel-iron NiFe 10 to 30 iron
Nickel-manganese NiMn Approximately 0,5 manganese
Nickel-molybdenum NiMo 5 to 40 molybdenum
Nickel-tungsten NiW 5 to 40 tungsten
Electroplated nickel-
NiP 1 to 30 phosphorus
phosphorus

NOTE Nickel coatings for engineering purposes are most often electrodeposited from Watts and nickel sulfamate

solutions, typical compositions of which are given in Annex A. The symbol, sf, refers to nickel electroplated from solutions

not containing hardeners, brighteners or stress-reducing agents, the deposits from which are sulfur-free. The symbol, sc,

refers to nickel electrodeposits that may contain sulfur or other co-deposited elements or compounds that are present to

increase the hardness, refine the grain structure or to control the internal stress of the electrodeposited nickel. Watts and

nickel sulfamate solutions can be modified in order to deposit alloys of nickel with cobalt, iron, manganese or phosphorus.

The solutions for depositing nickel alloy coatings with either molybdenum or tungsten however, are significantly different

from Watts or sulfamate solutions. Proprietary solutions for electrodepositing nickel-molybdenum and nickel-tungsten alloy

coatings are reportedly available. For additional technical information on nickel alloy electroplating, see [6] and [7].

5.6 Examples of designations

An engineering nickel coating that has a minimum local nickel thickness of 50 µm, that is sulfur-free and that

is electrodeposited on carbon steel is designated as follows:
Electrodeposited coating ISO 4526 - Fe//Ni50sf

An engineering nickel coating that has a minimum local thickness of 75 µm, that is sulfur-free, that contains

co-deposited silicon carbide particles dispersed throughout the nickel, and that is electrodeposited on an

aluminium alloy is designated as follows:
Electrodeposited coating ISO 4526 - Al//Ni75pd

An engineering nickel coating that has a minimum local thickness of 25 µm, that is sulfur-free and that is

deposited on a high strength steel that is stress relieved prior to electroplating at 210 °C for 2 h and is also

heat treated for embrittlement relief purposes at 210 °C for 22 h is designated as follows:

Electrodeposited coating ISO 4526 - Fe/[SR(210)2]/Ni25sf/[ER(210)22]
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SIST EN ISO 4526:2004
ISO 4526:2004(E)
For ordering purposes, the detailed product specification shall not only compri
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