Cold reduced tinmill products - Blackplate

This European Standard specifies requirements for blackplate product in the form of coils intended for direct use and mostly for the production of tinplate, electrolytically chromium / chromium oxide plate (ECCS) and electrolytically zinc coated plate.
Blackplate is specified in nominal thicknesses that are multiples of 0,005 mm from typical 0,10 mm up to 0,60mm.
This European Standard applies to coils in nominal minimum widths of 600 mm.
In addition to this standard the general technical delivery conditions of EN 10021 apply.
NOTE   Standard width coils for specific uses, e.g. tab stock, can be slit into narrow strip for supply in coil form.

Kaltgewalzte Verpackungsblecherzeugnisse - Feinstblech

Diese Europäische Norm legt die Anforderungen an Verpackungsblecherzeugnisse in Form von Band in Coils für die direkte Verwendung und für die häufigste Verwendung zur Erzeugung von Weißblech, elektrolytisch spezialverchromtem Blech und elektrolytisch verzinktem Blech fest.
Feinstblech wird in Nenndicken von typischerweise 0,10 mm bis 0,60 mm in Stufen von 0,005 mm geliefert.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt für Band in Coils mit einer minimalen Nennbreite von 600 mm.
In Ergänzung zu dieser Norm gelten die allgemeinen technischen Lieferbedingungen nach EN 10021.
ANMERKUNG      Für besondere Anwendungen, z. B. "Laschenband", kann das Band auch als durch Längsteilen hergestelltes schmaleres Band in Coils geliefert werden.

Aciers pour emballage laminés à froid - Fer noir

La présente norme européenne spécifie les caractéristiques du fer noir livré en bobines, destiné à l’utilisation directe et principalement pour la production de fer blanc, de fer revêtu de chrome/oxyde de chrome par électrolyse (ECCS) ou d’acier revêtu de zinc par électrolyse
Le fer noir est spécifié en épaisseur nominale multiple de 0,005 mm allant généralement de 0,10 mm jusqu’à 0,60 mm.
La présente norme s'applique aux bobines de largeur nominale minimale égale à 600 mm.
En complément à cette norme européenne les conditions techniques générales de livraison de l’EN 10021 s’appliquent.
NOTE   Les bobines de largeur standard pour des usages spécifiques, par exemple stock pour étiquettes de marquage, peuvent être découpée en bande plus étroite pour des livraisons en bobines.

Hladno valjani jekleni izdelki za embalažo - Črna pločevina

Ta osnutek evropskega standarda določa zahteve za enkrat in dvakrat hladno valjano črno pločevino v obliki zvitkov, ki so namenjeni za izdelavo pločevine ali jekla, premazanega z elektrolitskim kromom/kromovim oksidom, v skladu s standardom EN 10 202 ali EN 203. Enkrat valjana črna pločevina je podana z nazivnimi debelinami, ki so večkratniki vrednosti 0,005 mm v razponu od 0,17 mm do vključno 0,49 mm. Dvakrat valjana črna pločevina je podana z nazivnimi debelinami, ki so večkratniki vrednosti 0,005 mm v razponu od 0,14 mm do vključno 0,29 mm. Ta standard se uporablja za zvitke z najmanjšo nazivno širino 600 mm z obrezanimi ali neobrezanimi robovi.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Nov-2016
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
30-Nov-2016
Completion Date
30-Nov-2016

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Kaltgewalzte Verpackungsblecherzeugnisse - FeinstblechAciers pour emballage laminés à froid - Fer noirCold reduced tinmill products - Blackplate77.140.50SROL]GHONLFlat steel products and semi-products55.040SDNLUDQMHPackaging materials and accessoriesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 10205:2016SIST EN 10205:2017en,fr,de01-februar-2017SIST EN 10205:2017SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 10205:19971DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 10205:2017
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 10205
November
t r s x ICS
y yä s v rä w r Supersedes EN
s r t r wã s { { sEnglish Version

Cold reduced tinmill products æ Blackplate Aciers pour emballage laminés à froid æ Fer noir

Kaltgewalzte Verpackungsblecherzeugnisse æ Feinstblech This European Standard was approved by CEN on

t x September
t r s xä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey andUnited Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,
B-1000 Brussels

t r s x CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s r t r wã t r s x ESIST EN 10205:2017

EN 10205:2016 (E) 2 Contents Page European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5 3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5 4 Classification and designation .................................................................................................................... 8 4.1 Classification ..................................................................................................................................................... 8 4.2 Designation........................................................................................................................................................ 8 5 Information to be supplied by the purchaser ....................................................................................... 8 5.1 Mandatory information ................................................................................................................................ 8 5.2 Options ................................................................................................................................................................ 9 5.3 Ordering example ........................................................................................................................................... 9 6 Steelmaking process ...................................................................................................................................... 9 6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 9 6.2 Chemical composition and deoxidation .................................................................................................. 9 6.3 Product traceability ....................................................................................................................................... 9 6.4 Mill edges/trimmed edges ........................................................................................................................ 10 6.5 Surface characteristics ............................................................................................................................... 10 6.6 Oiling ................................................................................................................................................................. 10 6.7 Discontinuities .............................................................................................................................................. 11 7 Mechanical properties ................................................................................................................................ 11 7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11 7.2 Mechanical properties of blackplate ..................................................................................................... 11 8 Tolerances on dimensions and shape ................................................................................................... 12 8.1 Linear dimensions ....................................................................................................................................... 12 8.1.1 Thickness ........................................................................................................................................................ 12 8.1.2 Feather edge ................................................................................................................................................... 13 8.1.3 Width ................................................................................................................................................................ 13 8.1.4 Coil length ....................................................................................................................................................... 13 8.2 Shape................................................................................................................................................................. 13 8.2.1 Edge camber of coils .................................................................................................................................... 13 8.2.2 Edge wave ....................................................................................................................................................... 13 8.2.3 Longitudinal and transverse bow .......................................................................................................... 13 8.2.4 Centre fullness ............................................................................................................................................... 13 8.2.5 Burrs ................................................................................................................................................................. 14 9 Welds within a coil ....................................................................................................................................... 14 10 Inspection and Sampling ........................................................................................................................... 14 10.1 Testing procedures and types of documents ..................................................................................... 14 10.2 Frequency of testing and sampling ........................................................................................................ 14 10.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 14 10.2.2 Lots and units ................................................................................................................................................ 14 10.2.3 Selection of sample units ........................................................................................................................... 14 10.2.4 Selection of sample sheets ........................................................................................................................ 15 11 Test methods ................................................................................................................................................. 16 SIST EN 10205:2017

EN 10205:2016 (E) 3 11.1 Tensile test ...................................................................................................................................................... 16 11.2 Tolerances on dimensions and shape ................................................................................................... 16 11.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 16 11.2.2 Test method for thickness ......................................................................................................................... 16 11.2.3 Feather edge ................................................................................................................................................... 16 11.2.4 Short pitch camber ....................................................................................................................................... 17 11.2.5 Edge wave ........................................................................................................................................................ 17 11.2.6 Longitudinal or transverse bow .............................................................................................................. 18 11.2.7 Centre fullness ............................................................................................................................................... 18 12 Retests .............................................................................................................................................................. 19 13 Marking ............................................................................................................................................................ 19 14 Dispatch and packaging .............................................................................................................................. 19 14.1 Coil dispatch ................................................................................................................................................... 19 14.2 Pallet dimensions ......................................................................................................................................... 19 Annex A (informative)

Examples of steel types and chemical composition ........................................... 20 Annex B (informative)

The Rockwell Hardness test for routine determination .................................. 22 B.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 22 B.2 Test pieces ....................................................................................................................................................... 22 B.3 Test method .................................................................................................................................................... 22 B.4 Hardness for tinmill products .................................................................................................................. 24 Annex C (informative)

List of corresponding former designations ........................................................... 25 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 26

SIST EN 10205:2017

EN 10205:2016 (E) 4 European foreword This document (EN 10205:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee ECISS/TC 109 “Coated and uncoated flat products to be used for cold forming”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2017, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by May 2017. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document supersedes EN 10205:1991. According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 10205:2017

EN 10205:2016 (E) 5 1 Scope This European Standard specifies requirements for blackplate product in the form of coils intended for direct use and mostly for the production of tinplate, electrolytically chromium / chromium oxide plate (ECCS) and electrolytically zinc coated plate. Blackplate is specified in nominal thicknesses that are multiples of 0,005 mm from typical 0,10 mm up to 0,60mm. This European Standard applies to coils in nominal minimum widths of 600 mm. In addition to this standard the general technical delivery conditions of EN 10021 apply. NOTE Standard width coils for specific uses, e.g. tab stock, can be slit into narrow strip for supply in coil form. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 10020, Definition and classification of grades of steel EN 10021, General technical delivery conditions for steel products EN 10027-1, Designation systems for steels - Part 1: Steel names EN 10027-2, Designation systems for steels - Part 2: Numerical system EN 10052, Vocabulary of heat treatment terms for ferrous products EN 10079, Definition of steel products EN 10204:2004, Metallic products - Types of inspection documents EN ISO 6892-1:2009, Metallic materials — Tensile testing — Part 1: Method of test at room temperature (ISO 6892-1:2009) 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 10079 and EN 10052 and the following apply. 3.1 single reduced blackplate blackplate which has been reduced to the desired thickness in a cold-reduction mill and subsequently annealed and temper rolled mostly without a water-based lubricant 3.2 double reduced blackplate blackplate which has been reduced to the desired thickness in a cold-reduction mill and subsequently annealed and temper rolled mostly with the help of a water-based lubricant to achieve a higher gauge reduction SIST EN 10205:2017

EN 10205:2016 (E) 6 3.3 temper rolling secondary rolling process to obtain desired roughness and mechanical properties 3.4 standard grade material that, having passed line inspection, is suitable under normal conditions of storage, not containing any defect that renders the material unsuitable for its intended use 3.5 batch (box) annealing

BA process in which the cold reduced strip is heated in tight coil form, within a controlled atmosphere, for a pre-determined time/temperature cycle 3.6 continuous annealing

CA process in which cold reduced coils are unwound and heated in strip form within a controlled atmosphere for a pre-determined time/temperature cycle 3.7 surface appearance surface appearance of blackplate products determined by the surface characteristics of the steel 3.8 finish finish of blackplate products determined by roughness average (Ra) and appearance of the surface of the blackplate resulting from controlled preparation of the work rolls used for the final stages of rolling 3.8.1 bright finish finish resulting from the use of temper mill work rolls that have been ground to a high degree of polish 3.8.2 stone/fine stone finishes finishes characterized by a directional pattern, resulting from the use of final mill work rolls that have been ground to a lower degree of polish than those used for the bright finish 3.8.3 matt finish finish resulting from the use of final mill work rolls that have been shot blasted 3.9 coil rolled flat strip product which is wound into regularly superimposed laps 3.10 longitudinal (line) bow residual curvature in the strip remaining along the direction of rolling SIST EN 10205:2017

EN 10205:2016 (E) 7 3.11 transverse (cross) bow mode of curvature in the sheet such that the distances between its edges parallel to the rolling direction is less than the sheet width 3.12 centre fullness (full centre, centre buckle) intermittent vertical displacement occurring other than at the edge of the sheet or coil when the material is laid on a flat horizontal surface 3.13 edge camber deviation of the coil from a straight line forming its chord 3.14 edge wave intermittent vertical displacement occurring at the edge of a sheet or a sample from a coil when laid on a flat horizontal surface 3.15 feather edge (transverse thickness profile) variation in thickness, characterized by a reduction of thickness close to the edges, at right angles to the rolling direction 3.16 burr metal displaced beyond the plane of the surface of the strip by shearing action Note 1 to entry: Blackplate is usually supplied with cut edges. Blackplate will then have burrs caused by cutting. 3.17 rolling width width of the strip perpendicular to the rolling direction 3.18 consignment quantity of material of the same specification made available for dispatch at the same time 3.19 pallet base platform on which a coil is placed to facilitate ready transportation 3.20 sample unit 750 m of coil for the purposes of sampling 3.21 line inspection final inspection of the finished product performed by instruments and/or by visual examination at normal production line speeds SIST EN 10205:2017

EN 10205:2016 (E) 8 3.22 anvil effect effect which a hard anvil can produce on the numerical hardness value obtained when a hardness test is performed on very thin sheet supported on such an anvil 3.23 mill edge trimmed before temper rolling therefore leading to higher width tolerances 4 Classification and designation 4.1 Classification The classification of the relevant steel grades is according to EN 10020. Steel grades for cold reduced blackplate for the manufacturing of tinplate or ECCS are non alloy quality steels. 4.2 Designation For the steel grades covered by this document, the steel names as given in the relevant tables are allocated in accordance with EN 10027-1. TS grades are batch annealed grades and TH grades are continuous annealed grades. The steel numbers as given in the relevant tables are allocated in accordance with EN 10027-2. 5 Information to be supplied by the purchaser 5.1 Mandatory information The following information shall be given by the purchaser on the enquiry and order to assist the manufacturer in supplying the correct material: a) quantity expressed in length or mass; b) description of the material (blackplate coil); c) dimensions (thickness and width); d) edge condition, see 6.4 (T for trimmed edges and M for mill edges); e) number of this European Standard (EN 10205); f) steel name or steel number (see Table 3); g) appearance (see 6.5); h) finish (see 6.5); i) surface condition (oiling), see 6.6; j) intended use of the material e.g. stamping, drawing, beading, bending and assembly work such as. joint forming, soldering and welding, surface coating (metallic and organic coating); k) dispatch and packaging conditions (see Clause 14), e.g. inner diameter of coils, coil winding direction, maximum and minimum mass and/or outside diameter of coils; SIST EN 10205:2017

EN 10205:2016 (E) 9 l) if required, standard designation for a test report 2.2 or an inspection certificate 3.1 or 3.2 in accordance with EN 10204:2004 (see 10.1). 5.2 Options In addition to the information in 5.1 the purchaser shall provide further information to the supplier to ensure that the order requirements are consistent with the end use of the product. The purchaser is responsible of the choice of grade, the supplier not always being aware to assess of the relevance of the purchaser’s choice. 5.3 Ordering example a) Example 1: 5 t blackplate coil, thickness 0,22 mm, rolling width 800 mm with trimmed edges in accordance with this European Standard of steel grade TS275, appearance A, stone finish with test report 2.2 according to EN 10204:2004 shall be designated: 1) 5 t blackplate coil 0,22 × 800 EN 10205-TS275-A-ST, EN 10204:2004 – 2.2; 2) 5 t blackplate coil 0,22 × 800 EN 10205-1.0375-A-ST, EN 10204:2004 – 2.2. b) Example 2: 5 t blackplate coil, thickness 0,18 mm, rolling width 750 mm with trimmed edges in accordance with this European Standard of steel grade TH620, appearance B, stone finish, with inspection certificate 3.1 according to EN 10204:2004 shall be designated: 1) 5 t blackplate coil 0,18 × 750 EN 10205-TH620-B-ST, EN 10204:2004 – 3.1; 2) 5 t blackplate coil 0,18 × 750 EN 10205-1.0374-B-ST, EN 10204:2004 – 3.1. NOTE The designation does not cover variations in all material properties. 6 Steelmaking process 6.1 General The steelmaking process of blackplate is under the responsibility of the manufacturer with the exception that the steel is continuously cast and that the open hearth (Siemens-Martin) process shall not be employed unless in combination with a secondary steelmaking or ladle refining process. If specified at the time of order the steel making process shall be reported to the purchaser. 6.2 Chemical composition and deoxidation If blackplate is used for food contact, the steel type shall be manufactured in accordance with food safety regulations. The purchaser should be aware of existing national regulations which may impose limitations on some elements. NOTE Information on the types and chemical composition of steels for blackplate is provided in Annex A. All steels shall be fully killed. 6.3 Product traceability Each product shall be traceable to the cast. SIST EN 10205:2017

EN 10205:2016 (E) 10 6.4 Mill edges/trimmed edges If not specified otherwise at the time of enquiry and order the products shall be delivered with trimmed edges. 6.5 Surface characteristics Surface characteristics concern surface appearance (see Table 1) and surface finish (see Table 2). If not specified otherwise at the time of enquiry and order, the material shall be delivered with surface appearance B and surface finish Stone. Table 1 — Surface appearance Symbol Characteristics A Bright, metallically clean surface. Pitting, small defects and scratches are permitted B Bright, metallically clean surface. Pitting, grooves, and scratches are permitted as long as the uniform smooth appearance is not substantially impaired when viewed with the naked eye. C Bright, metallically clean surface. Pitting, grooves, and scratches are permitted as long as the uniform smooth appearance of the mirror surface is not impaired. Table 2 — Surface finish Product finish Code Normal surface roughness, Ra, µm Bright BT

0,35 Fine stone FS 0,25 to 0,45 Stone ST 0,35 to 0,60 Matt MM
0,90
NOTE

For guidance on the measurement of surface roughness, refer to EN ISO 4288. 6.6 Oiling To avoid corrosion blackplate shall normally be supplied with a sufficient layer of suitable, non-mineral, protective oil. The oil shall be removed by an adequate inline cleaning process before any subsequent coating. Blackplate is normally supplied oiled on both sides. The selection of oils and the oiling quantity may be the subject of a separate agreement. If blackplate is temper rolled with a water based lubricant the blackplate is deemed suitable for immediate further processing without further inline cleaning. If the blackplate is to be supplied in the as-rolled condition, or without oil, there is an increased risk of scratching and rust formation during transportation and storage. SIST EN 10205:2017

EN 10205:2016 (E) 11 6.7 Discontinuities The production of blackplate coils in continuous-strip mill operations does not allow the opportunity for the removal of all surface defects. However the manufacturer shall ensure that in coils according to this European standard at least 90 % of the coil can be used for the intended further processing: free from surface defects which render the material unsuitable for the intended use:

free from damage which render the material unsuitable for intended use;

compliant to the requirements as specified in this European standard. 7 Mechanical properties 7.1 General For the purposes of this European Standard, blackplate is classified based on tensile properties as given in Table 3. Individual mechanical properties can significantly influence the performance of blackplate in processing and subsequent intended use and will vary depending on the steel type and the methods of casting, annealing and skin passing employed. For the purpose of this European Standard the tensile test is the reference method for the determination of the mechanical properties. In cases of dispute, a tensile test shall be performed. The mechanical properties of the blackplate determined by the means of the tensile test are used for the classification shown in Table 3. The tensile test method is reported in 11.1. 7.2 Mechanical properties of blackplate When tested as described in 7.1, the mechanical properties shall be as given in Table 3. For the indication of the mechanical properties the Rockwell hardness test can also be performed (see Annex B). SIST EN 10205:2017

EN 10205:2016 (E) 12 Table 3 — Mechanical properties of blackplate products (Rp0.2 or Rel)

Yield/0,2 % Proof strength (Rp) - Tensile strength (Rm) -

MPa MPa Steel name Steel number Nominal values Dev. Aim values Dev. TS230 1.0371 230 ±50 325 ±50 TS245 1.0372 245 ±50 340 ±50 TS260 1.0379 260 ±50 360 ±50 TS275 1.0375 275 ±50 375 ±50 TS290 1.0381 290 ±50 390 ±50 TS480 1.0380 480 ±50 510 ±50 TS550 1.0385 550 ±50 575 ±50 TH415 1.0377 415 ±50 435 ±50 TH435 1.0378 435 ±50 460 ±50 TH470 1.0351 470 ±50 510 ±50 TH520 1.0384 520 ±50 540 ±50 TH550 1.0373 550 ±50 570 ±50 TH580 1.0382 580 ±50 590 ±50 TH620 1.0374 620 ±50 625 ±50 NOTE 1 Table 3 represents the grades in common use. Other grades can be available for specific end uses. NOTE 2 The deviations shown refer to measurements of individual samples. NOTE 3 The deviation of ± 50 shown in Table 3 represents the normal range within the specified grades. For special requirements a tolerance of ± 40 can be supplied. NOTE 4 TS grades are batch annealed and TH grades are continuously annealed.

8 Tolerances on dimensions and shape 8.1 Linear dimensions 8.1.1 Thickness The thickness of the material shall conform to the following: a) the deviation from the agreed thickness measured at the centre line of the strip shall not exceed ± 5 %; b) the deviation from the agreed thickness measured at any point from at least 6 mm of the mill trimmed edge shall be within +5 % to –8 % ; c) the average thickness shall not deviate from the nominal thickness by more than ± 2 % for consignments comprising more than 10 000 m (or corresponding number of sheets). The test method is reported in 11.2.2. SIST EN 10205:2017

EN 10205:2016 (E) 13 8.1.2 Feather edge For the definition of feather edge, see 3.11. The thickness when measured at a distance of 6 mm from the trimmed edge shall not vary by more than 6 % from the centre thickness measured perpendicularly to the trimmed edge. The test method is reported in 11.2.3. 8.1.3 Width The coil width of blackplate with mill edges shall not differ from the ordered dimension, by more than +9/-0 mm. The coil width of blackplate with trimmed edges shall not differ from the ordered dimension, by more than +3/-0 mm. 8.1.4 Coil length The difference between the actual length and the manufacturer’s indicated length, measured on any single coil, shall not exceed by more than ± 3 %. 8.2 Shape 8.2.1 Edge camber of coils For trimmed edges, edge camber, measured over a chord length of 1 m, shall not exceed 0,3 mm (see Figure 2) when measured on the coil prior to slitting. The test method is reported in 11.2.4. 8.2.2 Edge wave The wave height (h) at any point shall not exceed 2,5 mm (see Figure 3). No more than six waves in excess of 1,5 mm shall be present over a cut length of 1 m. The test method is reported in 11.2.5. 8.2.3 Longitudinal and transverse bow Bow may be either convex or concave face uppermost on the bulk package. The normal convention is to express convex bow uppermost as a positive (+) value and concave bow as a negative (-) value (see Figure 4). The individual values of bo

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