Playground and recreational areas - Framework for the competence of playground inspectors

This framework forms a guideline for the education, examination and evaluation of the competence of inspectors of public playground environments. For each specific task an inspector may need to perform; this guideline describes the knowledge and experience the inspector needs and also sets out the basic level of knowledge required
The standard EN 1176-1 & 7 details the different types or levels of inspections required to help provide a play environment that is suitable for children to play in.
The different types of inspections demand different levels of knowledge and experience; these are:
   Routine Visual inspection
   Operational inspection
   Annual  main inspection
   Post Installation Inspection
As well as  these inspections identified  in the standard there are also other inspections that are useful in helping to ensure the safe operation of a play environment:
   post-accident investigation
In this guideline there is a broad explanation of what these inspections are and how they should be performed.
This guideline is not intended for certification bodies.
Due to the variety of items that can be encountered in the playground environment this guideline can be used for the following equipment:
Playground equipment EN 1176 part 1 - 11
Skateboard infrastructures EN 14974
Free access Multi Sport equipment EN 15312
Adventure Playgrounds
Outdoor Exercise Equipment DIN79000
Parkour equipment
As well as the equipment mentioned in this guideline other items that are on and around the play environment may need to be assessed depending on their interaction with the play environment where users can access these features for informal play e.g. gates, fences, plants, natural play features,  rocks, boulders landscape features, art features, etc.
Because there features are not encompassed within the standard for playground equipment these items will require risk assessment; but knowledge of the meaning and intention of the standard forms a vital part of this risk assessment
This guideline is not intended for:
EN 71 Toys
EN 15567 High Ropes
EN14960 Inflatable Equipment
The inspector’s task is to assess the general level of safety of the play environment and the equipment provided based on the safety level as it was on inauguration of the equipment.
The format of the inspection and the report which will form the outcome of the inspection will be defined between the provider of the inspection and the client (owner/operator)
The owner/operator should be advised to make a detailed specification so that there is a minimal chance of confusion on the content of the task.
.

Spielplatz- und Freizeitbereiche - Kompetenzrahmen von Spielplatzprüfern

Aires de jeux et de loisirs - Cadre définissant les compétences des inspecteurs d’aires de jeux

Otroška igrišča in območja za rekreacijo - Okvir za kompetence pregledovalcev otroških igrišč

Ta okvir predstavlja smernice za izobraževanje, preverjanje in ocenjevanje kompetenc pregledovalcev javnih otroških igrišč. Za vsako posamezno opravilo, ki ga bo morda moral opraviti pregledovalec, te smernice opisujejo znanje in izkušnje, ki jih potrebuje pregledovalec, hkrati pa določajo osnovno raven potrebnega znanja.
Standard EN 1176-1 in 7 podrobneje določa različne vrste ali ravni pregledov, ki so zahtevani za zagotavljanje okolja, ki je primeren za otroško igro.
Različne vrste pregledov, naštete v nadaljevanju, zahtevajo različne ravni znanja in izkušenj:
Routine Visual inspection
Operational inspection
Annual  main inspection
Post Installation Inspection
Poleg teh pregledov, opredeljenih v standardu, obstajajo še drugi pregledi, ki so uporabni za zagotavljanje varnega igralnega okolja:
post-accident investigation
Te smernice vključujejo splošno razlago, kaj so ti pregledi in kako naj bi se izvajali.
Te smernice niso namenjena certifikacijskim organom.
Zaradi raznolikosti elementov, ki so lahko prisotni na igriščih, je mogoče te smernice uporabiti za naslednjo opremo:
Oprema za igrišča, EN 1176, 1.–11. del
Infrastruktura za rolkanje, EN 14974
Prosto dostopna večnamenska športna oprema, EN 15312
Pustolovska igrišča
Oprema za zunanjo vadbo, DIN79000
Oprema za parkour
Poleg opreme, navedene v teh smernicah, je morda treba oceniti druge elemente, ki so prisotni v igralnem okolju ali v njegovi bližini, odvisno od njihove povezanosti z igralnim okoljem, če imajo uporabniki dostop do teh objektov za neformalno igro, npr. vrata, ograje, rastline, naravna igrala, skale, plezalne površine, umetniška dela itd.
Ker ti elementi niso zajeti v standard za igralno opremo, bo zanje treba izvesti oceno tveganja, pri čemer poznavanje pomena in namena standarda predstavlja pomemben del te ocene tveganja.
Te smernice niso namenjene za naslednja področja:
EN 71 Igrače
EN 15567 Vrvni plezalni parki
EN 14960 Napihljiva oprema
Naloga pregledovalca je oceniti splošno stopnjo varnosti igralnega okolja in razpoložljive opreme na osnovi varnostne stopnje opreme ob njeni otvoritvi.
Obliko pregleda in poročila, ki predstavlja rezultat pregleda, bosta opredelila izvajalec pregleda in naročnik (lastnik/upravljavec).
Za lastnika/upravljavca je priporočljivo, da izdela podrobno specifikacijo, tako da je tveganje glede morebitnih nejasnosti glede vsebine naloge čim manjše.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
03-Jul-2018
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
04-Jul-2018
Completion Date
04-Jul-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17207:2018
01-september-2018
2WURãNDLJULãþDLQREPRþMD]DUHNUHDFLMR2NYLU]DNRPSHWHQFHSUHJOHGRYDOFHY
RWURãNLKLJULãþ
Playground and recreational areas - Framework for the competence of playground
inspectors
Spielplatz- und Freizeitbereiche - Kompetenzrahmen von Spielplatzprüfern

Aires de jeux et de loisirs - Cadre définissant les compétences des inspecteurs d’aires

de jeux
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17207:2018
ICS:
97.200.40 ,JULãþD Playgrounds
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17207:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17207:2018
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17207:2018
CEN/TR 17207
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
July 2018
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 97.200.40
English Version
Playground and recreational areas - Framework for the
competence of playground inspectors

Aires de jeux et de loisirs - Cadre définissant les Spielplatz- und Freizeitbereiche - Kompetenzrahmen

compétences des inspecteurs d'aires de jeux von Spielplatzprüfern

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 26 February 2018. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC

136.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 17207:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Requirements for inspections .................................................................................................................. 11

4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

4.2 Levels of inspections ................................................................................................................................... 11

4.3 Other inspection activities ........................................................................................................................ 11

4.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

4.3.2 Post-accident inspection ............................................................................................................................ 11

4.3.3 Mid-installation surveillance ................................................................................................................... 11

4.3.4 Pre-Installation consultation ................................................................................................................... 11

4.4 Inspection report .......................................................................................................................................... 12

4.4.1 Contract between inspector and the purchaser of the inspection .............................................. 12

4.4.2 General information .................................................................................................................................... 12

4.4.3 Inspection outcome ..................................................................................................................................... 13

4.4.4 Quality of inspection report ...................................................................................................................... 13

5 Requirements for inspectors .................................................................................................................... 14

5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

5.2 Levels of knowledge..................................................................................................................................... 14

5.3 Learning goals for level 3 ........................................................................................................................... 17

5.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17

5.3.2 Standards / Technical reports ................................................................................................................. 17

5.3.3 Risk analysis / Risk benefit analysis ..................................................................................................... 17

5.3.4 Technical production .................................................................................................................................. 18

5.3.5 Child development ....................................................................................................................................... 18

5.3.6 Environmental issues / Layout design .................................................................................................. 18

5.3.7 Legislation: national laws / Jurisdiction / Responsibilities .......................................................... 19

5.4 Cooperation with other parties ............................................................................................................... 19

5.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 19

5.4.2 Code of conduct and ethics ........................................................................................................................ 19

Annex A (informative) Introduction to children's play and development ............................................ 22

Annex B (informative) Risk assessment ............................................................................................................ 23

B.1 Risk assessment ............................................................................................................................................ 23

B.2 Advantages of risk assessment ................................................................................................................ 24

B.3 Risk-benefit analysis ................................................................................................................................... 25

Annex C (informative) Risk analyses .................................................................................................................. 26

C.1 Examples of risk analyses .......................................................................................................................... 26

C.2 Method 1 .......................................................................................................................................................... 27

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C.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 27

C.2.2 Method 1 risk assessment ......................................................................................................................... 28

C.3 Method 2 .......................................................................................................................................................... 28

C.4 Method 3 .......................................................................................................................................................... 30

C.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 30

C.4.2 Method 3 risk assessments for 5 identified hazards ....................................................................... 32

Annex D (informative) Use of probes ................................................................................................................. 33

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 34

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TR 17207:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 136 “Sports,

playground and other recreational facilities and equipment”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

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Introduction

During the process of reviewing the EN 1176 series it became clear to the CEN/TC 136/SC 1 committee

that there is a broad spectrum of competence in inspectors of playground environments. With the

specific elements involved in play, such as equipment, environment, children, etc., an inspection of a

playground environment is not solely a “technical” inspection but also requires knowledge of how and

why children of all abilities play from the inspector. Inspectors need to understand the way children

play, interact, evolve and develop to be able to make informed, balanced decisions about the safety of

the play environment.

EN 1176-1 states: “Risk taking is an essential feature of play provision and of all environments in which

children legitimately spend time playing. Play provision should aim to offer children the chance to

encounter acceptable risks as a part of a stimulating, challenging and controlled learning environment.

Play provision should aim at managing the balance between the need to offer risk and the need to keep

children safe from serious harm.” The aim should be to provide as much play value as possible and as

little safety as necessary.

In this vision on the safety of playground environments it is essential that the inspector doesn’t only

know the technical content of the related standards, but also understands why and how to make risk

assessments and/or a risk benefit analysis.

After reviewing methods of inspections around the Europe, it seems there are three main principal

ways in use:

1) Inspection of the entire play environment is including conformity of equipment and the extent of

the impact attenuating surfacing area, maintenance defects, ancillary items and be combined with a

risk assessment.

2) Checking the equipment and environment based on a risk assessment alone. This can be described

as a global inspection of the minimal level of safety of the equipment and play environment.

3) Checking the equipment referencing the relevant standards and technical reports. Broadly this can

be described as a ‘conformity inspection’. This option specifically excludes the play environment

because there is no standard available for it.

The recommended approach is the first, which is broadly applicable in Europe; it is acknowledged by

authors of this European Technical report that cultural differences play an important role in the

inspection process and outcome. Each member state should publish this Technical Report, the

implementation of the guidance is determined at a National level.

Regardless to popularity of method three, checking the equipment without identifying hazards,

undertaking risk assessment and/or risk-benefit analysis, is a very restrictive inspection. The outcome

of this option can be in contradiction with the statement about risk taking in the introduction of

EN 1176-1.

The way in which children play and the public perception of children’s play varies from country to

country and with this in mind it is vital that the inspector is aware of the cultural differences that exist.

The inspector will need to be familiar with what is an acceptable level of risk or challenge for the

country in which they are employed or contracted.

For example, there is a big difference in the approach on the subject of water in the direct

neighbourhood of play environment in the Netherlands compared to other countries in the EU. This is a

result of the never ending struggle in The Netherlands to acquire more space to live. And so building

“on” or in the close proximity of water is a necessity. Children are educated from early age on how to

deal with this potential danger in their daily lives and have from early age an elevated awareness of this

danger.
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Cultural and socioeconomic differences cannot and may never be an argument to withhold children

from a beneficial risk/challenge while playing.

This document is based on the text contained within EN 1176 series and the working group accepts that

there may be variations in working practices in different countries. Irrespective of established systems,

inspectors need to have necessary competence to undertake the tasks.

The lack of safety knowledge by some product and layout designers cannot be compensated for by the

expertise of inspectors. Operators responsible for several playgrounds need some level of knowledge as

well. Installers will at least have correctly detailed technical documents to work with but a basic level of

knowledge about safety could help to solve problems arising during installation. Manufacturers should

have a high level of knowledge. In general, safety relates to everything from the inception of a

playground project to the end of its lifecycle.
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1 Scope

This framework forms a guideline for the education, examination and evaluation of the inspectors’

competence concerning public playground and recreational sports environments. For each specific task

an inspector may need to perform, this guideline describes the knowledge required and also sets out

the basic level of knowledge necessary.

The standard EN 1176 parts 1 and 7 detail the different types or levels of inspections required to help

provide a play environment that is suitable for children to play in. The different types of inspections

demand different levels of knowledge; these are:
— routine visual inspection;
— operational inspection;
— annual main inspection;
— post-installation inspection.

As well as these inspections identified in the standard there are also other inspections or activities that

are useful in helping to ensure the safe operation of a play environment:
— post-accident inspection;
— pre-installation consultation;
— mid-installation surveillance.

In this guideline there is a broad explanation of what these inspections are and how they should be

performed.

This guideline doesn’t cover the competence of staff conducting product certification.

Due to the variety of items that can be encountered in the playground environment this guideline can be

used to evaluate an inspector’s competence for the following equipment e.g.:
— playground equipment (EN 1176-1, −6, 1-10 and −11);
— roller-sport infrastructures (EN 14974);
— multi-sport arenas (EN 15312);
— outdoor exercise equipment (EN 16630);
— bouldering walls (EN 12572-2);
— portable and permanent socketed goals (EN 16579);
— parkour facilities (EN 16899);
— adventure playgrounds.
This Technical Report is not intended for:
— toys (EN 71 series);
— rope courses (EN 15567 series);
— inflatable play equipment (EN 14960).
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2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 1176-1:2017, Playground equipment and surfacing — Part 1: General safety requirements and test

methods
EN 1176 (all parts), Playground equipment and surfacing

EN ISO 12100, Safety of machinery — General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk reduction

(ISO 12100)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
inspector
competent person qualified to undertake inspections of play environments
3.2
competence
having suitable and sufficient training, skill and knowledge to perform the task
3.3
routine visual inspection

inspection intended to identify obvious hazards that can result from normal use, vandalism or weather

conditions

Note 1 to entry: Typical hazards can take the form of broken parts or broken bottles.

3.4
operational inspection

inspection, more detailed than routine visual inspection, to check the operation and stability of the

equipment
Note 1 to entry: Typical checks include an examination for wear.
3.5
annual main inspection

inspection intended to establish the overall level of safety of equipment, foundations and playing

surfaces

Note 1 to entry: Typical checks include the effects of weather, evidence of rotting or corrosion and any change

in the level of safety of the equipment as a result of repairs made, or of added or replaced components.

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3.6
post-installation inspection

inspection undertaken prior to the opening of a playground for public use, intended to assess the

equipment and environment and to assess the overall level of safety of the playground environment

3.7
post-accident inspection

inspection undertaken after a serious injury on a playground to assess the safety of the area and to help

assist in determining if any immediate works are required
3.8
inspection report

document produced as a result of an inspection to a predetermined or agreed specification

3.9
playground environment

area, open to public access containing the play equipment, ancillary items, landscaping and/or natural

features
3.10
playground equipment

equipment and structures, including components and constructional elements with, or on which,

children can play outdoors or indoors, either individually or in groups, according to their own rules or

own reasons for playing which can change at any time
Note 1 to entry: Definition from EN 1176-1.
3.11
adventure playground

fenced, secured playgrounds run and staffed in accordance with the widely accepted principles that

encourage children’s development and often use self-build equipment
3.12
knowledge
understanding of information achieved by experience and study
3.13
risk assessment

process including a combination of risk analysis, risk evaluation and optional risk-benefit analysis with

the purpose of determining a quantitative or qualitative value related to circumstances resulting in a

hazard

Note 1 to entry: Regarding playground equipment a risk assessment is the determination of quantitative or

qualitative value of risk related to a specific situation and an identified hazard. Quantitative risk assessment

requires calculations of three components of risk (R): The severity of the potential injury (S), the probability of the

incident occurring (P) and the exposure to the hazard (E).
R= S * PE*
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3.14
safety
achieved state in the absence of unacceptable risk
Note 1 to entry: Safety is achieved by reducing risk to a tolerable level.

Note 2 to entry: Safety is often misunderstood by the general public as the state of being protected from all

hazards. Instead safety is the state of being protected from recognized hazards that are likely to cause harm.

3.15
risk
combination of harm occurring and the severity of injury that may occur

Note 1 to entry: Some level of risk is inherent in playgrounds. The challenge involved in use of equipment is

considered to be beneficial to the users.
3.16
harm
injury or damage to the health of people
3.17
hazard
potential source of harm
3.18
acceptable risk

level of risk which is tolerable in a given context (public park vs. kindergarten for example) based on

the current values of society
3.19
activity area

general term for areas where inspections take place covering but not limited to playground equipment,

fitness equipment, wheel sports etc
3.20
child development

multifaceted, integral, and continual process of change in which children become able to handle ever

more complex levels of moving, thinking, feeling, and relating to others
Note 1 to entry: See Annex A for additional information about child development.
3.21
residual risk

remaining risk after risk reduction measures (protective measures) have been taken

Note 1 to entry: Following risk reduction measures, the residual risk is less than or equal to acceptable risk,

thus providing safety.
3.22
risk analysis

systematic use of available information to identify hazards and to eliminate risk

3.23
risk evaluation

procedure based on the risk analysis to determine whether a tolerable risk has been achieved

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3.24
risk-benefit analysis

weighing the risk associated with a particular activity against the benefits it provides in terms of

positive experiences, developmental value and learning
3.25
operator
person(s) or organization(s) which allows a product to be used
3.26
owner
person(s) or organization(s) which has legal title to the product to be used
Note 1 to entry: Owner can also operate the activity area, but not necessarily.
3.27
entrapment

type of hazard where a body, part of a body, clothing, or other element on or attached to a person can

become entrapped, caught, or drawn-in resulting in the potential for injury
Note 1 to entry: Entrapment most often occurs in a completely bound opening.
3.28
user information

instructions, warning labels, or other written documentation provided by the manufacturer and

operator regarding use of the product, as well as issues of potential residual risk

3.29
signal colours
colours that are used to indicate a level of risk
Note 1 to entry: There are two colour systems:
— Traffic light system GREEN — YELLOW — RED
— Signal colour system LIGHT BLUE — GREEN — AMBER — RED — PURPLE
3.30
serious injury

injury or consequence that normally requires hospitalisation and will affect functioning for more than

6 months or lead to a permanent loss of function

Note 1 to entry: This definition comes from level 3 injury in Commission Decision 2010/15/EU (RAPEX).

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4 Requirements for inspections
4.1 General

The level of competence required to carry out different levels of inspections are as follows:

— Level 1: competence for routine visual inspection.
— Level 2: competence for operational inspection.

— Level 3: competence for annual main inspection, pre-Installation consultation, mid-installation

surveillance, post-installation inspection and post-accident inspection.
NOTE For requirements of levels of competences see 5.1, Levels of knowledge.
4.2 Levels of inspections

There are three levels of inspections recognized by EN 1176-7: routine visual inspection, operational

inspection and annual main inspection. In addition to these, there are other types of inspections or

activities: post-installation inspection, post-accident inspection.

Detailed information about these levels of inspections can be found from EN 1176-7.

4.3 Other inspection activities
4.3.1 General

There are other activities that inspectors commonly carry out but which are not explained in detail in

EN 1176-7.

Inspectors are responsible for maintaining and calibrating the required test equipment according to the

specifications in EN 1176 series.
4.3.2 Post-accident inspection

After serious accident government officials, insurance companies, manufacturers or operators may

choose to carry out post-accident inspection. This report is usually only for the instance who ordered it

and is carried out by expert, who has years of experience from safety inspections and can determine if

any immediate works are required to ensure the safe operation of the equipment or area.

4.3.3 Mid-installation surveillance
Certain safety features should be checked before completion of the area.

Features that can’t be checked at all after completion of works: For example if synthetic surfacing is

used, foundations; drainage etc.

Failures that are difficult or almost impossible to correct after completion of works: For example

correct placement and height of equipment.
4.3.4 Pre-Installation consultation

Cooperation between fellow professionals (designer, inspector) to assess the design and layout of the

area prior to building works commencing can result in benefits at many levels.
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4.4 Inspection report
4.4.1 Contract between inspector and the purchaser of the inspection

When inspections are ordered, the inspector should make a contract with the purchaser including at

least the following information:
— scope of inspection (what is to be inspected, what will not be inspected);
— type of inspection (annual main, post-installation, etc.);

— outcome of inspection (compliance with the standard, risk assessment, corrective measures);

— method of reporting (paper, online service, pdf to e-mail etc.);

— schedule in case the contract is about one inspection such as post-installation inspection;

— legal obligations of each party;
— mention inspector’s liability insurance;

— disclaimers if relevant (for example not inspecting sub-terrain structures under solid surfacing).

Accredited inspection bodies need to meet the requirements of EN ISO/IEC 17020.
4.4.2 General information

In addition to what is required from the test report in EN 1176-1:2017, Clause 5, inspector should take

care of the following:
— location of the area (address);
— date and time of inspection;
— date of completion of the report and signature (digital in some cases);
— inspection time weather conditions / indoor location;
— the area’s owner’s and/or operator’s contact information;
— purchaser of the inspection in case not the owner or operator;
— scope of inspection (what was inspected, what was not inspected);
— identification of the inspector;
— inspection criteria (standards, laws, risk assessment method etc.).

It may be beneficial to make a short summary of the contract which was written when the inspection

was purchased.
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4.4.3 Inspection outcome
For each item inspected, following pieces of information can be included:
— name of the manufacturer or distributor of the equipment;

— photograph has to be of a good quality showing both the location in the equipment and the detail of

non-compliance;

— reference to the applicable requirement with a short description of its content OR a detailed

description about its content;

— all non-compliances of any significance should be reported with related risk assessment;

— all maintenance defects affecting the general level of safety need to be reported.

The inspector should be careful when providing recommendations as if they are misunderstood or

executed incorrectly, new hazards could be created (see
...

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