Infrared free air applications

describes the classification of IR devices into groups and classes in order to identify and clarify problems caused by mutual interference. Mutual interference is caused by the increasing parallel application of different infrared (IR) systems.

Nichtleitungsgebundene Infrarot-Anwendungen

Applications infrarouge en mode non guidé

describes the classification of IR devices into groups and classes in order to identify and clarify problems caused by mutual interference. Mutual interference is caused by the increasing parallel application of different infrared (IR) systems.

Infrardeče brezžične aplikacije (IEC 61920:2004)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Mar-2004
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
30-Mar-2004
Completion Date
30-Mar-2004

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SLOVENSKI SIST EN 61920:2004
STANDARD
september 2004
Infrardeče brezžične aplikacije (IEC 61920:2004)
Infrared free air applications (IEC 61920:2004)
ICS 31.260 Referenčna številka
SIST EN 61920:2004(en)

© Standard je založil in izdal Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje ali kopiranje celote ali delov tega dokumenta ni dovoljeno

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 61920
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM March 2004
ICS 31.260; 33.100 Supersedes EN 61920:1998
English version
Infrared free air applications
(IEC 61920:2004)
Applications infrarouge Nichtleitungsgebundene
en mode non guidé Infrarot-Anwendungen
(CEI 61920:2004) (IEC 61920:2004)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2004-03-01. CENELEC members are bound to

comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and

notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland and United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2004 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 61920:2004 E
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN 61920:2004 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 100/717/FDIS, future edition 2 of IEC 61920, prepared by IEC TC 100, Audio,

video and multimedia systems and equipment, was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and

was approved by CENELEC as EN 61920 on 2004-03-01.
This European Standard supersedes EN 61920:1998.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2004-12-01
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2007-03-01
Annex ZA has been added by CENELEC.
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 61920:2004 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 60825-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60825-1:1994 (not modified).
IEC 61603-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61603-1:1997 (not modified).
IEC 61603-2 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61603-2:1997 (not modified).
IEC 61603-3 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61603-3:1998 (not modified).
IEC 61603-6 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61603-6:2002 (not modified).
__________
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
- 3 - EN 61920:2004
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE Where an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60050-713 1998 International Electrotechnical - -
Vocabulary
Part 713: Radiocommunications:
transmitters, receivers, networks and
operation
IEC 60050-845 1987 Chapter 845: Lighting - -
database
IEC 60417 Graphical symbols for use on - -
equipment
IEC 60747-5-1 1997 Discrete semiconductor devices and EN 60747-5-1 2001
integrated circuits
Part 5-1: Optoelectronic devices –
General
ISO/IEC 7498-1 1994 Information technology - Open systems EN ISO/IEC 7498-1 1995
interconnection - Basic reference model
Part 1: The basic model
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL IEC
STANDARD 61920
Second edition
2004-01
Infrared free air applications
© IEC 2004 ⎯ Copyright - all rights reserved

No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or

mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from the publisher.

International Electrotechnical Commission, 3, rue de Varembé, PO Box 131, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland

Telephone: +41 22 919 02 11 Telefax: +41 22 919 03 00 E-mail: inmail@iec.ch Web: www.iec.ch

PRICE CODE
Commission Electrotechnique Internationale U
International Electrotechnical Commission
ɆɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɚɹɗɥɟɤɬɪɨɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɄɨɦɢɫɫɢɹ
For price, see current catalogue
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 2 – 61920 © IEC:2004(E)
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................3

1 Scope and object ..............................................................................................................5

2 Normative references........................................................................................................5

3 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................................6

4 Symbols...........................................................................................................................9

4.1 General...................................................................................................................9

4.2 Radiators.................................................................................................................9

4.3 Receivers................................................................................................................9

5 Classification..................................................................................................................10

5.1 General.................................................................................................................10

5.2 Physical characteristics of radiators .......................................................................10

5.2.1 General.....................................................................................................10

5.2.2 Ranges of wavelength (criterion 1) .............................................................10

5.2.3 Ranges of frequency (criterion 2) ...............................................................12

5.2.4 Radiant intensity (criterion 3) .....................................................................12

5.2.5 Angle of radiation (criterion 4) ....................................................................12

5.2.6 Duration of radiation (criterion 5)................................................................12

5.2.7 Identification example for a radiator ...........................................................13

5.3 Physical characteristics of receivers.......................................................................13

5.3.1 General.....................................................................................................13

5.3.2 Ranges of wavelength and selectivity (criterion 6) ......................................13

5.3.3 Frequency response (criterion 7)................................................................14

5.3.4 Sensitivity (criterion 8) ...............................................................................14

5.3.5 Directivity (criterion 9) ................................................................................14

5.3.6 Example of a receiver ................................................................................14

5.4 Tolerances............................................................................................................15

5.4.1 Measurement conditions............................................................................15

5.4.2 Tolerances of data .....................................................................................15

5.5 Product groups......................................................................................................17

5.6 User areas.............................................................................................................18

5.7 Graphical representation of IR systems..................................................................18

6 Method for minimizing mutual interferences ....................................................................20

7 Marking..........................................................................................................................21

8 Relationship between IR basic standard and application standards..................................21

Annex A (informative) Example for possible priorization........................................................22

Annex B (informative) Examples of λ/f-diagrams...................................................................23

Annex C (informative) Survey of standardization activities in the field of Infrared...................27

Bibliography ..........................................................................................................................28

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
61920 © IEC:2004(E) – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
INFRARED FREE AIR APPLICATIONS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 61920, has been prepared by technical area 3, Infrared systems

and applications, of IEC technical committee 100: Audio, video and multimedia systems and

equipment.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1998. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
100/717/FDIS 100/749/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 4 – 61920 © IEC:2004(E)

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

2006. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed;
• withdrawn;
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
61920 © IEC:2004(E) – 5 –
INFRARED FREE AIR APPLICATIONS
1 Scope and object

This International Standard describes the classification of IR devices into groups and classes

in order to identify and clarify problems caused by mutual interference. Mutual interference is

caused by the increasing parallel application of different infrared (IR) systems.

Due to its physical characteristics, the possibility of local limitation is a special feature of IR

radiation.

In this standard, the wavelength range from 700 nm to 1 600 nm is considered. All systems

based on free air application which intentionally or unintentionally use IR radiation in this range,

are included. Products which unintentionally emit IR radiation, such as illumination equipment

are not deemed to be IR application systems. They are, however, integrated into this standard

in order to enable facility planners to take into consideration and to foresee provisions against

disturbance of IR application systems by such unintentionally emitted radiation.

The object of this standard is to prevent or at least to minimize mutual interference and to allow

the coexistence of different IR products. It is intended to identify each IR product by its

characteristics, according to the classification criteria.

It is not the object of this standard to describe the consequences of interference between IR

systems or safety aspects of optical radiation.
All applications of fibre-optic technology are excluded.

In this context “free air” means freely radiated IR in indoor or outdoor applications.

If the IR systems are used for information transmission, this standard is only relevant in

connection with the physical layer of the open systems interconnection (OSI) reference model

(ISO 7498-1).

NOTE The reader should be aware that a risk of interference between different infrared systems as assessed by

this standard is based on general parameters and therefore cannot take all the parameters involved into account. In

many cases the practical results may differ from those expected, for example the positioning of sender and receiver

and the choice of advanced coding and decoding schemes. All these factors beyond the physical layer may have an

effect on the final result.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For

dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of

the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 60050-713:1998, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Part 713: Radio-

communications: transmitters, receivers, networks and operation

IEC 60050-845:1987, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Chapter 845: Lighting

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 6 – 61920 © IEC:2004(E)
IEC 60417-DB:2002 , Graphical symbols for use on equipment

IEC 60747-5-1:1997, Discrete semiconductor devices and integrated circuits – Part 5-1:

Optoelectronic devices – General

ISO/IEC 7498-1:1994, Information technology – Open systems interconnection – Basic

reference model: The basic model
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply:
3.1
bandwidth (of a receiver, amplifier or network)

extent of a continuous range of electrical frequencies or optical wavelengths over which the

response does not differ from its nominal value by more than a specified amount
[IEV 713-06-19, modified]
3.2
directivity

defined by two angles β and β for describing the dependence of the receiver’s sensitivity

A B

from the direction of incidence. The direction in which the receiver output V [mV] is maximum

might be called optical receiver axis.
s /2
max.
s /2
max.
s /2
max.
max.
IEC 2895/03
s /2
max.
Figure 1 – Directivity and related characteristics

In a sensitivity diagram, the two angles β and β within which the sensitivity is greater than or

A B

equal to half of the maximum sensitivity (see Figure 1) characterize the directivity

[IEC 60747-5-1, 6.3.5.2, modified]
3.3
fluorescent lamp

discharge lamp of the low pressure mercury type in which most of the light is emitted by one or

several layers of phosphors excited by the ultraviolet radiation from the discharge

[IEV 845-07-26]
3.4
harmonic
integer multiple of a basic frequency
___________
‘DB’ refers to the IEC on-line database.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
61920 © IEC:2004(E) – 7 –
3.5
interference

disturbance experienced in the reception of a wanted signal, caused by an unwanted signal or

noise
3.6
infrared radiation

optical radiation for which the wavelengths are longer than those for visible radiation

[IEV 845-01-04]

NOTE For infrared radiation, the range between 780 nm and 1 mm is commonly subdivided into:

IR-A 780 nm to 1 400 nm;
IR-B 1,4 µm to 3 µm;
IR-C 3 µm to 1 mm.
3.7
infrared system

system which uses IR radiation in free air application consisting of IR radiator and IR receiver

3.8
irradiance

irradiance (at a point of a surface) is the quotient of the radiant flux dΦ incident on an element

of the surface containing the point, by the area dA of that element
E =dΦ /dA
NOTE Irradiance is expressed in [mW/m²].
[IEV 845-01-37]
3.9
modulation frequency
electrical signal frequency which modulates the IR radiation
3.10
peak intensity

maximum intensity I [mW/sr] of the optical radiation inside the optical radiation pattern

NOTE It should be taken into account that a different radiation pattern may occur in different wavelength ranges in

the same application.
3.11
radiant intensity

quotient of the radiant flux dΦ leaving the source and propagated in the element of solid angle

dΩ containing the given direction, by the element of solid angle
I =dΦ /dΩ
e e
NOTE Radiant intensity is expressed in [mW/sr].
[IEV 845-01-30]
3.12
radiation characteristic

defined by two angles α and α for describing the beam characteristic of IR emission.

A B

References are the points of half optical radiant intensity. α is the angle of maximum

divergence, α is the angle perpendicular to the plane expanded by α , where α ≥ α (similar

B A A B
to 3.2)
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 8 – 61920 © IEC:2004(E)
3.13
relative spectral electrical output

of a receiver is its output V [mV/Hz] as a function of the frequency f divided through its

maximum value V [mV/Hz]
max
V = V /V × 100
rf f max
NOTE Relative spectral electrical output is expressed in [%].
3.14
relative spectral sensitivity
rλλλλ

ratio of the sensitivity s of the detector at wavelength λ to a given reference value s

λ max
s = s /s × 100
rλ λ max
NOTE Relative spectral sensitivity is expressed in [%].
[IEV 845-05-57, modified]
3.15
(maximum) spectral sensitivity
s(max)

quotient of the (maximum) current of the photo diode I [µA/nm] and the irradiance E

(max)
[mW/m²] as a function of the wavelength λ
s = I /E
max max
NOTE Spectral sensitivity is expressed in [(µA × m²)/(mW × nm)].
[IEV 845-05-56, modified]
3.16
steradian

SI unit of solid angle. Solid angle that, having its vertex at the centre of a sphere, cuts off an

area of the surface of the sphere equal to that of a square with sides of length equal to the

radius of the sphere
[IEV 845-01-20]
3.17
wavelength

distance in the direction of propagation of a periodic wave between two successive points at

which the phase is the same
[IEV 845-01-14]
3.18
radiator

IR emitting source, consisting of one or more emitter components, with a specific radiation

characteristic
3.19
(selective) receiver

one or more IR detectors, which are mostly embedded in signal processing components and

representing a specific IR receiving directivity

NOTE Selective receivers have a limited spectral bandwidth within the whole IR spectrum.

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
61920 © IEC:2004(E) – 9 –
4 Symbols
4.1 General

As this document is concerned with interference, commonly between two different IR systems

(for example between the radiators of a system 1 and the receivers of a system 2), symbols of

similar or equal meaning such as bandwidths B, wavelengths λ or frequencies f shall be

i i i

identified in the following by the index 1 for radiators (Ÿ system 1) and index 2 for receivers (Ÿ

system 2).
4.2 Radiators
B electrical bandwidth [kHz]
B optical bandwidth [nm]
f modulation frequency [kHz]
f frequency at the modulated peak intensity I [kHz]
p pf
f lower band limiting frequency [kHz]
f upper band limiting frequency [kHz]
I time averaged total optical radiant intensity [mW/sr]
I total optical peak intensity [mW/sr]
I spectral optical peak intensity [mW/(sr × nm)]
I spectral optical radiant intensity [mW/(sr × nm)]
spectral modulated radiant intensity [mW/(sr × Hz)]
spectral modulated peak intensity [mW/(sr × Hz)]
sr steradian
α angle of maximum divergence
α angle perpendicular to α
B A
wavelength [nm]
wavelength at the optical peak intensity I [nm]
lower band limiting wavelength [nm]
upper band limiting wavelength [nm]
4.3 Receivers
B electrical bandwidth [kHz]
B optical bandwidth [nm]
received frequency [kHz]
f frequency at maximum response [kHz]
max
f lower band limiting frequency [kHz]
f upper band limiting frequency [kHz]
E irradiance [mW/m²]
I maximum photo current [µA/nm]
max
s relative spectral sensitivity [%]
s maximum spectral sensitivity [µA m²/mW × nm]
max
V relative spectral electrical output [%]
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 10 – 61920 © IEC:2004(E)
V maximum spectral electrical output [mV/Hz]
max
angle of maximum reception
β angle perpendicular to β
B A
wavelength [nm]
λ wavelength at maximum sensitivity [nm]
max
λ lower band limiting wavelength [nm]
upper band limiting wavelength [nm]
5 Classification
5.1 General

The classification considers four main aspects for description of IR systems consisting of

radiators and receivers:
– physical characteristics of radiators (see 5.2);
– physical characteristics of receivers (see 5.3);
– product groups (see 5.5);
– user areas (see 5.6).
5.2 Physical characteristics of radiators
5.2.1 General

There are five criteria, 1 to 5, on which the classification for physical characteristics of

radiators is based. They are operating characteristics, selected from the rated values given by

the manufacturer (see Table 1).
5.2.2 Ranges of wavelength (criterion 1)

The lower (λ ) and the upper (λ ) optical wavelengths determine the optical range of an IR

1l 1u

radiator. Both the lower and the upper optical wavelengths of an IR radiator are defined by the

reduction of the peak intensity I by 3 dB, taking into account the effects of temperature and

component deviations (see Figure 2).
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
61920 © IEC:2004(E) – 11 –
B = λ − λ
1λ 1u 1l
Wavelength λ nm
λ λ λ
1l p 1u
IEC 2896/03
Figure 2 – Spectral emission and definition of optical bandwidth
Spectral optical radiant
intensity I [mW/(sr × nm)]
3 dB
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
– 12 – 61920 © IEC:2004(E)
5.2.3 Ranges of frequency (criterion 2)

The lower (f ) and upper (f ) modulation frequencies determine the bandwidth B of the

1l 1u 1f

modulated IR radiant intensity. These frequencies are defined as those two utmost frequencies

including any harmonics and measured with a meter having a bandwidth of at least 10 times

the operating frequency, at which the intensity is 10 dB below the modulated peak intensity I

(see Figure 3).

Harmonics greater than 1/10 of the highest intensity I should be taken into account, notably

with respect to the influences of temperature and component tolerances. For criterion 2 it is

only important to know the upper and lower band limiting frequencies; the possible influence of

modulation is not taken into account in this definition.
B = f −f
1f 1u 1l
f f f
1l p 1u
Frequency f kHz
IEC 2897/03
Figure 3 – Spectral emission and definition of electrical bandwidth
5.2.4 Radiant intensity (criterion 3)

The intensity of IR radiators is characterized by the time averaged total optical radiant intensity

I [mW/sr] and the total optical peak intensity I [mW/sr].
o p
5.2.5 Angle of radiation (criterion 4)

The angle of radiation α is related to the points of half intensity of beam divergence. This is the

angle between the directions which are specified by points of half radiant intensity. Two angles

α and α lying in two planes perpendicular to each other define the radiation characteristic of

A B
the IR radiator.
5.2.6 Duration of radiation (criterion 5)

The time characteristic of IR radiation is described by its duration. If an IR transmission is the

consequence of a momentary operation, the result is called a short duration radiation

(repetition in case of error handling included). Long duration operation occurs when the IR

system is working in a continuous mode.
Spectral modulated radiant
intensity I [mW/(sr × Hz)]
10 dB
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
61920 © IEC:2004(E) – 13 –
5.2.7 Identification example for a radiator

In order to illustrate the application of the characteristics introduced in 5.2.1 to 5.2.5, an

example is given for the radiator of a home and building electronic system having the following

characteristics:
Illumination control with
λ = 930 nm
λ = 980 nm
f = 38 kHz
f = 60 kHz
I = 45 mW/sr
I = 20 mW/sr
α = 60°
α = 30°
Class S: momentary activation of a push button
5.3 Physical characteristics of receivers
5.3.1 General

There are another 4 criteria (6 to 9) on which the classification for physical characteristics of

receivers is based. They are operating characteristics selected from the rated values given by

the manufacturers (see Table 2).
5.3.2 Ranges of wavelength and selectivity (criterion 6)

The lower (λ ) and the upper (λ ) optical wavelength determine the optical range of an IR

2l 2u

receiver. They are defined by the reduction of the maximum sensitivity s by 6 dB (50 %)

max

taking into account the effects of temperature and component deviations. Figure 4 shows the

spectral sensitivity in terms of relative values s = s /s × 100 [%]. The optical bandwidth B

rλ λ max 2λ
is a measure for the selectivity of the IR receiver.
100
B = λ −λ
2λ 2u 2l
λ λ λ
2l max. 2u
Wavelength λ nm
IEC 2898/03
Figure 4 – Spectral sensitivity and definition of optical bandwidth
Relative spectral sensitivity s %
6 dB
---------------------- Page: 17 ----------------------
– 14 – 61920 © IEC:2004(E)
5.3.3 Frequency response (criterion 7)

The lower (f ) and upper (f ) frequencies determine the electrical bandwidth B of the

2l 2u

receiver. These frequencies are defined as those two at which the electrical output V is 20 dB

below its maximum V . Figure 5 shows the frequency response in terms of relative values

max
V =V /V × 100 [%].
rf f max
100
B = f −f
2f 2u 2l
f f f
2l max. 2u
Fequency f kHz
IEC 2899/03
Figure 5 - Frequency response and definition of electrical bandwidth
5.3.4 Sensitivity (criterion 8)

Besides the selectivity according to 5.3.2 (criterion 6), the efficacy of IR receivers is

characterized by the maximum sensiti
...

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