Process management for avionics - Electronic components capability in operation - Part 2: Semiconductor microcircuit lifetime

IEC TR 62240-2:2018(E) describes a process and a method for selecting digital semiconductor microcircuits by ensuring that their lifetime is compatible with the requirements of aerospace, defence and high performance (ADHP) applications (generally in connection with functional environments). Methods and guidelines are provided to assess the long term reliability of COTS semiconductor microcircuits in such applications; they mainly apply during the electronic design phase when selecting semiconductor microcircuits and assessing the application reliability. focuses on original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) using commercial off the shelf (COTS) semiconductor microcircuits for high performance, high reliability and long duration applications. This document supports OEMs in the preparation and maintenance of their semiconductor electronic component management plan (ECMP).

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Jun-2018
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
18-Jun-2018
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IEC TR 62240-2
Edition 1.0 2018-06
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Process management for avionics – Electronic components capability in
operation –
Part 2: Semiconductor microcircuit lifetime
IEC TR 62240-2:2018-06(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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IEC TR 62240-2
Edition 1.0 2018-06
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Process management for avionics – Electronic components capability in
operation –
Part 2: Semiconductor microcircuit lifetime
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 03.100.50; 31.020; 49.060 ISBN 978-2-8322-5769-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 62240-2:2018 © IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ........................................................................ 7

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 7

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................. 10

4 Lifetime assessment process and method...................................................................... 11

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

4.2 Input data for the method ...................................................................................... 13

4.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 13

4.2.2 COTS semiconductor microcircuits and lifetime issues considerations ........... 13

4.2.3 Operating and thermal conditions .................................................................. 13

4.3 Lifetime requirements in mission ........................................................................... 13

4.3.1 Lifetime requirements for electronic equipment in mission ............................. 13

4.3.2 Lifetime requirement for COTS semiconductor microcircuit ............................ 14

4.4 Lifetime assessment for COTS semiconductor microcircuit based on the

OCM information ................................................................................................... 14

4.4.1 Availability of lifetime assessment by the OCM .............................................. 14

4.4.2 Lifetime compliance ....................................................................................... 14

4.5 Lifetime assessment for a COTS semiconductor microcircuit processed by

the OEM ............................................................................................................... 14

4.5.1 Approach ....................................................................................................... 14

4.5.2 Risk analysis based on physics of failure (PoF) and the component

family ............................................................................................................ 15

4.5.3 OCM’s technical data availability and relevance ............................................ 15

4.5.4 Acceleration models assessment paths ......................................................... 15

4.6 Lifetime calculation of COTS semiconductor microcircuit in mission ...................... 16

4.7 Lifetime compliance of COTS semiconductor microcircuit in mission ..................... 16

4.8 Situation reconsideration and alternatives ............................................................. 17

4.8.1 General ......................................................................................................... 17

4.8.2 Semiconductor microcircuits change .............................................................. 17

4.8.3 Lifetime mitigation solutions ........................................................................... 17

4.9 Final report ........................................................................................................... 18

5 Considerations with regard to semiconductor ageing level estimation for

semiconductor microcircuits ........................................................................................... 19

Annex A (informative) Failure and degradation mechanisms of COTS semiconductor

microcircuits ......................................................................................................................... 20

Annex B (informative) Example of operating and thermal mission profile for a COTS

semiconductor microcircuit .................................................................................................... 22

Annex C (informative) Risk of failure and degradation mechanisms according to the

type of COTS semiconductor microcircuit .............................................................................. 23

Annex D (informative) BEOL and FEOL technological parameters ....................................... 24

Annex E (informative) Generic acceleration models ............................................................. 25

Annex F (informative) Final report ........................................................................................ 26

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 28

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IEC TR 62240-2:2018 © IEC 2018 – 3 –

Figure 1 – Process flow for lifetime assessment and selection of COTS semiconductor

microcircuits ......................................................................................................................... 12

Figure B.1 – Example of thermal and operating mission profile for a semiconductor

microcircuit implemented in an electronic equipment located on the avionic bay of a

civil aircraft, assuming 30 °C of thermal dissipation .............................................................. 22

Table A.1 – Some failure and degradation mechanisms for COTS semiconductor

microcircuits ......................................................................................................................... 20

Table C.1 – Typical failure and degradation mechanisms according to the COTS

semiconductor microcircuit family and structure .................................................................... 23

Table D.1 – BEOL and FEOL technological parameters ........................................................ 24

Table E.1 – Examples of generic acceleration model based on the failure and
degradation mechanism, and based on the internal semiconductor microcircuit

structure ............................................................................................................................... 25

Table F.1 – Template for final report ..................................................................................... 26

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– 4 – IEC TR 62240-2:2018 © IEC 2018
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PROCESS MANAGEMENT FOR AVIONICS –
ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS CAPABILITY IN OPERATION –
Part 2: Semiconductor microcircuit lifetime
FOREWORD

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The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. However, a

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example "state of the art".

IEC TR 62240-2, which is a Technical Report, has been prepared by IEC technical committee

107: Process management for avionics.

IEC TR 62240-2 adapts and modifies the GIFAS/2015/5022 document that has served as a

basis for the elaboration of this Technical Report.
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IEC TR 62240-2:2018 © IEC 2018 – 5 –
The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
Draft TR Report on voting
107/325/DTR 107/332/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for the approval of this Technical Report can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

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the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
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– 6 – IEC TR 62240-2:2018 © IEC 2018
INTRODUCTION

Electronic equipment for aerospace, defence and high performance (ADHP) applications

integrate more and more commercial off the shelf (COTS) semiconductor microcircuits. These

semiconductor microcircuits are above all designed and produced to address high volume and

low cost markets such as consumer electronics, telecommunications or microcomputers,

whose main requirements are basically cost, integration, performance and low consumption

and for which the long term reliability in severe environments (for example vibration, thermal

cycling, humidity and operating temperature) is not necessarily an imperative design criterion.

With semiconductor transistor feature size decrease, mainly from 90 nm transistor feature

size, early wear-out can arise in COTS semiconductor microcircuits. For example, non-

homothetic evolution of semiconductor microcircuit bias voltage and transistor feature size

scaling have led to an increase of the electrical fields inside the semiconductor microcircuit

and hence changes in classical failure and degradation modes or mechanisms. In addition

new transistor architectures and technologies (for example fin field effect transistor (FinFET),

fully depleted silicon on insulator (FD-SOI), etc.) and new materials (for example low-k

dielectrics, high-k dielectrics, strain source/drain Si-Ge) have been introduced since the

generation 90 nm to overcome the scaling issues, contributing potentially to the evolution of

failure and degradation modes or mechanisms.

In this context, the lifetime of new generations of COTS semiconductor microcircuits may not

meet the lifetime requirements of high performance, high reliability and long duration

electronic applications (for example twenty years, thirty years or more). As a consequence,

specific reliability assessment and maintenance plans are considered within the
semiconductor microcircuit selection activities.
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IEC TR 62240-2:2018 © IEC 2018 – 7 –
PROCESS MANAGEMENT FOR AVIONICS –
ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS CAPABILITY IN OPERATION –
Part 2: Semiconductor microcircuit lifetime
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62240, which is a Technical Report, focuses on original equipment

manufacturers (OEMs) using commercial off the shelf (COTS) semiconductor microcircuits for

high performance, high reliability and long duration applications. This document supports

OEMs in the preparation and maintenance of their semiconductor electronic component

management plan (ECMP).

This document describes a process and a method for selecting digital semiconductor

microcircuits by ensuring that their lifetime is compatible with the requirements of aerospace,

defence and high performance (ADHP) applications (generally in connection with functional

environments). Methods and guidelines are provided to assess the long term reliability of

COTS semiconductor microcircuits in such applications; they mainly apply during the

electronic design phase when selecting semiconductor microcircuits and assessing the

application reliability.

Moreover, the document focuses on the intrinsic wear-out and the lifetime of COTS

semiconductor microcircuits processed of less than or equal to 90 nm feature size (also called

deep sub-micron (DSM) semiconductor microcircuits) and puts aside, at this time, packaging

wear-out and random failure mechanisms. In this view, physics of failure (PoF) is at the heart

of the approach.
NOTE 1 IEC 62239-1 can assist OEMs in the creation and maintenance of ECMPs.

NOTE 2 SAE ARP6338 can also help the OEM with regard to assessment and mitigation of early wear-out of

life-limited semiconductor microcircuits.

NOTE 3 With the evolution of electronic technology and semiconductor microcircuits processed of less than or

equal to 90 nm feature size, the current MIL-HDBK-217 handbook or FIDES guide become inappropriate as they

are based for the time being on the assumption that the semiconductor electronic component exhibits a constant

(random) failure rate and does not have life limits or exhibit wear-out.

Moreover, silicon itself has fundamentally very low failures in time (FIT) rates and the major failure modes are often

in the packaging (for example housing, bond wires, etc.).
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC TR 62240-2:2018 © IEC 2018
3.1.1
acceleration model
equation for predicting time-to-fail as a function of operating stress

Note 1 to entry: An acceleration model shows how time-to-fail at a particular operating stress level can be used to

predict the equivalent time-to-fail at a different operating stress level.

Note 2 to entry: An acceleration model is associated to one failure and degradation mode or mechanism.

Acceleration models can be either defined for temperature, electrical, mechanical, environmental, or other stresses

that can affect the reliability of a device.

Note 3 to entry: An acceleration model is semi-empirical and is basically based on the physics of failure. Times

are generally derived from modeled time-to-failure distributions (lognormal, Weibull, exponential, etc.).

Note 4 to entry: The acceleration model is also defined as acceleration factor, for which the abbreviated term AF

is used.
3.1.2
Bi-CMOS
bipolar CMOS

technology integrating two separate semiconductor technologies, bipolar junction transistor

and CMOS transistor, in a single electronic component
3.1.3
cold redundancy

technique where one primary part is operational and the redundant one is in a backup mode

Note 1 to entry: The redundant part can also be called “cold” part and generally it is technically identical to the

primary part.

Note 2 to entry: The “cold” part can be non-powered or in a standby mode and it is usually called upon only on

failure of the primary part.
3.1.4
electronic equipment

functioning electronic device produced by the plan owner, which incorporates electronic

components

Note 1 to entry: End items, sub-assemblies, line-replaceable units and shop-replaceable units are examples of

electronic equipment.
[SOURCE: IEC 62239-1:2018, 3.20]
3.1.5
high-k dielectrics
material with a high dielectric constant “k” (as compared to silicon dioxide)

Note 1 to entry: High-k dielectrics are used in semiconductor manufacturing processes where they are usually

used to replace a silicon dioxide gate dielectric or another dielectric layer of a semiconductor microcircuit. The

implementation of high-k gate dielectrics is one of several strategies developed to allow continued scaling and

miniaturization of semiconductor microcircuits.
3.1.6
lifetime

upper bound of period of time during which the COTS semiconductor component performs a

required function without failure under stated conditions
3.1.7
low-k dielectrics
material with a small dielectric constant “k”, relative to silicon dioxide

Note 1 to entry: Low-k dielectric material implementation is one of several strategies used to allow continued

scaling and miniaturization of semiconductor microcircuits.
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IEC TR 62240-2:2018 © IEC 2018 – 9 –
3.1.8
NAND
Negative-AND

logic gate which produces, in digital electronics, an output that is false (0) only if all its inputs

are true (1) and an output true (1) if one or both inputs are false (0)
[SOURCE: IEC 62239-1:2018, 3.22]
3.1.9
NOR
Negative-OR

logic gate which produces, in digital electronics, an output that is true (1) if both the inputs are

false (0) and an output false (0) if one or both inputs are true (1)
[SOURCE: IEC 62239-1:2018, 3.23]
3.1.10
plan owner

original design authority responsible for all aspects of the design, functionality and reliability

of the delivered equipment in the intended application and responsible for writing and

maintaining their specific ECMP
[SOURCE: IEC 62239-1:2018, 3.26]
3.1.11
process node
specific semiconductor manufacturing process and its design geometry rules

Note 1 to entry: Generally, a smaller technology node means a smaller feature size, producing smaller transistors

which are both faster and more power-efficient. Historically, the name “process node” referred to a number of

different features of a transistor including the gate length as well as the first layer metal half-pitch. Most recently,

due to various marketing practices and discrepancies among foundries, the name “process node” has lost the exact

meaning it once held. Recent technology nodes below 90 nm refer purely to a specific generation of semiconductor

microcircuits made in a particular technology; they do not correspond to any gate length or half pitch. Nevertheless

the name convention has stuck and it is what the leading foundries call their nodes.

Note 2 to entry: Process node is also called technology node or simply node.
3.1.12
semiconductor microcircuit
semiconductor electronic component

electrical or electronic device that is not subject to disassembly without destruction or

impairment of design use and that utilises the properties of semiconductor materials

Note 1 to entry: It is sometimes called electronic part or electronic piece part or electronic device or electronic

component or integrated circuits. It refers to active electronic parts such as memories, microcontrollers,

microprocessors, etc.
3.1.13
wear-out

phenomenon resulting in a permanent physical degradation of a semiconductor that can be

quantified through a quasi-deterministic lifetime indicator
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– 10 – IEC TR 62240-2:2018 © IEC 2018
3.2 Abbreviated terms
ADHP aerospace, defence and high performance
AF acceleration factor
BEOL back end of the line
BTI bias temperature instability
COTS commercial off the shelf (related to semiconductor microcircuits for
the purposes of this document)
CMOS complementary metal-oxide semiconductor
DDR double data rate (memory)
DPA deprocessing analysis
DRAM dynamic random access memory
DSM deep sub-micron
ECMP electronic component management plan
EM electro-migration
EOT equivalent oxide thickness
FD-SOI fully depleted silicon on insulator
FEOL front end of the line
FinFET fin field effect transistor
FIT failures in time (number of failures that can be expected in one
billion device-hours of operation)
FPGA field programmable gate array
Ge germanium
HCI hot carrier injection
I/O input/output
MRAM magnetic random access memory
NMOS N metal-oxide semiconductor
OCM original component manufacturer (related to the COTS electronic
components manufacturer)
OEM original equipment manufacturer
PMOS P metal-oxide semiconductor
PoF physics of failure
Si silicon
SDRAM synchronous dynamic random access memory
SRAM static random access memory
TDDB time dependent dielectric breakdown
TTFX% time to failure (or lifetime) for x % of samples
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC TR 62240-2:2018 © IEC 2018 – 11 –
4 Lifetime assessment process and method
4.1 General

The aim of the method is twofold. In a first step, this method allows the assessment and

determination of the lifetime of a COTS semiconductor microcircuit in a specific environment,

and in the second step it provides the means for the OEM to select the right COTS

semiconductor microcircuit according the electronic equipment reliability requirements.

The method is synthetized in the process flow of Figure 1.

Moreover, according to the level of information available from the OCMs and/or silicon

foundries, three different paths can be considered:

– path and approach 1 (represented in yellow in Figure 1) where the OEM considers for its

application the lifetime assessment of the COTS semiconductor microcircuit with regard to

the lifetime specified and associated technical data provided by the OCM;

– path and approach 2 (represented in orange in Figure 1) where, in the absence of lifetime

data specified by the OCM or if associated technical data are incomplete, the OEM

conducts for its application its own lifetime assessment of the COTS semiconductor

microcircuit, making a risk analysis and using the available technical data (for example,

failure and degradation mechanisms, acceleration models, raw qualification test results)

provided by the OCM;

– path and approach 3 (represented in burgundy in Figure 1) where, in case of unavailability

or irrelevancy of OCM technical data, the OEM conducts for its application its own lifetime

assessment of the COTS semiconductor microcircuit collecting potential technical data

and considering the technology of the semiconductor microcircuit (including potential

deprocessing analysis (DPA)).
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC TR 62240-2:2018 © IEC 2018
Figure 1 – Process flow for lifetime assessment and selection of
COTS semiconductor microcircuits
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
IEC TR 62240-2:2018 © IEC 2018 – 13 –
4.2 Input data for the method
4.2.1 General
The input data for the method are as follows.
4.2.2 COTS semiconductor microcircuits and lifetime issues considerations

Wear-out and lifetime considerations need to be taken into account for electronic designs

using COTS semiconductor microcircuits manufactured in 90 nm process nodes and below.

This includes digital COTS semiconductor microcircuits such as SRAM, DRAM (SDRAM, DDR

series), flash memories (NOR logic gate, NAND logic gate), MRAM, microcontrollers,

microprocessors and FPGA. Analog or Bi-CMOS electronic components can also be
concerned and a similar approach can be used.
The process nod
...

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