# CISPR TR 16-4-4:2007/AMD1:2017

(Main)## Amendment 1 - Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and methods - Part 4-4: Uncertainties, statistics and limit modelling - Statistics of complaints and a model for the calculation of limits for the protection of radio services calculation of limits for the protection of radio services

## Amendment 1 - Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and methods - Part 4-4: Uncertainties, statistics and limit modelling - Statistics of complaints and a model for the calculation of limits for the protection of radio services calculation of limits for the protection of radio services

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CISPR TR 16-4-4

Edition 2.0 2017-06

TECHNICAL

REPORT

colour

inside

INTERNATIONAL SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON RADIO INTERFERENCE

AMENDMENT 1

Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and

methods –

Part 4-4: Uncertainties, statistics and limit modelling – Statistics of complaints

and a model for the calculation of limits for the protection of radio servicesCISPR TR 16-4-4:2007-07/AMD1:2017-06(en)

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------

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CISPR TR 16-4-4

Edition 2.0 2017-06

TECHNICAL

REPORT

colour

inside

INTERNATIONAL SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON RADIO INTERFERENCE

AMENDMENT 1

Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and

methods –

Part 4-4: Uncertainties, statistics and limit modelling – Statistics of complaints

and a model for the calculation of limits for the protection of radio servicesINTERNATIONAL

ELECTROTECHNICAL

COMMISSION

ICS 33.100.10; 33.100.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-4409-8

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------

– 2 – CISPR TR 16-4-4:2007/AMD1:2017

IEC 2017

FOREWORD

This amendment has been prepared by subcommittee CISPR H: Limits for the protection of

radio services, of IEC technical committee CISPR: International special committee on radio

interference.The text of this amendment is based on the following documents:

DTR Report on voting

CIS/H/313/DTR CIS/H/319/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this amendment can be found in the report

on voting indicated in the above table.The committee has decided that the contents of this amendment and the base publication will

remain unchanged until the stability date indicated on the IEC website under"http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the

publication will be• reconfirmed,

• withdrawn,

• replaced by a revised edition, or

• amended.

A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correctunderstanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer._____________

5.6.2.3 Probability factors

Number the first equation of this subclause as follows:

P = P × P × P × P × P × P × P × P × P × P (35)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Add, at the end of 5.6.4.4, the following new subclauses:

5.6.5 Rationale for determination of CISPR limits in the frequency range below 30 MHz

5.6.5.1 GeneralWith this subclause, a method for the estimation of disturbance limits for a given type of

equipment is described. This approach can be applied for the frequency range below 30 MHz.

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------CISPR TR 16-4-4:2007/AMD1:2017 – 3 –

IEC 2017

For radiation coupling, dependence of the permissible disturbance field strength from the

wanted signal µ , the signal-to-disturbance ratio R , and other influence factors can be

w pestimated based on Equations (21) and (22) found in 5.5.

This model should be used by Product Committees to determine the disturbance limits

measured on a EUT in standardized test sites. This model is considered suitable for point

source magnetic field devices and not for distributed or complex systems.to P have to be considered according to 5.6.2.3.

Ten probability or influence factors P

1 10

However, for better alignment with terminology used for statistics the ten influence factors P

to P are further treated in their mean values as µ to µ . It shall be noted that the values

10 P1 P10for µ to µ can be used in logarithmic terms (i.e. in dB) only.

P1 P10

Taking into account Equation (22) we can write

E = µ + t σ (36)

Limit i β i

Then taking equation (21) into account, noting that t = 0,84, and the limit becomes:

E = µ – R + µ + µ + µ + µ + µ + µ + µ + µ + µ + µLimit w p P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1/2

+ t σ – t (σ + σ + σ + σ + σ + σ + σ + σ + σ + σ ) (37)

β i α P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10

where

E is the mean value of the permissible disturbance field strength at a specified

Limit

distance d from the disturbance source;

µ is the minimum value of the wanted field strength at the edge of the service area of

the radio service concerned;R is the minimum acceptable value of the signal-to-disturbance ratio (i.e. the protection

ratio) at the receiver's antenna port or feeding point;µ is the mean value of the main lobes of the magnetic dipole radiation in the direction

of the victim receiver;σ is the standard deviation of P ;

P1 1

µ is the expected mean value when the directional receiving antenna has its maximum

pick-up in direction of the disturbance source;µ is the expected mean value when the victim receiver is stationary;

µ is the expected mean value when there is equipment generating a disturbing signal

on a critical frequency;µ is the expected mean margin when the relevant harmonic is below the limit value;

µ is the expected mean value when the type of disturbance signal generated willproduce a significant effect in the receiving system;

µ is the expected mean value when the operation of the disturbance source is

coincident with the receiving system;

µ is the expected mean value when the disturbance source is located in a distance to

the receiving system within which interference is likely to occur;µ is the expected mean value when the value of radiation at the edge of service area

for the protected service just meets the limit for the RF disturbance;µ is the expected mean value when buildings provide attenuation.

P10

Equation (37) is valid for mean values of influence factors (given in dB) assuming a log-

normal distribution of their figures. Notice that the latter may not be fulfilled for each factor in

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IEC 2017

each individual case. By inserting appropriate practical figures, Equation (37) can be used to

estimate a limit E for the permissible disturbance field strength.Limit

NOTE Within these calculations, 20 log has been utilized for distance elements and 10 log for the others,

assuming power and not voltage.5.6.5.2 Consideration and estimated values of µ to µ

P1 P10

5.6.5.2.1 Radiation pattern of the disturbance source (µ )

5.6.5.2.1.1 Consideration of µ

The horizontal plane radiation pattern on a small purely magnetic antenna is described in dB

unit byG(φ) = G + 20 log (sin(φ)) (38)

max

Gain in dB

θ θ

45° 45°

–9 –6 –3

90° 90°

135° 135°

180°

IEC

Figure 8 – horizontal plane radiation pattern on a small purely magnetic antenna

In the general case the victim may be in any possible direction with equal-probability. The

mean value and standard deviation of the gain can be calculated by the following averages

over half of the circle.G = Avg(G(ϕ ))≡ × G(ϕ)dϕ (39)

avg

2 2 2

σ = Avg(G(ϕ ) )−(Avg(G(ϕ ))

(40)

2 2

= (G(ϕ )) dϕ−G

avg

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CISPR TR 16-4-4:2007/AMD1:2017 – 5 –

IEC 2017

Numerical calculation of Equations (39) and (40) gives the average gain G = G – 6,0 dB

avg maxand the standard deviation σ = 7,9 dB, which lead to µ = G – G = 6 dB and σ = 7,9

G P1 max avg G5.6.5.2.1.2 Estimation for the µ

µ = 6 dB, σ = 8 dB

P1 P1

5.6.5.2.2 Antenna gain of the victim to the disturbance source (µ )

(the directional receiving antenna have its maximum pick-up in direction of

the disturbance source)

5.6.5.2.2.1 Consideration of µ

In the frequency range below 30 MHz, a typical receiving antenna used with broadcast

receivers is a rod antenna. Other antennas are also used. These antenna gains can vary to as

much as –10 dB to 10 dB, however it can be assumed that 67 % of all antennas show a gain

of within 3 dB of an isotropic antenna.5.6.5.2.2.2 Estimation for the possible range of µ

µ = –3 dB, σ = 3 dB

P2 P2

5.6.5.2.3 Stationary receiver (µ )

5.6.5.2.3.1 Consideration of µ

Below 30 MHz, it is likely that the victim receiver will be stationary; hence the value should be

0 dB.5.6.5.2.3.2 Estimation for the possible range of µ

µ = 0 dB, σ = 0 dB

P3 P3

5.6.5.2.4 Equipment generating a disturbing signal at a critical frequency and

relevant harmonics (µ )

5.6.5.2.4.1 Consideration of µ

For the source of the magnetic disturbance from monitors and plasma TVs, the issue will

appear for the fundamental frequency and the harmonics. Assuming the fundamentalemission from the disturbance source is at 250 kHz and its harmonics will occupy

approximately in the ratio of 5:1. Based upon a variation of ±25 kHz, giving a value of 50 kHz

(7 dB).For the source of the magnetic disturbance from induction cooking equipment, the issue will

appear from the fundamental frequency and the harmonics. Assuming the fundamental

emission from the disturbance source is at 50 kHz and its harmonics will occupyapproximately in the ratio of 2:1. Based upon a variation of ±12,5 kHz, giving a value of

25 kHz (3 dB).NOTE 1 The values below were derived from 10 log (1/5) = –7 dB and 10 log (1/2) = –3 dB hence the mean

values 5 dB and the range of 2 dB.NOTE 2 Other sources of disturbance may be from electrical car charging stations, phone charging systems and

these are estimated to give similar values.We have assumed no frequency dependency relevant to the limits.

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– 6 – CISPR TR 16-4-4:2007/AMD1:2017

IEC 2017

A typical response of a source of magnetic field disturbance is present in Figure 9.

–20–40

150 300 400 600 1 000 2 000 4 000 10 000 30 000

3 000 5 000 7 000 20 000

Frequency (kHz)

IEC

Figure 9 – typical source of magnetic field disturbance

5.6.5.2.4.2 Estimation for the possible range of µ

µ = 5 dB, Range σ = 2 dB

P4 P4

5.6.5.2.5 Margin that the relevant harmonics are below the limit value (µ )

5.6.5.2.5.1 Consideration of µ

This value has been covered in µ .

5.6.5.2.5.2 Estimation for the possible range of µ

This value has been covered in µ .

5.6.5.2.6 Expected mean value that the type of disturbance signal generated will

produce a significant effect in the receiving system (µ )

5.6.5.2.6.1 Consideration of µ

In the frequency range below 30 MHz, since the bandwidth of the unwanted signal and

bandwidth of the receiver are of similar values, µ should be set to 0 dB.For the example of plasma TVs and induction cookers in the frequency range below 30 MHz,

typically since the bandwidth of the disturbance source is greater than the bandwidth of the

receiver, µ should be set to 0 dB.NOTE AC mains cable is not an issue of interference to radio receivers at the frequency below 30 MHz because

this aspect is already covered by the conducted emission requirement defined in the standard.

5.6.5.2.6.2 Estimation for the possible range of µµ = 0 dB, Range σ = 0 dB

P6 P6

Level (dBµA/m)

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CISPR TR 16-4-4:2007/AMD1:2017 – 7 –

IEC 2017

5.6.5.2.7 Expected mean value that the operation of the disturbance source is

coincident with the receiving system operation of the disturbance source

(µ )

5.6.5.2.7.1 Consideration of µ

In the case that a receiver is operated for 24 hours, from the typical sources in 24 hours per

day, plasma TV is 8 hours, PV Inverter 8 hours and induction cookers 2 hours operated.

NOTE The estimated values given in 5.6.6.2.7.2 were derived by 10 log (time of operation (hours) /24).

5.6.5.2.7.2 Estimation for the possible range of µµ = 6,5 dB, Range σ = 3,5 dB

P7 P7

5.6.5.2.8 The disturbance source is located in a distance to the receiving system

within which interference is likely to occur (µ )5.6.5.2.8.1 Consideration of µ

The limit of the disturbance is specified for the test site with a normative fixed measurement

distance d. In practice, the actual distance r between the disturbance source and the victim is

usually quite different when the victim is used as intended.The normative measurement distance d is 3 m. The ratio of the two distances r and d

determines the additional attenuation.The estimated value µ usually increases the permissible limit and has to be added on the

right hand side of Equation (37).5.6.5.2.8.2 Estimation for the possible range of µ

The value of µ is calculated by:

µ = x × 20 log (r / d) (41)

where

r is the actual distance between source and victim;

d is the measurement distance;

x is the wave propagation coefficient, typical value to be determined based upon Annex

The estimated distance has to take into account the average distance for the intended use of

the radio equipment. Inserting practical distances into Equation (41) will provide the possible

µ .range of

5.6.5.2.9 The value of radiation at the edge of service area for the protected service

(µ )5.6.5.2.9.1 Consideration of µ

Due to propagation complexities related to the transmission

**...**

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