Demand side power quality management

IEC TR 63191:2018(E) specifies recommendations about power quality measurement and assessment within installations.
IEC TR 63191:2018 outlines the various phases needed for the establishment of a demand side power quality measurement plan for buildings and industry installations.
Such a power quality measurement plan will enable the optimization of the energy availability and efficiency, improve the assets lifetime and facilitate the resolutions of power quality problems. A power quality measurement plan encompasses the following stages:
• definition of the context, objectives and constraints;
• assessment of the initial power quality situation;
• definition of an action plan for the improvement of the power quality situation;
• implementation of the power quality measuring system;
• exploitation of the measurement system for the improvement of the power quality situation;
• maintenance of the measurement system.
IEC TR 63191:2018 will also help facility managers to tailor their measurement plan to the specific needs of the electrical system under their control. It addresses all the disturbances present in such networks, but does not cover the disturbances present in public electrical distribution networks (supply side) as they are governed by specific documents such as EN 50160 and IEC TS 62749.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
22-Nov-2018
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
23-Nov-2018
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IEC TR 63191
Edition 1.0 2018-11
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Demand side power quality management
IEC TR 63191:2018-11(en)
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IEC TR 63191
Edition 1.0 2018-11
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Demand side power quality management
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.200 ISBN 978-2-8322-6257-3

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 63191:2018 © IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 7

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 9

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 11

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 11

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 11

4 Phases of a measurement plan ...................................................................................... 14

4.1 Six-phase measurement plan ................................................................................ 14

4.2 Phase 1: Define the context, the objectives and the constraints ............................ 15

4.2.1 Goal of phase 1 ............................................................................................. 15

4.2.2 Context of the DSPQ improvement plan ......................................................... 15

4.2.3 Motivations of the organization ...................................................................... 15

4.2.4 Boundaries of the DSPQ improvement plan ................................................... 15

4.2.5 Stakeholders of the plan ................................................................................ 15

4.2.6 Budget ........................................................................................................... 16

4.2.7 Planning ........................................................................................................ 16

4.2.8 Resources ..................................................................................................... 16

4.2.9 Levels of the measurement system ................................................................ 16

4.2.10 Deliverables for phase 1 ................................................................................ 16

4.3 Phase 2: Assess the initial situation ...................................................................... 17

4.3.1 Goal of phase 2 ............................................................................................. 17

4.3.2 Preliminary analysis ....................................................................................... 17

4.3.3 Critical and disruptive loads ........................................................................... 17

4.3.4 Zones ............................................................................................................ 17

4.3.5 Relevant variables ......................................................................................... 17

4.3.6 Existing measuring devices ........................................................................... 17

4.3.7 Data reading and storage .............................................................................. 18

4.3.8 Deliverables for phase 2 ................................................................................ 18

4.4 Phase 3: Design an action plan to improve the measurement system .................... 18

4.4.1 Goal of phase 3 ............................................................................................. 18

4.4.2 Proposal of improvement actions ................................................................... 18

4.4.3 Prioritize the actions ...................................................................................... 19

4.4.4 Periodic review of the action plan .................................................................. 19

4.4.5 Deliverables for phase 3 ................................................................................ 19

4.5 Phase 4: Implement the action plan to improve the measurement system ............. 19

4.5.1 Goal of phase 4 ............................................................................................. 19

4.5.2 Documentation related to measurement equipment implementation ............... 19

4.5.3 Installation and commissioning of measurement equipment ........................... 19

4.5.4 Deliverables for phase 4 ................................................................................ 19

4.6 Phase 5: Use the measurement data .................................................................... 20

4.6.1 Goal of phase 5 ............................................................................................. 20

4.6.2 Storage of power quality data ........................................................................ 20

4.6.3 Analysis of power quality data ....................................................................... 20

4.6.4 Dissemination and protection of power quality data ....................................... 20

4.6.5 Deliverables for phase 5 ................................................................................ 20

4.7 Phase 6: Maintain the measurement system ......................................................... 20

4.7.1 Goal of phase 6 ............................................................................................. 20

4.7.2 Verification of the measurement system ........................................................ 20

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IEC TR 63191:2018 © IEC 2018 – 3 –

4.7.3 Metrological maintenance and monitoring ...................................................... 20

4.7.4 Deliverables for phase 6 ................................................................................ 21

5 Demand side power quality disturbances and their impact ............................................. 21

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 21

5.2 Frequency deviation .............................................................................................. 22

5.2.1 Origins ........................................................................................................... 22

5.2.2 Effects ........................................................................................................... 22

5.2.3 Possible mitigation measures ........................................................................ 22

5.2.4 Key parameters to measure ........................................................................... 22

5.3 Magnitude of supply voltage: deviation, underdeviations, overdeviations .............. 23

5.3.1 Origins ........................................................................................................... 23

5.3.2 Effects ........................................................................................................... 23

5.3.3 Possible mitigation measures ........................................................................ 24

5.3.4 Key parameters to measure ........................................................................... 24

5.4 Flicker ................................................................................................................... 24

5.4.1 Origins ........................................................................................................... 24

5.4.2 Effects ........................................................................................................... 25

5.4.3 Effects on human beings ............................................................................... 25

5.4.4 Possible mitigation measures ........................................................................ 25

5.4.5 Key parameters to measure ........................................................................... 25

5.5 Voltage dips, swells and interruptions ................................................................... 25

5.5.1 Origins ........................................................................................................... 25

5.5.2 Effects ........................................................................................................... 26

5.5.3 Possible mitigation measures ........................................................................ 26

5.5.4 Key parameters to measure ........................................................................... 26

5.6 Transient overvoltages .......................................................................................... 28

5.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 28

5.6.2 Origins ........................................................................................................... 28

5.6.3 Effects ........................................................................................................... 28

5.6.4 Possible mitigation measures ........................................................................ 28

5.6.5 Key parameters to measure ........................................................................... 29

5.7 Supply voltage unbalance and current unbalance ................................................. 29

5.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 29

5.7.2 Origins ........................................................................................................... 30

5.7.3 Effects ........................................................................................................... 30

5.7.4 Possible mitigation measures ........................................................................ 30

5.7.5 Key parameters to measure ........................................................................... 30

5.8 Voltage and current harmonics, inter-harmonics and sub-harmonics ..................... 31

5.8.1 Origins ........................................................................................................... 31

5.8.2 Effects ........................................................................................................... 32

5.8.3 Possible mitigation measures ........................................................................ 33

5.8.4 Key parameters to measure ........................................................................... 33

5.8.5 Emerging topic .............................................................................................. 33

5.9 Mains signalling voltage ........................................................................................ 33

5.9.1 General ......................................................................................................... 33

5.9.2 Origins ........................................................................................................... 33

5.9.3 Effects ........................................................................................................... 34

5.9.4 Possible mitigation measures ........................................................................ 34

5.9.5 Key parameters to measure ........................................................................... 34

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– 4 – IEC TR 63191:2018 © IEC 2018

5.10 Rapid voltage changes .......................................................................................... 34

5.10.1 Origins ........................................................................................................... 34

5.10.2 Effects ........................................................................................................... 34

5.10.3 Possible mitigation measures ........................................................................ 34

5.10.4 Key parameters to measure ........................................................................... 34

5.11 Synthesis of events impacts .................................................................................. 35

5.12 Synthesis of events impact on energy usage ......................................................... 36

Annex A (informative) Example of the scope of a measurement plan: organization,

sites, zones, energy uses ..................................................................................................... 37

Annex B (informative) State of the art related to disturbance levels on the demand

side PQ................................................................................................................................. 38

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 38

B.2 Transients and short terms events ........................................................................ 39

B.3 Continuous voltage phenomena ............................................................................ 40

B.4 Continuous current phenomena ............................................................................ 42

B.5 Power-related events ............................................................................................ 42

Annex C (informative) State of the art about relationship between devices and

electrical phenomena ............................................................................................................ 43

Annex D (informative) General statements about demand side power quality ....................... 56

Annex E (informative) Consequence of grid evolution .......................................................... 58

Annex F (informative) Non-exhaustive list of relevant standards .......................................... 60

Annex G (informative) Definitions of electrical parameters ................................................... 62

G.1 General ................................................................................................................. 62

G.2 Definitions in the presence of a neutral ................................................................. 62

G.3 Power measurement in three-phase three-wire systems using the two-

wattmeter method ................................................................................................. 67

G.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 67

G.3.2 Total active power ......................................................................................... 67

G.3.3 Total vector reactive power using quadrature phase shift definition ............... 68

G.3.4 Total vector reactive power using Budeanu’s definition .................................. 68

G.4 Additional relationships in case of sinusoidal voltage ............................................ 68

Annex H (informative) DC distribution .................................................................................. 70

H.1 General ................................................................................................................. 70

H.2 DC demand side power quality disturbances and impact ....................................... 70

H.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 70

H.2.2 Frequency ..................................................................................................... 70

H.2.3 Magnitude of supply voltage deviations, under-deviations, over-

deviations ...................................................................................................... 70

H.2.4 Transient overvoltages .................................................................................. 71

H.2.5 Supply voltage unbalance, current unbalance ................................................ 72

H.2.6 Voltage and current harmonics, interharmonics and subharmonics ................ 72

H.2.7 Rapid voltage changes .................................................................................. 73

H.3 Examples of demand side AC distribution and of demand side DC

distribution ............................................................................................................ 73

H.4 Examples of AC signals and DC signals ................................................................ 74

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 77

Figure 1 – Overview of electrical distribution system from “supply side” to “demand

side” ....................................................................................................................................... 9

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IEC TR 63191:2018 © IEC 2018 – 5 –

Figure 2 – Six-phase measurement plan ............................................................................... 14

Figure 3 – Effects of voltage deviation on a motor ................................................................. 23

Figure 4 – Visualization of voltage events in modified ITI curve ............................................ 27

Figure 5 – Examples of unbalanced systems......................................................................... 29

Figure 6 – Typical current waveforms for single-phase non-linear loads ................................ 31

Figure 7 – Typical current waveforms for three-phases non-linear loads ............................... 31

Figure 8 – RVC characterization ........................................................................................... 35

Figure A.1 – Example of the scope of a measurement plan ................................................... 37

Figure E.1 – The old centralized grid .................................................................................... 58

Figure E.2 – The new decentralized grid ............................................................................... 58

Figure E.3 – Example of consequences of a decentralized grid ............................................. 59

Figure G.1 – Arithmetic and vector apparent powers in sinusoidal situation .......................... 66

Figure G.2 – Three-phase circuit without neutral ................................................................... 67

Figure H.1 – Overvoltages phenomena in DC distribution ..................................................... 71

Figure H.2 – Example of DC interconnected sources ............................................................ 72

Figure H.3 – Example 1 of disturbed DC signal ..................................................................... 72

Figure H.4 – Example 2 of disturbed DC signal ..................................................................... 73

Figure H.5 – Demand Side DC distribution ............................................................................ 74

Figure H.6 – Demand Side AC distribution ............................................................................ 74

Table 1 – Example of overview of the readings and storage carried out ................................ 18

Table 2 – Classification of PQ phenomena ............................................................................ 21

Table 3 – Origins of PQ problems ......................................................................................... 21

Table 4 – Impacts of PQ problems on consumers, manufacturers and utilities ...................... 22

Table 5 –Voltage dip/interruption and swell classification according to EN 50160 ................. 27

Table 6 – Voltage event classification according to IEC TS 62749 ........................................ 27

Table 7 – Overview of events and impacts ............................................................................ 36

Table 8 – Overview of events and impact on usages ............................................................. 36

Table B.1 – Classification of transient and short-term events ................................................ 39

Table B.2 – Classification of continuous voltage phenomena ................................................ 40

Table B.3 – Classification of continuous current phenomena ................................................. 42

Table B.4 – Classification of power-related events ................................................................ 42

Table C.1 – Relationship between current-using equipment and electrical phenomena ......... 44

Table C.2 –Motors ................................................................................................................ 45

Table C.3 – Variable speed drives ........................................................................................ 46

Table C.4 – Transformers ..................................................................................................... 47

Table C.5 – Capacitors ......................................................................................................... 48

Table C.6 – Conventional generators (Genset) ..................................................................... 49

Table C.7 – Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) .................................................................... 50

Table C.8 – Lighting .............................................................................................................. 51

Table C.9 – Office equipment................................................................................................ 52

Table C.10 – Cabling ............................................................................................................ 53

Table C.11 – Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) ............................................................ 54

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– 6 – IEC TR 63191:2018 © IEC 2018

Table C.12 – Inverted based generators (PV, storage) .......................................................... 55

Table F.1 – Existing requirements about PQ (non-exhaustive list) ......................................... 60

Table F.2 – Compatibility levels ............................................................................................ 60

Table F.3 – Existing requirements about disturbance measurement methods and

instruments (non-exhaustive list) .......................................................................................... 61

Table G.1 – Definition of symbols ......................................................................................... 62

Table G.2 – Calculation definitions for electrical parameters ................................................. 63

Table H.1 – Examples of AC signals and DC signals ............................................................. 75

Table H.2 – Definitions of AC signals and DC signals ........................................................... 76

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IEC TR 63191:2018 © IEC 2018 – 7 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
DEMAND SIDE POWER QUALITY MANAGEMENT
FOREWORD

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