Semiconductor devices - Reliability test method by inductive load switching for gallium nitride transistors

IEC 63284:2022 covers the protocol of performing a stress procedure and a corresponding test method to evaluate the reliability of gallium nitride (GaN) power transistors by inductive load switching, specifically hard-switching stress

Dispositifs à semiconducteurs - Méthode d’essai de fiabilité par la commutation sur charge inductive pour les transistors au nitrure de gallium

L'IEC 63284:2022 couvre le protocole d'exécution d'une procédure de contrainte et une méthode d'essai correspondante, en vue d'évaluer la fiabilité des transistors de puissance à base de nitrure de gallium (GaN) par la commutation sur charge inductive, en particulier la contrainte de commutation dure.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
20-Apr-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
21-Apr-2022
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IEC 63284:2022 - Semiconductor devices - Reliability test method by inductive load switching for gallium nitride transistors
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IEC 63284
Edition 1.0 2022-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Semiconductor devices – Reliability test method by inductive load switching for
gallium nitride transistors
Dispositifs à semiconducteurs – Méthode d’essai de fiabilité par la commutation
sur charge inductive pour les transistors au nitrure de gallium
IEC 63284:2022-04(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 63284
Edition 1.0 2022-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Semiconductor devices – Reliability test method by inductive load switching for
gallium nitride transistors
Dispositifs à semiconducteurs – Méthode d’essai de fiabilité par la commutation
sur charge inductive pour les transistors au nitrure de gallium
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.080.30 ISBN 978-2-8322-1101-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 63284:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Objectives ....................................................................................................................... 7

5 Applicable GaN transistors .............................................................................................. 7

6 Dynamic high temperature operating life test ................................................................... 7

6.1 Test sample ............................................................................................................ 7

6.2 Test circuit .............................................................................................................. 7

6.2.1 Scheme of a hard switching circuit ................................................................... 7

6.2.2 Electrical parameters ....................................................................................... 7

6.2.3 Diode ............................................................................................................... 8

6.2.4 Gate driver ...................................................................................................... 8

6.2.5 Inductance and resistance ............................................................................... 8

6.3 Test condition ......................................................................................................... 9

6.3.1 General ........................................................................................................... 9

6.3.2 Electrical stress ............................................................................................. 10

6.3.3 Thermal stress ............................................................................................... 10

6.4 Test procedure ...................................................................................................... 10

6.4.1 Flow chart ...................................................................................................... 10

6.4.2 Initial measurement ....................................................................................... 11

6.4.3 Intermediate measurement ............................................................................ 11

6.5 Failure criteria ....................................................................................................... 12

6.6 Failure mechanism ................................................................................................ 12

6.7 Acceleration parameters ....................................................................................... 12

6.8 Number of samples ............................................................................................... 12

6.9 Test report ............................................................................................................ 12

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 13

Figure 1 – Test circuit ............................................................................................................. 7

Figure 2 – Wave forms of switching ........................................................................................ 9

Figure 3 – Switching locus at hard switching ........................................................................... 9

Figure 4 – Test flow chart ..................................................................................................... 11

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IEC 63284:2022 © IEC 2022 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES – RELIABILITY TEST METHOD BY INDUCTIVE
LOAD SWITCHING FOR GALLIUM NITRIDE TRANSISTORS
FOREWORD

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rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 63284 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 47: Semiconductor devices. It is an

International Standard.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
47/2753/FDIS 47/2763/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 63284:2022 © IEC 2022

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 63284:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

Gallium nitride (GaN), one of the wide bandgap semiconductors, has superior properties over

conventional silicon (Si) for power devices, such as high breakdown electric field and high

saturation velocity. Two dimensional electron gas with high mobility and high concentration is

induced by forming heterojunction of GaN with aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) due to

polarization effects, which is another merit of GaN related materials. Moreover, several kinds

of materials such as Si, sapphire, silicon-carbide (SiC) or GaN can be selected as epitaxial

growth substrates in terms of device performances and costs. Recently, GaN power transistors

have been widely developed and commercialized.

GaN power transistors have some unique failure modes due to device construction differences

and carrier trapping effects. In addition, GaN power transistors are more compact, so are

exposed to higher fields. Further, some hot-carrier and robustness tests for silicon Field Effect

Transistors (FETs) are not applicable to GaN FETs. For example, the hot carrier injection (HCI)

test for lateral MOSFETs is not applicable to lateral GaN FETs due to the blocking nature of the

buffer, and the unclamped inductive switching (UIS) test is not useful because it could cause

damage. Therefore, several unique reliability test methods, which are not generally requested

for Si power transistors, are performed as reliability examination, for example, test methods of

dynamic on-resistances. Especially, switching test methods and reliability procedures are

significant for practical use and need to be standardized in order to establish switching reliability

of GaN power transistors.

This document is a guideline focusing on inductive load switching in order to confirm the

conditions under which GaN power transistors are used reliably. Since the inductive load

switching is considered to be an important stress application for power devices, this guideline

will promote the acceptance of GaN power transistors in the power device market. However, it

is important to note that there are other application-relevant stress conditions, such as

soft-switching at high frequencies, which will not be covered by this document.
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– 6 – IEC 63284:2022 © IEC 2022
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES – RELIABILITY TEST METHOD BY INDUCTIVE
LOAD SWITCHING FOR GALLIUM NITRIDE TRANSISTORS
1 Scope

This document covers the protocol of performing a stress procedure and a corresponding test

method to evaluate the reliability of gallium nitride (GaN) power transistors by inductive load

switching, specifically hard-switching stress.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
gallium nitride
GaN
compound semiconductor material composed of gallium and nitrogen
3.2
aluminum gallium nitride
AlGaN
compound semiconductor alloy of aluminum nitride and gallium nitride
3.3
on-state resistance
resistance of the device at nominal current conditions
3.4
dynamic on-state resistance
ratio of on-state drain-source voltage(v ) to drain current(i ) at switching
DS D
3.5
dynamic high temperature operating life test
DHTOL test
reliability test of continuous switching stress with high junction temperature

Note 1 to entry: The term DHTOL is used broadly, encompassing both switching accelerated life test (SALT), where

failures are expected for wearout modelling, and HTOL, where failures are not expected.

3.6
switching locus
trajectory showing relationship between v and i during switching
DS D
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IEC 63284:2022 © IEC 2022 – 7 –
4 Objectives

The purpose of this document is to define a reliability test method for finding conditions under

which GaN power transistors can operate reliably, when they are used for continuous hard

switching with inductive loads. Therefore, this document does not cover other

application-relevant stress conditions, such as third quadrant operation and soft-switching or

other types of circuit topologies.
5 Applicable GaN transistors

This test method can be applied to all power transistors, which include GaN power transistors

with any substrate such as Si, SiC, sapphire or GaN, and to lateral or vertical types. Moreover,

this test method can be applied to any gate structure such as Schottky-types, p-type GaN

(p-GaN) types and MIS (metal-insulator-semiconductor) types. It can also be applicable to

normally-off types, normally-on types and to cascode configuration types.
6 Dynamic high temperature operating life test
6.1 Test sample

The test sample is recommended to be an actual packaged product. For family products,

reliability test results of transistors with large gate widths can be applied to transistors with

small gate widths when use conditions such as current density and supply voltage are

equivalent or less.
6.2 Test circuit
6.2.1 Scheme of a hard switching circuit

The dynamic high temperature operating life (DHTOL) test employs a hard switching circuit with

an inductive load as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1 – Test circuit
6.2.2 Electrical parameters

Frequency f, power supply voltage V , and average current flowing through inductance I

DD L(AV)
are set by considering the actual operating condition.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 63284:2022 © IEC 2022
6.2.3 Diode

A diode is selected by considering the maximum current and the maximum voltage. In particular,

since the recovery current of the diode flows to the transistor at turn-on time, the diode is

selected to replicate the switching conditions of the final application, e.g. emulate the

capacitance of the high-side FET, or have a larger capacitance for accelerated stress.

6.2.4 Gate driver

A test circuit including a gate drive circuit suitable for the individual test transistor is constructed

with attention paid to heat dissipation of each component. The gate driver is required to drive

DUT in the same conditions as the actual usage unless switching parameters to acquire

acceleration factors are included. Note that the gate driver is also required to have current

driving capability so as not to cause false turn-on of the DUT.
6.2.5 Inductance and resistance

An inductance value L and a resistance value R are set with reference to the following

C L
Equation (1) to Equation (3) and the switching waveforms in Figure 2.
L×= VI− ×R (1)
C DD L(AV) L
L× I ×+RV
C L(AV) L F
(2)
f= (3)
tt+
where
V is the power supply voltage;
I is the average current;
L (AV)
ΔI is the ripple current;
V is the threshold voltage of diode;
L is the coil inductance value;
R is the load resistance value;
is the on time;
t is the off time;
f is the switching frequency.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 63284:2022 © IEC 2022 – 9 –
Figure 2 – Wave forms of switching
Figure 3 – Switching locus at hard switching
6.3 Test condition
6.3.1 General

After the test circuit is configured, electrical and thermal stress conditions are applied and

evaluated.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 63284:2022 © IEC 2022
6.3.2 Electrical stress

A switching locus of the test transistor is constructed by using switching wave forms as shown

in Figure 3. It is confirmed that the current and voltage stress conditions are equivalent to or

greater than the actual application. For more details on how to assess whether the current and

voltage stress is equivalent to the actual application, refer to JEDEC JEP180.01, Clause 5 [1] .

6.3.3 Thermal stress

External heating and/or cooling may be used in order that thermal stress is independently varied

without changing other stress conditions. When other stress conditions are varied with

minimizing effects of variation in junction temperature, the relative changes of the junction

temperature should be monitored by a thermocouple provided as close as possible to the DUT

or by a thermo-viewer. The junction temperature is recommended to be equal to or below the

absolute maximum rating temperature. The protocol is described in 6.6 if a more accelerated

temperature is used.
6.4 Test procedure
6.4.1 Flow chart

A flow chart of the DHTOL test is shown in Figure 4. In the flow chart, the procedure is aimed

at accelerated life testing (ALT).
____________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 63284:2022 © IEC 2022 – 11 –
Figure 4 – Test flow chart
6.4.2 Initial measurement

Initial measurements of on-state resistance, threshold voltage and off-state leak current shall

be conducted as transistor parameters. Other parameters may be considered, for example,

those listed in the datasheet of the DUT and determined to suffer shift due to switching stress.

6.4.3 Intermediate measurement

The test is interrupted to check the parameters obtained at the initial measurements. If it is

difficult to detach the mounted evaluation transistor, the interruption of the test can be omitted,

and the test shall be completed when the transistor has catastrophically failed or it reaches the

predetermined time.

If the root causes of the failures are investigated, monitoring dynamic on-state resistance in-situ

during the test may provide additional insight. The dynamic on-state resistance is calculated

from the ratio of v and i just after turning on by using a clamp circuit in order to capture the

DS D

oscilloscope waveforms at the resolution needed. For additional information on the dynamic

on-state resistance, refer to JEDEC JEP173 [2].
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC 63284:2022 © IEC 2022
6.5 Failure criteria

Since the test conditions of supply voltage and current generally exceed general use condition,

catastrophic failures are caused in most cases. Otherwise, drift of the device electrical

parameters from its limits of minimum and maximum in the datasheet is defined as a failure

(sometimes referred to as parametric failure). In addition, the time from the start of the test to

the failure is defined as a time to failure.
6.6 Failure mechanism

If the test is accelerated by setting the average current, power supply voltage, or junction

temperature over the absolute maximum rating values, it is necessary to confirm that the failure

mechanism is the same as the one assumed in the test within the absolute maximum rating

values. As confirmation methods, in the case of a failure accompanied by catastrophic failures,

it is necessary to check the current and voltage waveforms at the time of catastrophic failures

and the failure points in the semiconductor die by opening the package. In the case of a failure

due to deterioration of the transistor characteristics, the failure mechanism may be confirmed

from the changes of the transistor parameters.
6.7 Acceleration parameters

In this test, a lifetime under actual use conditions is estimated by checking the presence of

acceleration for each parameter such as average current, power supply voltage, switching

frequency, ON/OFF duty ratio, junction temperature, etc. One of the possible failures is caused

by a dynamic on-state resistance increase which may be affected by current and voltage.

6.8 Number of samples

An appropriate number of samples depending on lifetime distributions is required in order to

utilize probability theory and statistics.
6.9 Test report

A test report in each test condition should be provided for acquiring the acceleration factors,

that includes:
• sample identification,
• package type,
• test temperature,
• power supply voltage,
• average current,
• switching locus,
• switching frequency,
• ON/OFF duty ratio,
• number of samples,
• failure time of each sample,
• initial values of on-state resistance, threshold voltage and off leak current,
• the changes from the initial values (if no catastrophic failures).
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
IEC 63284:2022 © IEC 2022 – 13 –
Bibliography

[1] JEDEC JEP180.01, Guideline for Switching Reliability Evaluation Procedures for

Gallium Nitride Power Conversion Devices, Version 1.0, January, 2021

[2] JEDEC JEP173, Dynamic ON-Resistance Test Method Guidelines for GaN HEMT based

Power Conversion Devices, Version 1.0, January, 2019
___________
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
– 14 – IEC 63284:2022 © IEC 2022
SOMMAIRE

AVANT-PROPOS .................................................................................................................. 15

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 17

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................... 18

2 Références normatives .................................................................................................. 18

3 Termes et définitions ..................................................................................................... 18

4 Objectifs ........................................................................................................................ 19

5 Transistors GaN applicables .......................................................................................... 19

6 Essai de durée de vie en fonctionnement sous température élevée dynamique ............. 19

6.1 Échantillon d'essai ................................................................................................ 19

6.2 Circuit d'essai ....................................................................................................... 19

6.2.1 Schéma d'un circuit de commutation dure ...................................................... 19

6.2.2 Paramètres électriques .................................................................................. 20

6.2.3 Diode ............................................................................................................. 20

6.2.4 Dispositif de commande de grille ................................................................... 20

6.2.5 Inductance et résistance ................................................................................ 20

6.3 Conditions d'essai .
...

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