Cable networks for television signals, sound signals and interactive services - Part 5: Headend equipment

IEC 60728-5:2015 specifies the characteristics of equipment used in the headends of terrestrial broadcast and satellite receiving systems (without satellite outdoor units and without those broadband amplifiers in the headend as described in IEC 60728-3). It:
- covers the frequency range 5 MHz to 3 000 MHz;
- identifies performance requirements for certain parameters;
- lays down data publication requirements for certain parameters;
- stipulates methods of measurements;
- introduces minimum requirements defining quality grades (Q-grades). This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2007. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- new text for the introduction, following the scope of IEC TC 100/TA 5;
- introduction of IPTV to the scope;
- headend specification for digital terrestrial TV signals according to the DVB-T2 standard;
- headend specification for digital TV signals in cable networks according to the DVB-S2 standard.

Réseaux de distribution par câbles pour signaux de télévision, signaux de radiodiffusion sonore et services interactifs - Partie 5: Equipements de tête de réseau

L'IEC 60728-5:2015 spécifie les caractéristiques de l'équipement utilisé dans les têtes de réseaux pour la réception de la radiodiffusion terrestre et par satellite (à l'exception des unités extérieures et des amplificateurs large bande situés dans la tête de réseau tels que décrits dans l'IEC 60728-3). Elle:
- couvre la plage de fréquences de 5 MHz à 3 000 MHz;
- identifie les exigences de fonctionnement pour certains paramètres;
- spécifie les exigences relatives à la publication des données pour certains paramètres;
- stipule les méthodes de mesure;
- présente les exigences minimales définissant les classes de qualité (Q). Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition parue en 2007. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
- nouveau texte pour l'introduction suivant le domaine d'application de l'IEC TC 100/TA 5;
- introduction de l'IPTV au domaine d'application;
- spécification relative aux têtes de réseaux pour signaux TV numériques par voie terrestre conformément à la norme DVB-T2;
- spécification relative aux têtes de réseaux pour signaux TV numériques dans des réseaux de distribution par câbles conformément à la norme DVB-S2.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Dec-2015
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
09-Dec-2015
Completion Date
09-Dec-2015
Ref Project

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IEC 60728-5
Edition 3.0 2015-12
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Cable networks for television signals, sound signals and interactive services –
Part 5: Headend equipment
Réseaux de distribution par câbles pour signaux de télévision, signaux de
radiodiffusion sonore et services interactifs –
Partie 5: Équipements de tête de réseau
IEC 60728-5:2015-12(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60728-5
Edition 3.0 2015-12
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Cable networks for television signals, sound signals and interactive services –
Part 5: Headend equipment
Réseaux de distribution par câbles pour signaux de télévision, signaux de
radiodiffusion sonore et services interactifs –
Partie 5: Équipements de tête de réseau
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 33.060.40 ISBN 978-2-8322-3016-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60728-5:2015 © IEC 2015
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 9

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 11

1 Scope .......................................................................................................................... 12

2 Normative references................................................................................................... 15

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations .............................................................. 17

3.1 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................... 17

3.2 Symbols .............................................................................................................. 21

3.3 Abbreviations ...................................................................................................... 22

4 Methods of measurement ............................................................................................. 24

4.1 Methods of measurement for digitally modulated signals ...................................... 24

4.1.1 General ....................................................................................................... 24

4.1.2 Basic assumptions and measurement interfaces ........................................... 24

4.1.3 Signal level for digitally modulated signals .................................................... 24

4.2 Single-channel intermodulation specification for channel amplifier and

frequency converter ............................................................................................ 26

4.3 Three-carrier intermodulation measurement ......................................................... 27

4.4 Two carrier intermodulation measurements for second- and third-order

products .............................................................................................................. 28

4.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 28

4.4.2 Intermodulation products with test signals at frequencies f and f ................ 29

a b

4.4.3 Signal levels ................................................................................................ 29

4.5 Carrier-to-spurious signal ratio at the output ........................................................ 29

4.5.1 Carrier-to-spurious signal ratio at the output of equipment for AM TV

systems ....................................................................................................... 29

4.5.2 Carrier-to-spurious signal ratio at the output of equipment for FM TV

systems ....................................................................................................... 30

4.5.3 Shoulder attenuation .................................................................................... 31

4.6 Signal-to-noise measurement .............................................................................. 32

4.6.1 Television carrier-to-noise ratio (analogue modulated signals) ...................... 32

4.6.2 RF signal-to-noise ratio (S /N) for digitally modulated signals ................. 35

D,RF

4.7 Differential gain and phase for PAL/SECAM signals ............................................. 36

4.7.1 General ....................................................................................................... 36

4.7.2 Differential gain (for PAL/SECAM only) ......................................................... 37

4.7.3 Differential phase ......................................................................................... 38

4.8 Group delay measurements ................................................................................. 41

4.8.1 Group delay variation of analogue TV signals ............................................... 41

4.8.2 Procedure for the measurement of group delay variation on DVB

channel converters ....................................................................................... 42

4.9 Phase noise of an RF carrier ............................................................................... 45

4.9.1 General ....................................................................................................... 45

4.9.2 Equipment required ...................................................................................... 45

4.9.3 Connection of the equipment ........................................................................ 46

4.9.4 Measurement procedure ............................................................................... 46

4.9.5 Presentation of the results ............................................................................ 46

4.10 Hum modulation of carrier ................................................................................... 48

4.10.1 General ....................................................................................................... 48

4.10.2 Description of the method of measurement ................................................... 48

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IEC 60728-5:2015 © IEC 2015 – 3 –

4.10.3 Measuring procedure ................................................................................... 49

4.10.4 Calculating the hum modulation ratio ............................................................ 50

4.11 2T-pulse response, K-factor ................................................................................ 51

4.12 Chrominance-luminance delay inequalities (20T-pulse method) ............................ 52

4.13 Luminance non-linearity ...................................................................................... 54

4.14 Intermodulation distortion (FM stereo radio) ......................................................... 54

4.14.1 General ....................................................................................................... 54

4.14.2 Equipment required ...................................................................................... 55

4.14.3 Connection of equipment .............................................................................. 55

4.14.4 Measurement ............................................................................................... 55

4.15 Decoding margin (teletext) .................................................................................. 55

4.15.1 General ....................................................................................................... 55

4.15.2 Method of measurement and measuring set-up (Figure 31) ........................... 56

4.15.3 Applicability of measuring set-up .................................................................. 56

5 Performance requirements and recommendations ........................................................ 56

5.1 Safety ................................................................................................................. 56

5.2 Electromagnetic compatibility .............................................................................. 56

5.3 Environmental ..................................................................................................... 56

5.4 Marking ............................................................................................................... 57

5.4.1 Marking of equipment ................................................................................... 57

5.4.2 Marking of ports ........................................................................................... 57

6 Equipment characteristics required to be met ............................................................... 57

6.1 General ............................................................................................................... 57

6.2 Power supply voltage .......................................................................................... 58

6.3 RF signal requirements ....................................................................................... 58

6.3.1 Impedance (input) ........................................................................................ 58

6.3.2 Impedance (output) ...................................................................................... 58

6.3.3 Return loss (input, output) of equipment ....................................................... 58

6.3.4 Return loss (output) of headend ................................................................... 58

6.3.5 Typical back-off for digital against analogue signals ...................................... 58

6.3.6 Immunity against other signals in the FM radio and TV range ........................ 59

6.3.7 Carrier-to-spurious-signals ratio at output in the frequency range of

40 MHz to 862 MHz ...................................................................................... 59

6.3.8 Image rejection for AM TV and FM radio ....................................................... 60

6.3.9 Carrier to local oscillator signal ratio at the output for AM TV and FM

radio ............................................................................................................ 60

6.3.10 Frequency stability ....................................................................................... 60

6.3.11 Phase noise of digital modulated signals at the output of the headend .......... 61

6.3.12 In-channel group delay variation for digital modulated signals ....................... 62

6.3.13 In-channel peak-to-peak amplitude response variation for digitally

modulated signals ........................................................................................ 63

6.3.14 Stability of sound intercarrier ........................................................................ 63

6.3.15 Stability of residual carrier amplitude ............................................................ 63

6.3.16 Frequency stability – SAT IF/IF converter ..................................................... 63

6.3.17 Typical modulation error ratio (MER) for a QAM signal .................................. 64

6.3.18 Minimum C/N values at the output of the headend ........................................ 64

6.4 Composite video signal requirements .................................................................. 64

6.4.1 Impedance ................................................................................................... 64

6.4.2 Return loss .................................................................................................. 65

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– 4 – IEC 60728-5:2015 © IEC 2015

6.4.3 Signal voltage .............................................................................................. 65

6.4.4 Polarity ........................................................................................................ 65

6.4.5 Offset voltage .............................................................................................. 65

6.5 Audio signal requirements ................................................................................... 65

6.5.1 Input impedance .......................................................................................... 65

6.5.2 Output impedance ........................................................................................ 65

6.5.3 Signal level .................................................................................................. 65

6.6 Requirements for decoding margin (teletext) ........................................................ 66

6.7 IF signal requirements (AM-TV) ........................................................................... 66

6.7.1 Impedance ................................................................................................... 66

6.7.2 Return loss .................................................................................................. 66

6.8 Antennas for terrestrial reception ......................................................................... 66

6.8.1 Impedance ................................................................................................... 66

6.8.2 Return loss .................................................................................................. 66

6.9 Antenna amplifier ................................................................................................ 66

7 Equipment characteristics required to be published ...................................................... 67

7.1 General ............................................................................................................... 67

7.2 Environmental conditions .................................................................................... 67

7.3 Maximum permissible output level ....................................................................... 67

7.4 Operating range for output level .......................................................................... 68

7.5 TV standard ........................................................................................................ 68

7.6 Clamp ................................................................................................................. 68

7.7 Noise figure ........................................................................................................ 68

7.7.1 Equipment without AGC ............................................................................... 68

7.7.2 Equipment with AGC .................................................................................... 69

7.8 Data control signals, description of interface ........................................................ 69

7.9 Output level stability for TV modulators, TV converters and pilot generators ......... 69

7.10 Pilot signal .......................................................................................................... 69

7.11 Differential gain and phase .................................................................................. 70

7.11.1 Differential gain ........................................................................................... 70

7.11.2 Differential phase ......................................................................................... 70

7.12 Group delay variation for analogue TV signals ..................................................... 70

7.13 Luminance non-linearity ...................................................................................... 70

7.14 2T-pulse ............................................................................................................. 71

7.15 20T-pulse............................................................................................................ 71

7.16 Hum modulation .................................................................................................. 71

7.17 Television carrier-to-noise ratio ........................................................................... 71

7.18 Audio in TV ......................................................................................................... 71

7.19 Processing units for FM radio .............................................................................. 72

7.19.1 Audio input .................................................................................................. 72

7.19.2 Stereo crosstalk ........................................................................................... 72

7.19.3 Total harmonic distortion .............................................................................. 72

7.19.4 Intermodulation distortion ............................................................................. 72

7.19.5 Deviation, pre-emphasis ............................................................................... 72

7.20 Antennas for terrestrial reception ......................................................................... 72

7.20.1 Antenna gain ............................................................................................... 72

7.20.2 Sidelobe suppression ................................................................................... 72

7.20.3 Return loss of antennas ............................................................................... 72

7.21 Control signals for outdoor units .......................................................................... 73

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IEC 60728-5:2015 © IEC 2015 – 5 –

Annex A (normative) Definition of the specified test frequency range for return loss

and noise figure ........................................................................................................... 74

A.1 Test frequency range for TV channel processor ................................................... 74

A.2 Test frequency range for sub-band, full-band and multi-band amplifiers ................ 74

A.3 Test frequency range for an FM radio channel processor ..................................... 74

Annex B (informative) Audio connector for European system according to IEC 60130-9 ....... 76

B.1 Contact allocation and mechanical dimensions .................................................... 76

B.2 Signal-to-pin allocations and applications ............................................................ 76

Annex C (informative) Selectivity diagram for adjacent channel transmission ...................... 77

C.1 General ............................................................................................................... 77

C.2 TV modulator for standard PAL B/G with mono or stereo sound ............................ 77

C.3 TV modulator for standard PAL B/G with NICAM 728 in the lower adjacent

channel ............................................................................................................... 78

C.4 Standard PAL I .................................................................................................... 78

C.5 Group delay for the standards B/G, D/D1/K and I ................................................. 79

C.6 Group delay pre-correction for TV modulator for standard B/G ............................. 79

C.7 TV modulator for standard SECAM L ................................................................... 80

C.8 Group delay for TV modulator for standard SECAM L ........................................... 80

C.9 TV modulator for standard PAL D/K with mono or stereo sound ............................ 81

Annex D (informative) Differences in some countries .......................................................... 82

D.1 General ............................................................................................................... 82

D.2 Finland, Sweden ................................................................................................. 82

Annex E (normative) Correction factors for noise ................................................................ 83

E.1 Signal level measurement ................................................................................... 83

E.2 Noise level measurement .................................................................................... 83

Annex F (informative) Digital signal level and bandwidth ..................................................... 85

F.1 RF/IF power ("carrier") ........................................................................................ 85

F.2 Occupied bandwidth of a digital signal ................................................................. 85

F.2.1 QAM/QPSK modulation ................................................................................ 85

F.2.2 OFDM modulation ........................................................................................ 86

F.3 Noise bandwidth ................................................................................................. 86

F.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 86

F.3.2 QAM/QPSK/8 PSK modulation ...................................................................... 87

F.3.3 OFDM modulation ........................................................................................ 87

F.4 Equivalent signal bandwidth ................................................................................ 87

F.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 87

F.4.2 QAM/QPSK/8 PSK modulation ...................................................................... 87

F.4.3 OFDM modulation ........................................................................................ 87

F.5 Examples ............................................................................................................ 87

Annex G (informative) Minimum frequency distance of converted satellite signals in

the IF range ................................................................................................................. 89

Annex H (informative) Measurement errors which occur due to mismatched equipment ....... 90

Annex I (normative) Correction factor for spectrum analyser ............................................... 91

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 92

Figure 1 – Example of headend ........................................................................................... 13

Figure 2 – Examples of IP gateways/interfaces at the input of headends .............................. 14

Figure 3 – Examples of IP gateways and interfaces at the output of central headends .......... 15

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60728-5:2015 © IEC 2015

Figure 4 – Frequencies and levels of test carriers ................................................................ 27

Figure 5 – Test carrier and interfering products in the pass band ......................................... 28

Figure 6 – Example showing products formed when 2f > f ................................................ 29

a b

Figure 7 – Carrier-to-spurious signal ratio at the output ....................................................... 30

Figure 8 – Carrier-to spurious signal ratio at the output ........................................................ 31

Figure 9 – Shoulder attenuation .......................................................................................... 31

Figure 10 – Arrangement of test equipment for carrier-to-noise ratio measurement ............... 32

Figure 11 – Arrangement of test equipment for measurement of differential gain and

phase ................................
...

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