Assessment of electronic and electrical equipment related to human exposure restrictions for electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz)

IEC 62311:2019 applies to electronic and electrical equipment for which no dedicated product standard or product family standard regarding human exposure to electromagnetic fields applies. It covers equipment with intentional or non-intentional radiators as well as a combination thereof.
This document provides assessment methods and criteria to evaluate equipment against limits on exposure of people related to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields. The frequency range covered is from 0 Hz to 300 GHz.
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2007. This edition constitutes a technical revision.
This document does not specify limits expressed by means of basic restrictions and/or reference levels. Such limits are subject to the applied assessment scheme, for example by means of regional limits.
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) a clear distinction between intentional and unintentional radiators has been introduced;
b) the exposure to non-uniform fields is considered;
c) the treatment of uncertainty for the assessment procedures has been improved;
d) various summation regimes are described in Annex A;
e) the information from meanwhile published basic standards has been used and hence all informative annexes of the previous edition have been removed.
Key words: Human Exposure, Electromagnetic Fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz).

Évaluation des équipements électroniques et électriques en relation avec les restrictions d'exposition humaine aux champs électromagnétiques (0 Hz à 300 GHz)

IEC 62311:2019 s’applique aux équipements électroniques et électriques auxquels aucune norme concernant l'exposition humaine aux champs électromagnétiques, dédiée à un produit ou à une famille de produits, ne s'applique. Il couvre les équipements à émetteurs intentionnels ou non intentionnels ainsi qu’une combinaison de ceux-ci.
Le présent document fournit des méthodes et des critères d’évaluation pour démontrer que les équipements satisfont aux limites d’exposition des personnes aux champs électriques, magnétiques et électromagnétiques. La plage de fréquences couverte s’étend de 0 Hz à 300 GHz.
Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition parue en 2007. Cette édition constitue une révision technique.
Le présent document ne spécifie pas de limites d’exposition, ni sous la forme de restrictions de base ni sous la forme de niveaux de référence. Ces limites, exprimées par exemple sous forme de limites régionales, sont soumises au système d’évaluation appliqué.
Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
a) une distinction claire a été faite entre les émetteurs intentionnels et non intentionnels;
b) l’exposition à des champs non uniformes est prise en considération;
c) le traitement de l’incertitude des procédures d’évaluation a été amélioré;
d) différents régimes de sommation sont décrits dans l'Annexe A;
e) les informations présentes dans des normes de base publiées entre-temps ont été utilisées, ce qui explique la suppression de toutes les annexes informatives de l’édition précédente.
Mots clés: exposition humaine, champs électromagnétiques (0 Hz à 300 GHz)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Apr-2019
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
18-Apr-2019
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IEC 62311
Edition 2.0 2019-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Assessment of electronic and electrical equipment related to human exposure
restrictions for electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz)
Évaluation des équipements électroniques et électriques en relation avec les
restrictions d'exposition humaine aux champs électromagnétiques (0 Hz à 300 GHz)
IEC 62311:2019-04(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62311
Edition 2.0 2019-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Assessment of electronic and electrical equipment related to human exposure
restrictions for electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz)
Évaluation des équipements électroniques et électriques en relation avec les
restrictions d'exposition humaine aux champs électromagnétiques (0 Hz à 300 GHz)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 97.030 ISBN 978-2-8322-6763-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62311:2019 © IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ........................................................................ 6

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 6

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................. 10

4 Compliance criteria ........................................................................................................ 10

5 Performance of assessments ......................................................................................... 11

5.1 Assessment methods ............................................................................................ 11

5.2 Frequency range under assessment for unintentional radiation ............................. 13

5.3 General procedure for the assessment of equipment ............................................ 13

6 Uncertainty .................................................................................................................... 17

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 17

6.2 Consideration of uncertainty for compliance .......................................................... 17

7 Considerations on sources with multiple frequencies and non-uniformity of fields .......... 19

7.1 Sources with multiple frequencies ......................................................................... 19

7.2 Exposure to non-uniform fields .............................................................................. 19

8 Evaluation of compliance to limits .................................................................................. 20

9 Assessment report ......................................................................................................... 20

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 20

9.2 Items to be recorded in the assessment report ...................................................... 20

9.2.1 Assessment method ...................................................................................... 20

9.2.2 Presentation of the results ............................................................................. 20

9.2.3 Equipment using external antennas ............................................................... 20

10 Product documentation .................................................................................................. 20

Annex A (informative) Examples for summation regimes ..................................................... 21

A.1 ICNIRP 1998 summation regimes ......................................................................... 21

A.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 21

A.1.2 Frequency range from 1 Hz to 10 MHz (ICNIRP 1998-based) ........................ 21

A.1.3 Frequency range from 100 kHz to 300 GHz (ICNIRP 1998-based) ................. 25

A.2 ICNIRP 2010 summation regimes ......................................................................... 26

A.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 26

A.2.2 Frequency domain assessment – ICNIRP 2010 Guidelines ............................ 26

A.2.3 Time domain assessment – ICNIRP 2010 Guidelines ..................................... 29

A.3 IEEE summation regimes ...................................................................................... 31

A.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 31

A.3.2 Frequency range from 0 kHz to 5 MHz (IEEE-based) ..................................... 31

A.3.3 Frequency range from 3 kHz to 300 GHz (IEEE-based) ................................. 32

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 33

Figure 1 – Assessment flowchart .......................................................................................... 15

Figure A.1 – Schematic of “weighting circuit” ........................................................................ 23

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62311:2019 © IEC 2019 – 3 –
Figure A.2 – Dependency on frequency of the reference levels VL plotted with
 
dVL

smoothing edges with VL(f ) = VL , VL(f ) = V and the slopes ........................... 24

1  
c0 0 c1
 

Figure A.3 – Transfer function WL ......................................................................................... 24

Figure A.4 – Amplitude and phase response for the weighting function WL(f) of the

magnetic field (reference level for general public exposure) .................................................. 30

Table 1 – List of possible assessment methods .................................................................... 11

Table 2 – Characteristics and parameters of the equipment to be considered ....................... 16

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62311:2019 © IEC 2019
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRONIC AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
RELATED TO HUMAN EXPOSURE RESTRICTIONS
FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (0 Hz to 300 GHz)
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

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Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

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services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62311 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 106: Methods

for the assessment of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with human

exposure.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2007. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) a clear distinction between intentional and unintentional radiators has been introduced;

b) the exposure to non-uniform fields is considered;
c) the treatment of uncertainty for the assessment procedures has been improved;
d) various summation regimes are described in Annex A;

e) the information from meanwhile published basic standards has been used and hence all

informative annexes of the previous edition have been removed.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62311:2019 © IEC 2019 – 5 –
FDIS Report on voting
106/480/FDIS 106/486/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62311:2019 © IEC 2019
ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRONIC AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
RELATED TO HUMAN EXPOSURE RESTRICTIONS
FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (0 Hz to 300 GHz)
1 Scope

This document applies to electronic and electrical equipment for which no dedicated product

standard or product family standard regarding human exposure to electromagnetic fields applies.

It covers equipment with intentional or non-intentional radiators as well as a combination thereof.

This document provides assessment methods and criteria to evaluate equipment against limits

on exposure of people related to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields. The frequency

range covered is from 0 Hz to 300 GHz.

NOTE 1 Further guidance concerning the application of this document and its relationship to other EMF standards

is given in Figure 1.

This document does not specify limits expressed by means of basic restrictions and/or reference

levels. Such limits are subject to the applied assessment scheme, for example by means of

regional limits.

NOTE 2 The assessment methods and criteria to evaluate equipment against basic restrictions or reference levels

can be used with regard to either general public or occupational exposure.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.
IEC 60050-161:1990, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Chapter 161:
Electromagnetic compatibility (available at http://www.electropedia.org)

IEC 62232:2017, Determination of RF field strength, power density and SAR in the vicinity of

radiocommunication base stations for the purpose of evaluating human exposure
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60050-161 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62311:2019 © IEC 2019 – 7 –
3.1.1
averaging time
avg

appropriate time interval over which exposure

is averaged for purposes of determining compliance
3.1.2
basic restriction

restriction on exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields that is

based directly on established health effects

Note 1 to entry: Examples of basic restrictions can be found in Annex II of the Council Recommendation

1999/519/EC [1], ICNIRP Guidelines ([2], [3]), IEEE Std C95.6 [4] and IEEE Std C95.1 [5].

3.1.3
contact current

current flowing into the body resulting from contact with a conductive object

in an electromagnetic field

Note 1 to entry: This is the localized current flow into the body (usually the hand, for a light brushing contact).

3.1.4
current density

current per unit cross-sectional area flowing inside the human body as a result of exposure to

electromagnetic fields
3.1.5
duty factor

ratio of pulse duration to the pulse period of a

periodic pulse train

Note 1 to entry: A duty factor can also be considered as a measure of the temporal transmission characteristic of

an intermittently transmitting RF source such as a paging antenna by dividing average transmission duration by the

average period for transmissions.
Note 2 to entry: A duty factor of 1,0 corresponds to continuous operation.
3.1.6
effective radiated power
ERP

product of the power supplied by a radio transmitter to an antenna and the gain of this antenna

relative to a half-wave dipole in a given direction
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-713:1998, 713-09-26]
3.1.7
electric field strength

vector field quantity E which exerts on any charged particle at rest a force F equal to the product

of E and the electric charge Q of the particle
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-121:1998, 121-11-18]
3.1.8
exposure

situation that occurs wherever a person is subjected to electric, magnetic or electromagnetic

fields

Note 1 to entry: The word “exposure” is also commonly used to mean “exposure level” (see 3.1.9).

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62311:2019 © IEC 2019
[SOURCE: IEC 62226-1:2004, 3.1.7]
3.1.9
exposure level
value of the quantity used to assess exposure

Note 1 to entry: This may be an induced current density, SAR, power density, electric or magnetic field strength, a

limb current or a contact current.
3.1.10
far-field region

region of the field of an antenna where the radial field distribution is essentially dependent

inversely on the distance from the antenna

Note 1 to entry: In the far-field region the field has a predominantly plane-wave character, i.e. locally uniform

distribution of electric field and magnetic field in planes transverse to the direction of propagation. The vectors of the

electric field and the magnetic field are perpendicular to each other and the quotient between the value of the electric

field strength E and the magnetic field strength H is constant and equals the impedance of free space Z .

3.1.11
highest internal frequency

highest fundamental frequency generated or used within the EUT, or the highest frequency at

which it operates
3.1.12
induced current

current induced inside the body as a result of exposure to electromagnetic fields

3.1.13
inherently compliant

considered to comply with a set of requirements without the need of applying an assessment

method (such as measurements or calculations)

Note 1 to entry: A set of requirements can for example be a set of exposure limits for the general public.

Note 2 to entry: Equipment that is inherently compliant with respect to a certain set of requirements (for example

exposure limits for workers) is not necessarily inherently compliant with a different set of requirements (for example

exposure limits for the general public).
3.1.14
intentional radiator

electrical or electronic equipment in which electric, magnetic or electromagnetic fields are

intentionally generated for the purpose of radio communication, radiodetermination, treatment

of material or transfer of electromagnetic energy
3.1.15
limb current

current flowing in an arm or a leg, either as a result of a contact current or else induced by an

external field
3.1.16
magnetic field strength

vector quantity obtained at a given point by subtracting the magnetization M from the magnetic

flux density B divided by the magnetic constant μ
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-121:1998, 121-11-56, modified – The notes have been deleted.]
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62311:2019 © IEC 2019 – 9 –
3.1.17
magnetic flux density

vector field quantity B which exerts on any charged particle having velocity v a force F equal to

the product of the vector product v x B and the electric charge Q of the particle

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-121:1998, 121-11-19, modified – The notes have been deleted.]
3.1.18
near-field region

region generally in proximity to an antenna or other radiating structure, in which the electric and

magnetic fields do not have a substantially plane-wave character, but vary considerably from

point to point

Note 1 to entry: The near-field region is further subdivided into the reactive near-field region, which is closest to

the radiating structure and that contains most or nearly all of the stored energy, and the radiating near-field region

where the radiation field predominates over the reactive field, but lacks substantial plane-wave character and is

complex in structure.
3.1.19
partial-body exposure

localized exposure of part of the body, producing a corresponding localized SAR, power density

or induced current density, as distinct from a whole-body exposure
3.1.20
plane-wave equivalent power density

power density equal in magnitude to the power density of a plane wave

having the same electric (E) or magnetic (H) field strength as the measured field

3.1.21
power density

power per unit area normal to the direction of

electromagnetic wave propagation

Note 1 to entry: For plane waves the power density (S), electric field strength (E) and magnetic field strength (H)

are related by the space impedance (Z ), in the case of plane wave or free space, i.e. 377 Ω:

S Z H EH

E and H are expressed in units of V/m and A/m, respectively, and S in the unit of W/m . The value of 377 Ω is only

valid for free space, far field measurement conditions.

Note 2 to entry: Although many survey instruments indicate power density units, the actual quantities measured are

E or H or the square of those quantities.
3.1.22
reference level

level of field strength or power density derived from the basic restrictions using conservative

assumptions about exposure

Note 1 to entry: If the reference levels are met, then the basic restrictions will be complied with, but if the reference

levels are exceeded, that does not necessarily mean that the basic restrictions will not be met.

= ==
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 62311:2019 © IEC 2019
3.1.23
root-mean-square value
RMS

effective value or the value associated with joule heating,

of a periodic electromagnetic wave, obtained by taking the square root of the mean of the

squared value of a function

Note 1 to entry: Although many survey instruments in the high frequency range indicate RMS, the actual quantity

measured is root-sum-square (RSS) (equivalent field strength).
3.1.24
root-sum-square value
RSS

value obtained from three individual RMS field strength values, measured in three orthogonal

directions, combined disregarding the phases
222
X XXX++
x yz
Note 1 to entry: This note applies to the French language only.
3.1.25
transient

pertaining to or designating a phenomenon or a quantity which varies between two consecutive

steady states during a time interval short compared with the timescale of interest

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-161:1990, 161-02-01]
3.1.26
whole-body exposure

exposure of the whole body (or the torso when induced current density is considered)

3.2 Abbreviated terms
CISPR Comité international spécial des perturbations radioélectriques
EIRP equivalent isotropic radiated power
EMF electromagnetic fields
EUT equipment under test
ICNIRP International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
SAR specific absorption rate
4 Compliance criteria

In general, the basic restrictions shall be used as exposure limits for the assessment of

compliance. However, in most cases reference levels are used as limits. Such reference levels

for exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields are derived from the basic

restrictions using realistic worst-case assumptions about exposure. If the reference levels are

met, then the basic restrictions will also be met; if the reference levels are exceeded, that does

not necessarily mean that the basic restrictions are exceeded. In some situations, it may be

possible to show compliance with the basic restrictions directly. It may also be possible to derive

compliance criteria that allow a simple measurement or calculation to demonstrate compliance

with the basic restrictions. Often these compliance criteria can be derived using realistic

assumptions about conditions under which exposures from a device may occur, rather than the

conservative assumptions that are the basis for the reference levels.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 62311:2019 © IEC 2019 – 11 –

NOTE This document does not specify limits expressed by means of basic restrictions and/or reference levels. Such

limits are subject to the applied assessment scheme, given for example in [1] , [2], [3], [4] or [5] by means of regional

limits (see also SMB/3979/DP).
If the technology in the equipment
...

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