Radiation protection instrumentation - System of spectral identification of liquids in transparent and semitransparent containers (Raman systems)

IEC 63085:2021 provides technical performance requirements, testing methods, requirements for operational performance and accompanying documents, packaging, transportation and storage conditions for the system of spectral identification of liquids in transparent and semitransparent containers (hereinafter referred to as “system”), based on the method of inelastic (Raman) light scattering by molecules.
This document applies both to stationary and hand-held systems; geometric and mass parameters are not concerned in the tests. This document is applicable to substance identification testing criteria as well as verification, approval and operating criteria of the system. Since this document considers only the functionality of Raman analyzers and their ability to identify single- or multicomponent fluids, it is equally suitable for verifying the Raman analyzers assigned to security screening of threats, inspection of medical solutions, liquid chemicals, etc.

Instrumentation pour la radioprotection - Système d'identification spectrale des liquides dans des récipients transparents et semi-transparents (systèmes Raman)

IEC 63085:2021 fournit les exigences de performances techniques, les méthodes d'essai, les exigences en matière de performances opérationnelles et les documents d'accompagnement, les conditions d'emballage, de transport et de stockage du système d'identification spectrale des liquides dans des récipients transparents et semi-transparents (ici appelés "système"), reposant sur la méthode de diffusion inélastique de la lumière (Raman) par des molécules.
Le présent document s'applique tant aux systèmes stationnaires que portatifs (les paramètres de géométrie et de masse ne sont pas concernés par les essais). Le présent document s'applique aux critères d'essais d'identification de substance, ainsi qu'aux critères de vérification, d'homologation et de fonctionnement du système. Étant donné que le présent document prend uniquement en considération la fonctionnalité des analyseurs Raman et leur aptitude à identifier des fluides à un ou plusieurs composants, il permet également de vérifier les analyseurs Raman destinés au filtrage de sécurité des menaces, à l'examen des solutions médicales, aux produits chimiques liquides, etc.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
23-Jun-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
24-Jun-2021
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
IEC 63085:2021 - Radiation protection instrumentation - System of spectral identification of liquids in transparent and semitransparent containers (Raman systems)
English and French language
48 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

IEC 63085
Edition 1.0 2021-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Radiation protection instrumentation – System of spectral identification of
liquids in transparent and semitransparent containers (Raman systems)
Instrumentation pour la radioprotection – Système d'identification spectrale
des liquides dans des récipients transparents et semi-transparents (systèmes
Raman)
IEC 63085:2021-06(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2021 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

either IEC or IEC's member National Committee in the country of the requester. If you have any questions about IEC

copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication, please contact the address below or

your local IEC member National Committee for further information.

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf indication contraire, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite

ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie

et les microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'IEC ou du Comité national de l'IEC du pays du demandeur. Si vous avez des

questions sur le copyright de l'IEC ou si vous désirez obtenir des droits supplémentaires sur cette publication, utilisez

les coordonnées ci-après ou contactez le Comité national de l'IEC de votre pays de résidence.

IEC Central Office Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11
3, rue de Varembé info@iec.ch
CH-1211 Geneva 20 www.iec.ch
Switzerland
About the IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes

International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
About IEC publications

The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the

latest edition, a corrigendum or an amendment might have been published.

IEC publications search - webstore.iec.ch/advsearchform IEC online collection - oc.iec.ch

The advanced search enables to find IEC publications by a Discover our powerful search engine and read freely all the

variety of criteria (reference number, text, technical publications previews. With a subscription you will always

committee, …). It also gives information on projects, replaced have access to up to date content tailored to your needs.

and withdrawn publications.
Electropedia - www.electropedia.org
IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished
The world's leading online dictionary on electrotechnology,
Stay up to date on all new IEC publications. Just Published
containing more than 22 000 terminological entries in English
details all new publications released. Available online and
and French, with equivalent terms in 18 additional languages.
once a month by email.
Also known as the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary
(IEV) online.
IEC Customer Service Centre - webstore.iec.ch/csc
If you wish to give us your feedback on this publication or
need further assistance, please contact the Customer Service
Centre: sales@iec.ch.
A propos de l'IEC

La Commission Electrotechnique Internationale (IEC) est la première organisation mondiale qui élabore et publie des

Normes internationales pour tout ce qui a trait à l'électricité, à l'électronique et aux technologies apparentées.

A propos des publications IEC

Le contenu technique des publications IEC est constamment revu. Veuillez vous assurer que vous possédez l’édition la

plus récente, un corrigendum ou amendement peut avoir été publié.
Recherche de publications IEC - IEC online collection - oc.iec.ch

webstore.iec.ch/advsearchform Découvrez notre puissant moteur de recherche et consultez

La recherche avancée permet de trouver des publications IEC gratuitement tous les aperçus des publications. Avec un

en utilisant différents critères (numéro de référence, texte, abonnement, vous aurez toujours accès à un contenu à jour

comité d’études, …). Elle donne aussi des informations sur adapté à vos besoins.
les projets et les publications remplacées ou retirées.
Electropedia - www.electropedia.org
IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished
Le premier dictionnaire d'électrotechnologie en ligne au
Restez informé sur les nouvelles publications IEC. Just
monde, avec plus de 22 000 articles terminologiques en
Published détaille les nouvelles publications parues.
anglais et en français, ainsi que les termes équivalents dans
Disponible en ligne et une fois par mois par email.
16 langues additionnelles. Egalement appelé Vocabulaire
Electrotechnique International (IEV) en ligne.
Service Clients - webstore.iec.ch/csc
Si vous désirez nous donner des commentaires sur cette
publication ou si vous avez des questions contactez-nous:
sales@iec.ch.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 63085
Edition 1.0 2021-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Radiation protection instrumentation – System of spectral identification of
liquids in transparent and semitransparent containers (Raman systems)
Instrumentation pour la radioprotection – Système d'identification spectrale
des liquides dans des récipients transparents et semi-transparents (systèmes
Raman)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 13.280 ISBN 978-2-8322-9896-1

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 63085:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 Requirements .................................................................................................................. 9

4.1 Structure and appearance ....................................................................................... 9

4.2 Functions ................................................................................................................ 9

4.2.1 Alarm ............................................................................................................... 9

4.2.2 Displayed data ................................................................................................. 9

4.2.3 Recording and storage of identification data .................................................... 9

4.2.4 Error diagnostics and self-verification ............................................................ 10

4.2.5 Access control software ................................................................................. 10

4.3 Performance ......................................................................................................... 10

4.3.1 Testing conditions ......................................................................................... 10

4.3.2 Time for single inspection .............................................................................. 11

4.3.3 Requirements for minimum volume of liquid to be inspected .......................... 11

4.3.4 Requirements for container wall thickness ..................................................... 11

4.3.5 Requirements for container wall transparency................................................ 12

4.3.6 Requirements for detectable spectral range ................................................... 13

4.3.7 Reproducibility of identification result ............................................................ 13

4.3.8 Selectivity of substance identification ............................................................ 14

4.4 Laser safety .......................................................................................................... 15

4.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 15

4.5 Electrical safety .................................................................................................... 15

4.5.1 Main power connection .................................................................................. 15

4.5.2 Stability at mains power supply ...................................................................... 16

4.5.3 Battery connection ......................................................................................... 16

4.5.4 Stability to battery charge level ...................................................................... 16

4.6 Mechanical stability ............................................................................................... 16

4.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 16

4.6.2 Requirements ................................................................................................ 17

4.6.3 Test method .................................................................................................. 17

4.7 Environmental requirements ................................................................................. 17

4.7.1 Environmental suitability test ......................................................................... 17

4.7.2 Mechanical vibration testing........................................................................... 17

4.8 Electromagnetic compatibility ................................................................................ 18

4.8.1 Immunity testing ............................................................................................ 18

4.8.2 Emission test ................................................................................................. 19

5 Marking and documentation ........................................................................................... 19

5.1 Raman analyzer marking ...................................................................................... 19

5.2 Documentation ...................................................................................................... 19

Annex A (informative) Raman spectra of test samples ......................................................... 20

A.1 Raman spectrum of test samples 1 and 2 .............................................................. 20

A.2 Raman spectrum of test sample 3 ......................................................................... 21

A.3 Raman spectrum of test sample 4 ......................................................................... 22

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 63085:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –

A.4 Raman spectrum of test sample 5 ......................................................................... 23

A.5 Raman spectrum of test sample 6 ......................................................................... 24

Figure 1 – Test on container wall thickness ........................................................................... 12

Figure 2 – Test on container wall transparency ..................................................................... 13

Figure A.1 – Raman spectrum of test samples 1 and 2 (cyclohexane) with four
−1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1
reference peaks (384 cm ± 2 cm , 801 cm ± 2 cm , 1 444 cm ± 2 cm ,
−1 −1 −1 −1

2 853 cm ± 2 cm ) to verify the spectral range of 300 cm to 3 000 cm ..................... 20

Figure A.2 – Raman spectrum of test sample 3 (water) with the reference band to
−1 −1

verify the spectral range 3 000 cm to 3 600 cm ............................................................. 21

Figure A.3 – Raman spectrum of test sample 4 (10 % ethanol in water) with three
−1 −1 −1 −1
reference peaks of ethanol in water (879 cm ± 2 cm , 1 455 cm ± 2 cm ,
−1 −1
2 935 cm ± 2 cm ) and the reference band of water in the spectral range
−1 −1

3 000 cm to 3 600 cm .................................................................................................... 22

Figure A.4 – Raman spectrum of test sample 5 (50 % methanol + 50 % ethanol) .................. 23

Figure A.5 – Raman spectrum of test sample 6 (33,3 % methanol + 33,3 % ethanol +

33,3 % isopropanol) .............................................................................................................. 24

Table 1 – Reference condition and standard test conditions .................................................. 10

Table 2 – Key apparatus for tests and technical requirements............................................... 11

Table 3 – Reproducibility test results table ............................................................................ 14

Table 4 – Ambient requirements ........................................................................................... 17

Table 5 – Tests and requirements for mechanical stability .................................................... 18

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 63085:2021 © IEC 2021
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
RADIATION PROTECTION INSTRUMENTATION –
SYSTEM OF SPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF LIQUIDS IN TRANSPARENT
AND SEMITRANSPARENT CONTAINERS (RAMAN SYSTEMS)
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 63085 has been prepared by subcommittee 45B: Radiation

protection instrumentation, of IEC technical committee 45: Nuclear instrumentation.

The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
45B/979/FDIS 45B/984/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 63085:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement,

available at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by

IEC are described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates that it

contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding of its

contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 63085:2021 © IEC 2021
INTRODUCTION

This document establishes standard test methods and objects for evaluating the capabilities

of Raman systems used for the spectral identification of liquids and liquids mixtures. The main

focus is made on testing the functionality of the equipment (Raman analyzer); the reliability of

identification result for liquids in containers with different light transmittance properties and

stability of the equipment performance under various environmental conditions. The design of

the optical scheme of the Raman analyzer, geometric and mass characteristics are not

discussed and left to the discretion of the manufacturer. This document does not specify the

circumstances and purposes of the inspection of liquids, the methods of detection of the

container, and also the safety techniques for handling unknown liquids. Hence, the imposed

requirements for the functionality of the Raman analyzer are equally suitable for its use in the

fields of security, analysis of pharmaceutical solutions and other liquid chemicals. Annex A

provides Raman scattering spectra of test samples, referred to in the test methods.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 63085:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
RADIATION PROTECTION INSTRUMENTATION –
SYSTEM OF SPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF LIQUIDS IN TRANSPARENT
AND SEMITRANSPARENT CONTAINERS (RAMAN SYSTEMS)
1 Scope

This document provides technical performance requirements, testing methods, requirements

for operational performance and accompanying documents, packaging, transportation and

storage conditions for the system of spectral identification of liquids in transparent and

semitransparent containers (hereinafter referred to as “system”), based on the method of

inelastic (Raman) light scattering by molecules.

This document applies both to stationary and hand-held systems; geometric and mass

parameters are not concerned in the tests. This document is applicable to substance

identification testing criteria as well as verification, approval and operating criteria of the

system. Since this document considers only the functionality of Raman analyzers and their

ability to identify single- or multicomponent fluids, it is equally suitable for verifying the Raman

analyzers assigned to security screening of threats, inspection of medical solutions, liquid

chemicals, etc.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.
IEC 60038:2009, Standard voltages
IEC 60068-2-1:2007, Environmental testing – Part 2-1: Tests –Test A: Cold
IEC 60068-2-2:2007, Environmental testing – Part 2-2: Tests –Test B: Dry heat

IEC 60068-2-6:2007, Environmental testing – Part 2-6: Tests – Test Fc: Vibration (sinusoidal)

IEC 60068-2-78:2012, Environmental testing – Part 2-78: Tests –Test Cab: Damp heat,

steady state
IEC 60825-4:2006, Safety of laser products – Part 4: Laser guards
IEC 60825-4:2006/AMD1:2008
IEC 60825-4:2006/AMD2:2011

IEC 61000-6-1:2016, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 6-1: Generic standards –

Immunity standard for residential, commercial and light-industrial environments

IEC 61000-6-3:2020, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 6-3: Generic standards –

Emission standard for equipment in residential environments

ISO 3696:1987, Water for analytical laboratory use – Specification and test methods

ISO 9058:2008, Glass containers – Standard tolerances for bottles
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 63085:2021 © IEC 2021

ASTM D3695 – 95:2013, Standard Test Method for Volatile Alcohols in Water by Direct

Aqueous-Injection Gas Chromatography
ASTM D5309 – 16, Standard Specification for Cyclohexane 999
ASTM E1094 – 04:2015, Standard Specification for Pharmaceutical Glass Graduates
ASTM E1840 – 96:2014, Standard Guide for Raman Shift Standards for Spectrometer
Calibration
European Pharmacopoeia 8.7:2016, 2.2.48, Raman spectroscopy, pp.5464-5466
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
container

vessel holding the liquid to be inspected and having a transparent or semitransparent wall or

bottom or cap area
3.2
inspection time

time interval between the moment of starting the detection and that of obtaining the

identification result
3.3
Raman analyzer

system using the Raman method for spectral identification of organic and inorganic liquids in

transparent or semi-transparent containers, producing sample identification data in the form of

the chemical name, CAS number or analogous standard substance-identification number, and

allowing storage, processing and transfer of identification data for further procedures

3.4
Raman spectroscopy

optical technique of organic and inorganic substance identification based on spectral

measurement and analysis of inelastic (Stokes Raman) light scattering by molecules under

monochromatic laser illumination

Note 1 to entry: For each type of polyatomic molecule, the light scattering spectrum is composed of a unique set

of characteristic peaks shifted in energy from the primary laser line (Raman shift). The method consists of laser

light interacting with a substance, collection of the scattered light, spectrum processing and identification by

comparison with a reference database of spectra.
3.5
Recognition Reliability Factor
RRF

quantity defining degree of coincidence of Raman spectra of the inspected and reference

substances

Note 1 to entry: The recognition reliability factor is represented in a numeric form and is explicitly quantified in

4.3.7.2.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 63085:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –
3.6
identification result

data including the common name of the inspected and identified liquid substance, CAS

Register number (optional), molecular formula (optional), structural formula (optional) and the

recognition reliability factor (optional)

Note 1 to entry: In the event of the identification of several substances, the identification result should include the

aforementioned records for every identified substance.
3.7
identification data protocol

data including time and date, Raman analyzer Identification Number (Raman analyzer ID),

Operator ID (optional), the identification result, and digital representation of measured and

corresponding reference Raman spectra
3.8
test liquid
liquid used for testing system performance
3.9
test sample
combination of a test container subject to 3.1 and a test liquid subject to 3.8
4 Requirements
4.1 Structure and appearance

The connection ports of the Raman analyzer should be designed for easy installation and

removal of the test sample, the condition specified in 3.1.
4.2 Functions
4.2.1 Alarm

The Raman analyzer should automatically provide warning in the form of acoustic and/or

visual signals when hazardous liquids are identified.
4.2.2 Displayed data

a) The Raman analyzer shall display the identification result in a text or graphical form

including optional fields subject to 3.6.

b) The Raman analyzer shall provide an interface for recording an identification data

protocol.
4.2.3 Recording and storage of identification data
a) Inspected substance identification data and alarm activation marks should be

automatically stored as a time-ordered sequence of data, including identification data

protocol subject to 3.7. Users may have the option to disable automatic data logging.

b) Software shall be provided for search and retrieval of identification data.

c) Identification data protocol subject to 3.7 shall be reliably protected in a secure, read-only

mode with authorized access to stored data and spectra.

d) The system shall be capable of exporting protocol data (or protocol fragments) and

identification results in commonly used non-proprietary text or graphical formats.

e) It should be possible to access and transfer recorded spectral data to external data

carriers in digital form.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 63085:2021 © IEC 2021
4.2.4 Error diagnostics and self-verification

The system should have the functionality of error diagnostics and self-verification. Self-

verification can be automatic or manual and should cover issues of the device calibration and

apparatus functionality. This can be realized via internal calibrated light sources or based on

an external etalon sample.
4.2.5 Access control software

The Raman analyzer should have an option to verify the operator’s ID. Any unique digital or

biometric ID parameters can be used for verification of authorized operators.
4.3 Performance
4.3.1 Testing conditions
4.3.1.1 Environmental conditions

Except where otherwise specified, tests shall be carried out under the standard test

conditions shown in the third column of Table 1. For tests performed outside the standard test

conditions, the values of temperature, pressure and relative humidity shall be stated and

appropriate corrections, if any, made to ensure the expected response under reference

conditions (column 2). All the tests mentioned in 4.3 shall be performed with the same system

operating parameters. The values of any deviations should be reported. The reference

conditions are given in the second column of Table 1.

The values in Table 1 are intended for tests performed in temperate climates. In other

climates actual test values shall be stated. Atmospheric pressure lower than 70 kPa is

allowed at higher altitudes and shall be similarly recorded.
Table 1 – Reference condition and standard test conditions
Environment condition Reference condition Standard test condition
Temperature 20 °C 15 °C to 35 °C
Relative humidity 65 % 45 % to 75 %
Atmospheric pressure 101,3 kPa 70 kPa to 106,6 kPa
Ambient electromagnetic Less than the lowest value
Negligible
field that causes interference
Less than twice the value
Ambient magnetic
of the induction due to
Negligible
induction
earth’s magnetic field
4.3.1.2 Test apparatus
The key apparatus for substance identification tests is shown in Table 2.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 63085:2021 © IEC 2021 – 11 –
Table 2 – Key apparatus f
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.