Semiconductor devices - Discrete devices - Part 7: Bipolar transistors

IEC 60747-7:2010 gives the requirements applicable to the following sub-categories of bipolar transistors excluding microwave transistors.
- Small signal transistors (excluding switching and microwave applications);
- Linear power transistors (excluding switching, high-frequency, and microwave applications);
- High-frequency power transistors for amplifier and oscillator applications;
- Switching transistors for high speed switching and power switching applications;
- Resistor biased transistors. The main changes with respect to previous edition are listed below.
a) Clause 1 was amended by adding an item that should be included.
b) Clauses 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 were amended by adding terms, definitions, suitable additions and deletions those should be included.
c) The text of the second edition was combined with that of IEC 60747-7-5.
This publication is to be read in conjunction with IEC 60747-1:2006.

Dispositifs à semiconducteurs - Dispositifs discrets - Partie 7: Transistors bipolaires

La CEI 60747-7:2010 donne les exigences applicables aux sous-catégories suivantes de transistors bipolaires, à l'exclusion des transistors micro-ondes.
- Transistors petits signaux (à l'exclusion des applications en commutation et en micro-ondes);
- Transistors de puissance linéaire (à l'exclusion des applications en commutation, à haute fréquence et en micro-ondes);
- Transistors de puissance haute fréquence pour applications en amplificateurs et en oscillateurs;
- Transistors de commutation pour applications en commutation à grande vitesse et en commutation de puissance;
- Transistors à résistances de polarisation. Les principaux changements par rapport à l'édition précédente sont énumérés ci-dessous.
a) L'article 1 a été amendé par l'ajout d'un élément qu'il convient d'inclure.
b) Les articles 3, 4, 5, 6 et 7 ont été amendés en ajoutant des termes et des définitions, ainsi que des ajouts et suppressions adaptés qu'il convient d'inclure.
c) Le texte de la deuxième édition a été combiné à la CEI 60747-7-5.
Cette publication doit être lue conjointement avec la CEI 60747-1:2006.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Dec-2010
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
16-Dec-2010
Completion Date
16-Dec-2010
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IEC 60747-7
Edition 3.0 2010-12
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Semiconductor devices – Discrete devices –
Part 7: Bipolar transistors
Dispositifs à semiconducteurs – Dispositifs discrets –
Partie 7: Transistors bipolaires
IEC 60747-7:2010
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60747-7
Edition 3.0 2010-12
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Semiconductor devices – Discrete devices –
Part 7: Bipolar transistors
Dispositifs à semiconducteurs – Dispositifs discrets –
Partie 7: Transistors bipolaires
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX
ICS 31.080.30 ISBN 978-2-88912-311-7
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – 60747-7 Ó IEC:2010
CONTENTS

FOREW ORD .................................................................................................................. 6

1 Sc o pe ...................................................................................................................... 8

2 Normative references ................................................................................................ 8

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................ 8

3.1 Specific functional regions ................................................................................ 8

3.2 Resistor biased transistor ................................................................................. 9

3.3 Terms related to ratings and characteristics ...................................................... 10

4 Letter symbols ........................................................................................................ 13

4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 13

4.2 Additional subscripts ...................................................................................... 13

4.3 List of letter symbols ...................................................................................... 13

4.3.1 General .............................................................................................. 13

4.3.2 Voltages ............................................................................................. 14

4.3.3 Currents ............................................................................................. 15

4.3.4 Powers............................................................................................... 15

4.3.5 Electrical parameters ........................................................................... 15

4.3.6 Frequency parameters ......................................................................... 19

4.3.7 Switching parameters .......................................................................... 20

4.3.8 Energies ............................................................................................ 21

4.3.9 Sundry quantities ................................................................................ 21

4.3.10 Matched-pair bipolar transistors ............................................................ 22

4.3.11 Resistor biased transistor..................................................................... 22

5 Essential ratings and characteristics ......................................................................... 22

5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 22

5.2 Small signal transistors ................................................................................... 22

5.2.1 Ratings (limiting values) ....................................................................... 22

5.2.2 Characteristics .................................................................................... 23

5.3 Linear power transistors ................................................................................. 24

5.3.1 Ratings (limiting values) ....................................................................... 24

5.3.2 Characteristics .................................................................................... 25

5.4 High-frequency power transistors for amplifier and oscillator applications ............ 26

5.4.1 Ratings (limiting values) ....................................................................... 26

5.4.2 Characteristics .................................................................................... 27

5.5 Switching transistors ...................................................................................... 29

5.5.1 Ratings (limiting values) ....................................................................... 29

5.5.2 Characteristics .................................................................................... 31

5.6 Resistor biased transistors .............................................................................. 33

5.6.1 Ratings .............................................................................................. 33

5.6.2 Characteristics .................................................................................... 34

6 Measuring methods ................................................................................................ 34

6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 34

6.2 Verification of ratings (limiting values) .............................................................. 35

6.2.1 Acceptance criteria .............................................................................. 35

6.2.2 Collector current ................................................................................. 35

6.2.3 Peak collector current .......................................................................... 36

6.2.4 Base current ....................................................................................... 36

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
60747-7 Ó IEC:2010 – 3 –

6.2.5 Peak base current ............................................................................... 37

6.2.6 Collector-base voltage ......................................................................... 38

6.2.7 Collector-emitter voltage, output voltage ................................................ 39

6.2.8 Emitter-base voltage, Input voltage ....................................................... 39

6.2.9 Safe operating area (SOA) ................................................................... 40

6.2.10 Output current (I ) .............................................................................. 43

6.2.11 Collector-emitter sustaining voltage ...................................................... 44

6.3 Methods of measurement ................................................................................ 46

6.3.1 Turn-on time intervals and turn-on energy with inductive road .................. 46

6.3.2 Turn-off time intervals and turn-off energy with inductive road ................. 47

6.3.3 Collector-emitter cut-off currents (d.c. method) ....................................... 49

6.3.4 Collector-base cut-off current (d.c. method) ........................................... 49

6.3.5 Emitter-base cut-off current (d.c. method) .............................................. 50

6.3.6 Collector-emitter saturation voltage ....................................................... 50

6.3.7 Base-emitter saturation voltage ............................................................ 52

6.3.8 Base-emitter voltage (d.c. method) ....................................................... 53

6.3.9 Capacitances ...................................................................................... 54

6.3.10 Hybrid parameters (small-signal and large-signal) .................................. 57

6.3.11 Thermal resistance .............................................................................. 64

6.3.12 Switching times with resistive road ........................................................ 69

6.3.13 High-frequency parameters (f , y..e, s..)................................................ 71

6.3.14 Noise (F) ............................................................................................ 81

6.3.15 Measuring methods for matched-pair bipolar transistors .......................... 87

6.3.16 Measuring Methods for resistor biased transistors .................................. 90

7 Acceptance and reliability ........................................................................................ 94

7.1 General requirements ..................................................................................... 94

7.2 Specific requirements ..................................................................................... 94

7.2.1 List of endurance tests......................................................................... 94

7.2.2 Conditions for endurance tests ............................................................. 94

7.2.3 Acceptance-defining characteristics and acceptance criteria for

reliability tests .................................................................................... 94

7.3 Endurance and reliability test methods ............................................................. 95

7.3.1 High temperature blocking (HTRB) ........................................................ 95

7.3.2 Intermittent operating life ..................................................................... 96

7.4 Type tests and routine tests ............................................................................ 97

7.4.1 Type tests .......................................................................................... 97

7.4.2 Routine tests ...................................................................................... 97

Annex A (informative) Determination of the SOA ............................................................. 99

Figure 1 – Resistor biased transistor graphical symbol ....................................................... 9

Figure 2 – Modified hybrid p equivalent circuit ................................................................. 19

Figure 3 – Test circuit for collector current ...................................................................... 35

Figure 4 – Test circuit for peak collector current .............................................................. 36

Figure 5 – Test circuit for base current ........................................................................... 37

Figure 6 – Test circuit for peak base current.................................................................... 37

Figure 7 – Circuit for testing the collector-base voltage V , V , V , V ................ 38

CBO CBS CBR CBX

Figure 8 – Circuit for testing the collector-emitter voltage V , V , V , V V ........ 39

CEO CES CER CEX, O

Figure 9 – Circuit for testing the emitter-base voltages V and input voltage V ............... 40

EBO I
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – 60747-7 Ó IEC:2010

Figure 10 – Test circuit of reverse bias safe operating area (RBSOA) ................................ 40

Figure 11 – Waveforms and curves for RBSOA ................................................................ 41

Figure 12 – Circuit for testing safe operating pulse duration at load short circuit

(SCSOA) ..................................................................................................................... 42

Figure 13 – Waveforms of base current I , collector current I and voltage V during

B C CE

load short circuit condition SCSOA ................................................................................. 43

Figure 14 – Circuit diagram for verifying the output current I ........................................... 44

Figure 15 – Basic circuit for the measurement of the collector-emitter sustaining

voltage ........................................................................................................................ 44

Figure 16 – I versus V characteristic ......................................................................... 45

C CE

Figure 17 – Circuit diagram and waveforms ..................................................................... 47

Figure 18 – Waveforms during turn-off intervals ............................................................... 48

Figure 19 – Basic circuit for the measurement of collector-emitter cut-off currents............... 49

Figure 20 – Basic circuit for the measurement of the collector-emitter saturation

voltage (d.c. method) .................................................................................................... 50

Figure 21 – Basic circuit for the measurement of the collector-emitter saturation

voltage (pulse method) .................................................................................................. 51

Figure 22 – Basic circuit for the measurement of the base-emitter saturation voltage

(d.c. method) ............................................................................................................... 52

Figure 23 – Basic circuit for the measurement of the base-emitter saturation voltage

(pulse methods) ........................................................................................................... 53

Figure 24 – Base circuit for the measurement of base-emitter voltage (d.c. method) ............ 54

Figure 25 – Basic circuit for the measurement of the common-base output capacitance

using a two-terminal bridge............................................................................................ 55

Figure 26 – Basic circuit for the measurement of C using a three-terminal bridge ............ 56

Figure 27 – Basic circuit for the measurement of C using a three-terminal bridge ............. 57

Figure 28 – Basic circuit for the measurement of h and h ......................................... 58

11e 21e

Figure 29 – Basic circuit for the measurement of h ...................................................... 59

12e

Figure 30 – Basic circuit for the measurement of h ...................................................... 61

22e

Figure 31 – Basic circuit for the measurement of h ...................................................... 62

22b

Figure 32 – Basic circuit for the measurement of h ...................................................... 63

21E

Figure 33 – Basic test circuit for measuring the thermal resistance of NPN transistors ......... 66

Figure 34 – Emitter current (I ) versus emitter-base voltage (V ) for the junction

E EB
(1) (2)

temperatures T and T ............................................................................................ 66

j j

Figure 35 – I and V change with time ....................................................................... 67

E EB

Figure 36 – Circuit diagram ........................................................................................... 69

Figure 37 – Switching times ........................................................................................... 70

Figure 38 – Circuit for the measurement of the transition frequency ................................... 71

Figure 39 – Circuit for the measurement of complex common-emitter y parameters ............. 73

Figure 40 – Three-pole circuit for the measurement of y ............................................... 74

11e

Figure 41 – Three-pole circuit for the measurement of y ............................................... 74

22e

Figure 42 – Three-pole circuit for the measurement of y ............................................... 75

21e

Figure 43 – Three-pole circuit for the measurement of y ............................................... 76

12e
Figure 44 – Block diagram of the circuit for the measurement of s and s
11 22

parameters .................................................................................................................. 77

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
60747-7 Ó IEC:2010 – 5 –
Figure 45 – Block diagram of the circuit for the measurement of s and s
12 21

parameters .................................................................................................................. 79

Figure 46 – Basic block diagram for the measurement of the noise figure ........................... 81

Figure 47 – Basic circuit for the measurement of the noise figure up to 3 MHz .................... 83

Figure 48 – Basic circuit for the measurement of the noise figure from 3 MHz to

300 MHz ...................................................................................................................... 84

Figure 49 – Basic circuit for the measurement of the noise figure below 1 kHz (signal

generator method) ........................................................................................................ 86

Figure 50 – Basic circuit for the measurement of h /h ............................................ 88

21E1 21E2

Figure 51 – Matching of the collector current ................................................................... 90

Figure 52 – Circuit diagram for measuring the on-state input voltage V , and off-

I(on)

state input voltage V ............................................................................................... 90

I(off)

Figure 53 – Circuit diagram for measuring the bias resistor r ........................................... 91

Figure 54 – Circuit diagram and measuring the bias resistor r .......................................... 92

Figure 55 – Circuit diagram for measuring the on-state output voltage V ...................... 93

O(on)

Figure 56 – Circuit diagram for measuring the off-sate output current I ........................ 94

O(off)

Figure 57 – Test circuit for high temperature blocking ...................................................... 96

Figure 58 – Circuit for Intermittent operating life .............................................................. 97

Figure 59 – Expected number of cycles versus temperature rise DT ................................. 97

Figure A.1 – Typical DV versus collector-base (V ) characteristics ............................... 99

EB CB

Figure A.2 – Typical safe operating area ....................................................................... 100

Table 1 – Acceptance defining characteristics and acceptance criteria ............................... 35

Table 2 – Acceptance defining characteristics suitable for resistor biased transistor ............ 35

Table 3 – Acceptance defining characteristics after endurance tests for bipolar

transistors ................................................................................................................... 95

Table 4 – Minimum items of type and routine tests for transistors when applicable .............. 98

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – 60747-7 Ó IEC:2010
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
DISCRETE DEVICES –
Part 7: Bipolar transistors
FOREWORD

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indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

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patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60747-7 has been prepared by subcommittee 47E: Discrete

semiconductor devices, of IEC technical committee 47: Semiconductor devices.
This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2000 and
IEC 60747-7-5 published in 2005.
The main changes with respect to previous edition are listed below.
a) Clause 1 was amended by adding an item that should be included.

b) Clauses 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 were amended by adding terms, definitions, suitable additions

and deletions those should be included.
c) The text of the second edition was combined with that of IEC 60747-7-5.
This standard is to be read in conjunction with IEC 60747-1:2006.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
60747-7 Ó IEC:2010 – 7 –
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
47E/404/FDIS 47E/408/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all the parts in the IEC 60747 series, under the general title Semiconductor devices –

Discrete devices, can be found on the IEC website.

Future standards in this series will carry the new general title as cited above. Titles of existing

standards in this series will be updated at the time of the next edition.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
 reconfirmed,
 withdrawn,
 replaced by a revised edition, or
 amended.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – 60747-7 Ó IEC:2010
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
DISCRETE DEVICES –
Part 7: Bipolar transistors
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60747-7 gives the requirements applicable to the following sub-categories of

bipolar transistors excluding microwave transistors.
– Small signal transistors (excluding switching and microwave applications);
– Linear power transistors (excluding switching, high-frequency, and microwave
applications);
– High-frequency power transistors for amplifier and oscillator applications;

– Switching transistors for high speed switching and power switching applications;

– Resistor biased transistors.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition

of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 60050-521:2002, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Part 521: Semiconductor

devices and integrated
...

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