Surface cleaning appliances - Part 5: High pressure cleaners and steam cleaners for household and commercial use - Methods for measuring performance

IEC 62885-5:2018 lists the characteristic performance parameters for high pressure cleaners and steam cleaners in accordance with IEC 60335-2-79.
The intent is to serve the manufacturers in describing parameters that fit in their manuals and in their literature. This can include all or some of the parameters listed in this definition document.

Appareils de nettoyage des surfaces – Partie 5: Appareils de nettoyage à haute pression et appareils de nettoyage à vapeur à usage domestique et commercial – Méthodes de mesure de l'aptitude à la fonction

L’IEC 62885-5:2018 donne la liste des paramètres caractéristiques d'aptitude à la fonction pour les appareils de nettoyage à haute pression et les appareils de nettoyage à vapeur selon l'IEC 60335-2-79.
Elle est destinée aux fabricants pour la description des paramètres qui rentrent dans leurs manuels et leurs documentations. Ces paramètres peuvent inclure tout ou partie des paramètres dont la liste est donnée dans le présent document de définition.

Electromagnetic compatibilty (EMC) – Part 2: Environment – Section 7: Low frequency magnetic fields in various environments

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
28-Aug-2018
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
29-Aug-2018

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IEC 62885-5
Edition 1.0 2018-08
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Surface cleaning appliances –
Part 5: High pressure cleaners and steam cleaners for household and
commercial use – Methods for measuring performance
Appareils de nettoyage des surfaces –
Partie 5: Appareils de nettoyage à haute pression et appareils de nettoyage à
vapeur à usage domestique et commercial – Méthodes de mesure de l'aptitude à
la fonction
IEC 62885-5:2018-08(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62885-5
Edition 1.0 2018-08
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Surface cleaning appliances –
Part 5: High pressure cleaners and steam cleaners for household and
commercial use – Methods for measuring performance
Appareils de nettoyage des surfaces –
Partie 5: Appareils de nettoyage à haute pression et appareils de nettoyage à
vapeur à usage domestique et commercial – Méthodes de mesure de l'aptitude à
la fonction
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 97.080 ISBN 978-2-8322-6239-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62885-5:2018 © IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 5

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 5

4 General conditions for testing .......................................................................................... 5

4.1 Atmospheric conditions ........................................................................................... 5

4.2 Test equipment and materials ................................................................................. 6

4.2.1 Cold and hot water high pressure cleaner ........................................................ 6

4.3 Voltage and frequency ............................................................................................ 6

4.4 Equipment of the high pressure cleaner .................................................................. 6

4.5 Operation of the high pressure cleaner ................................................................... 6

4.6 Number of samples ................................................................................................. 7

5 High pressure cleaner efficiency tests ............................................................................. 7

5.1 Cleaning efficiency of cold-water high pressure cleaners ........................................ 7

5.2 Cleaning efficiency of hot-water high pressure cleaners .......................................... 7

5.3 Efficiency tests of oil-heated high pressure cleaners ............................................... 7

5.3.1 General ........................................................................................................... 7

5.3.2 Thermal exhaust loss of oil fired high pressure cleaner .................................... 7

5.3.3 Determination CO emissions of oil-heated high pressure cleaner ..................... 8

5.3.4 Determination dust emissions of oil-heated high pressure cleaners ................. 9

6 Productivity ................................................................................................................... 10

Annex A (informative) Realistic productivity ......................................................................... 11

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 12

Table 1 – Measurement tolerances for the measuring device .................................................. 8

Table 2 – Measurement tolerances during the measurement ................................................... 8

Table 3 – Definition of the different figures .............................................................................. 9

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62885-5:2018 © IEC 2018 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SURFACE CLEANING APPLIANCES –
Part 5: High pressure cleaners and steam cleaners for household
and commercial use – Methods for measuring performance
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62885-5 has been prepared by subcommittee SC 59F: Surface

cleaning appliances, of IEC technical committee TC 59: Performance of household and similar

electrical appliances.

This bilingual version (2018-11) corresponds to the monolingual English version, published in

2018-08.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
59F/340/CDV 59F/348/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62885-5:2018 © IEC 2018
The French version of this standard has not been voted upon.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 62885 series, published under the general title Surface cleaning

appliances, can be found on the IEC website.
In this standard, the following print types are used:
• terms defined in Clause 3 of IEC 60335-2-79:2016: Arial bold.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62885-5:2018 © IEC 2018 – 5 –
SURFACE CLEANING APPLIANCES –
Part 5: High pressure cleaners and steam cleaners for household
and commercial use – Methods for measuring performance
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62885 lists the characteristic performance parameters for high pressure

cleaners and steam cleaners in accordance with IEC 60335-2-79.

The intent is to serve the manufacturers in describing parameters that fit in their manuals and

in their literature. This can include all or some of the parameters listed in this definition

document.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60335-2-79:2016, Household and similar electrical appliances – Safety – Part 2-79:

Particular requirements for high pressure cleaners and steam cleaners
ISO 22968, Forced draught oil burners
3 Terms and definitions

For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60335-2-79 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
4 General conditions for testing
4.1 Atmospheric conditions

Where required, the test procedures and measurements shall be carried out under the

following conditions:
Standard atmosphere: 23/50
Temperature: (23 ± 2) °C
Relative humidity: (50 ± 5) %
Air pressure: 86 kPa to 106 kPa

NOTE Temperature and humidity conditions within the specified ranges are required for good repeatability and

reproducibility. Care should be taken to avoid changes during a test.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62885-5:2018 © IEC 2018
4.2 Test equipment and materials
4.2.1 Cold and hot water high pressure cleaner

During testing, the machine shall be operated at rated voltage, and shall be used in

accordance with normal operation as defined in IEC 60335-2-79 and with the manufacturer’s

specifications, unless otherwise specified in this clause. The operation shall be stable and

smooth. In particular, the following conditions shall apply:

• The spraying device shall be held without tension, with a downwards angle of 45° ± 5°,

spraying the water jet to the atmosphere without working towards any barrier. Gloves shall

not be used unless required as PPE owing to the manufacturer’s instructions.
• The hand position of the second hand shall be as displayed in Figure DD.5 of
IEC 60335-2-79:2016.

• A pulsation dampener shall not be used, as far as possible. If a pulsation dampener is

unchangeably fixed to the machine, this fact shall be reported.

• The length of the hose line shall be not more than 10 m. If the standard length according

to the manufacturer’s instructions is more than 10 m, the standard hose may be used; in

this case the length shall be reported. The type of the hose line shall be reported.

• The nominal diameter shall be not more than DN 12. If the standard nominal diameter

according to the manufacturer’s instructions is more than DN 12, the standard hose may

be used; in this case the nominal diameter shall be reported.

During measurement, the hose shall lie without interference and in particular without touching

the operator.
4.3 Voltage and frequency

Unless otherwise stated, measurements shall be carried out at rated voltage with a tolerance

of ± 1 % and, if applicable, at rated frequency.

High pressure cleaners designed for DC only shall be operated at DC. High pressure cleaners

designed for both AC and DC shall be operated at AC. High pressure cleaners not marked

with rated frequency shall be operated at either 50 Hz or 60 Hz, as is common in the country

of use.

For high pressure cleaners with a rated voltage range, measurements shall be carried out at

the mean value of the voltage range if the difference between the limits of the range does not

exceed 10 % of the mean value. If the difference exceeds 10 % of the mean value,

measurements shall be carried out both at the upper and lower limits of the voltage range.

If the rated voltage differs from the nominal system voltage of the country concerned,

measurements carried out at rated voltage may give test results misleading for the consumer,

and additional measurements may be required. If the test voltage differs from the rated

voltage, this shall be reported.
4.4 Equipment of the high pressure cleaner

The measurements shall be conducted with the primary trigger gun delivered with the high

pressure cleaner.
4.5 Operation of the high pressure cleaner

The high pressure cleaner and its attachments shall be used and adjusted in accordance with

the manufacturer's instructions for normal operation for the test to be carried out.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62885-5:2018 © IEC 2018 – 7 –
4.6 Number of samples

All measurements of performance shall be carried out on the same sample(s) of the high

pressure cleaner with its attachments, when any. A minimum of three samples of a high

pressure cleaner shall be tested.

Durability tests carried out on the high pressure cleaner may require additional samples. Any

durability tests shall be carried out at the end of the whole test programme.
5 High pressure cleaner efficiency tests
5.1 Cleaning efficiency of cold-water high pressure cleaners
Under consideration.
5.2 Cleaning efficiency of hot-water high pressure cleaners
Under consideration.
5.3 Efficiency tests of oil-heated high pressure cleaners
5.3.1 General

Oil-heated stationary or quasi-stationary high pressure cleaners are special variants of oil

furnaces and, for that reason, have to meet special values for thermal exhaust loss q , CO

emissions, and dust emissions.
5.3.2 Thermal exhaust loss of oil fired high pressure cleaner
Compliance is checked by the following test.

The fuel tank is filled to its maximum level. Detergent tanks are filled to ½ of their maximum

content. The machine has to operate at normal load for 15 min, 30 min, and 45 min, with the

burner at the maximum temperature setting, but the water temperature at the boiler outlet not

exceeding 100 °C. No measurement shall exceed the limits.

The thermal loss q is calculated from the oxygen content in the flue gas, and the temperature

difference between the burner inlet air and the flue gas. The oxygen content and the flue gas

temperature shall be measured simultaneously at the same location. Instead of the oxygen

content, it is also possible to use the carbon dioxide content of the flue gas. The fuel used

shall have a gross calorific value of between 42 500 kJ/kg and 44 800 kJ/kg.

CO sensors shall be of the NDIR (non-dispersive infrared) type, or of the electrochemical

type, with a range of 0 % to 20 % and a measurement uncertainty of maximum 1 %. Oxygen

sensors shall be of the electrochemical or equivalent type, with a range of 0 % to 21 % and a

measurement uncertainty of maximum 1 %.
Using the oxygen measurement, the calculation is as follows:
0,68
q= ()tt−⋅ + 0,007
A AL
21− O
2
or using the carbon dioxide content:
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62885-5:2018 © IEC 2018
 
0,50
q= ()tt−⋅ +0,007
 
A AL
 2 
where
q is the thermal exhaust loss in %;
t is the flue gas temperature in °C, measured in the centre of the exhaust;

is the combustion air inlet temperature in °C, measured at the air intake of the burner;

CO is the volumetric carbon dioxide content in dry flue gas in %;
is the volumetric oxygen content in dry flue gas in %.

In the case where more than one exhaust exists, temperatures and concentrations shall be

averaged.
5.3.3 Determination CO emissions of oil-heated high pressure cleaner

The content of CO shall be determined by a continuous measuring apparatus. In Table 1

gives the measurement tolerances for the measuring device. Table 2 reflects the
measurement tolerances during the measurement.
Table 1 – Measurement tolerances for the measuring device
Pressure sensing equipment ± 1 % from full scale
Temperature measuring equipment ± 1 K
Mass flow measuring device ± 0,5 % from full scale
Length measuring device ± 1 % from full scale
Measuring devices for
CO content ± 0,1 % volume from full scale
O content ± 0,1 % volume from full scale
CO content ± 5 ml/m
Table 2 – Measurement tolerances during the measurement
Length of combustion chamber l ± 3 %
Temperature of air at burner inlet ± 2 K
Combustion chamber pressure during operation ± 5 % or 0,1 mbar
Combustion chamber pressure during start-up ± 10 % or 0,3 mbar
Fuel temperature ± 2,5 K
Fuel throughput ± 2,5 %
Smoke number ± 0,2
CO content ± 0,3 % volume
O content ± 0,3 % volume
CO content ± 10 ml/m

The measurement shall be conducted as stated in ISO 22968. The CO content for an oil

burning installation has to be given in mg/kWh. For the conversion, the definitions in Table 3

and the following equations shall be used:
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62885-5:2018 © IEC 2018 – 9 –
 
A,th,tr,min
CO CO⋅⋅1,25 ⋅ in mg/kWh
 
meas
21− O H
2meas  i 
21− O
2ref
CO CO⋅⋅1,25 in mg/m at O
meas 2ref
21− O
2meas
Table 3 – Definition of the different figures
O is O – measured O – concentration in the gaseous combustion products
2meas 2 2
O is O – reference gas conditions (e.g.: 3 % – O )
2ref 2 2
1.25 is the density of CO in kilograms per cubic metre (kg/m )
H is the net calorific value
V is the theoretical reference volume, dry
A,th,tr,min
reference values:
H 11,86 kWh/kg
V 10,46 m /kg
A,th,tr,min

For calculation, the reference values or the real values of the fuel oil can be used.

5.3.4 Determination dust emissions of oil-heated high pressure cleaners
5.3.4.1 General

The test method described in 5.3.4.2.1 to 5.3.4.2.4 can be applied by means of an electronic

sampling device, provided that the test index, which is being compared by the person

performing the test with the comparison scale, or which is shown as a value by the appliance,

corresponds to the method described in 5.3.4.2.1.

Loosen the paper fixing device, insert the filter paper in the slot provided in the pump and

tighten the device. Place the sampling probe perpendicularly to the flow direction of the

combustion gases. Leak-tightness shall be assured between the probe and the wall of the

pipe in which the sample is taken. Samples may be taken either with a hand pump, or with the

aid of an electromechanical pump.

If a hand pump (as specified in 5.3.4.2.1) is used, carry out ten suction actions; each suction

action shall be regular and last between 2 s and 3 s. Withdraw the tube from the gas duct,

unscrew the fixing device and carefully take out the filter paper.
5.3.4.2 Apparatus
5.3.4.2.1 Pump

Pump (manual), capable of drawing a volume of 160 (1 ± 5 %) cm through an effective

filtering surface of 6 mm in diameter in a single action of the pump (i.e. approximately

3 2

570 (1 ± 5 %) cm per cm of effective filtering surface); the piston stroke of the pump shall

be approximately 200 mm. The tightening of the paper fixing device, carried out with the

paper placed in the recess provided, shall give sufficient water-tightness to prevent the

formation of condensate and heating during the first operation of the pump.

The distance travelled by the gases from the sampling point to the filtering surface shall not

exceed 40 cm, except in the case of special flue gas duct conditions, to be indicated in the

test report.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 62885-5:2018 © IEC 2018
5.3.4.2.2 Sampling tube
Sampling tube, with an internal diameter of 6 mm.
5.3.4.2.3 Filter paper

Filter paper, with a reflection factor of (85 ± 2,5) % determined photometrically. For this, the

filter paper shall be placed on a white surface of reflection factor 75 % or more.

3 2

The passage of air through the filter paper, at a rate of 3 dm /cm /min, shall give a pressure

drop of between 2 kPa and 10 kPa (20 mbar and 100 mbar).
5.3.4.2.4 Smoke number scale

Smoke number scale, comprising ten printed grades spaced at regular intervals from white to

dark grey, consisting of a white material with a reflection factor of (85 ± 2,5) %. The reflection

of the first sample corresponds to that of the background paper and refers to smoke number 0.

The identification number of each of the following grades is equal to a tenth of the reduction

rate, expressed in a percentage of the reflection of incident light on the corresponding sample.

Number 6, for example, corresponds to a reduction rate of 60 %. The tolerance for the

deviations in reflection factor for each of the points of the scale shall not exceed 3 % of its

value.
6 Productivity
Under consideration.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 62885-5:2018 © IEC 2018 – 11 –
Annex A
(informative)
Realistic productivity
Under consideration.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC 62885-5:2018 © IEC 2018
Bibliography

IEC 60335-1, Household and similar electrical appliances – Safety – Part 1: General

requirements
ISO 554, Standard atmospheres for conditioning and/or testing – Specifications
___________
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
– 14 – IEC 62885-5:2018 © IEC 2018
SOMMAIRE

AVANT-PROPOS .................................................................................................................. 15

1 Domaine d'application ................................................................................................... 17

2 Références normatives .................................................................................................. 17

3 Termes et définitions ..................................................................................................... 17

4 Conditions générales d’essais ....................................................................................... 17

4.1 Conditions atmosphériques ................................................................................... 17

4.2 Equipement et matériaux d’essai .......................................................................... 18

4.2.1 Appareils de nettoyage à haute pression à eau chaude et à eau froide .......... 18

4.3 Tension et fréquence .............................
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST IEC/TR 61000-2-7:1999
01-april-1999
Electromagnetic compatibilty (EMC) – Part 2: Environment – Section 7: Low
frequency magnetic fields in various environments

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 2: Environment - Section 7: Low frequency

magnetic fields in various environments

Compatibilité électromagntique (CEM) - Partie 2: Environnement - Section 7: Champs

magnétiques basse fréquence en environnements divers
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: IEC/TR 61000-2-7
ICS:
33.100.99 Drugi vidiki v zvezi z EMC Other aspects related to
EMC
SIST IEC/TR 61000-2-7:1999 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST IEC/TR 61000-2-7:1999
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST IEC/TR 61000-2-7:1999
RAPPORT
CEI
TECHNIQUE – TYPE 3
IEC
61000-2-7
TECHNICAL
Première édition
REPORT – TYPE 3
First edition
1998-01
Compatibilité électromagnétique (CEM) –
Partie 2:
Environnement –
Section 7: Champs magnétiques basse fréquence
en environnements divers
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) –
Part 2:
Environment –
Section 7: Low frequency magnetic fields
in various environments
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CONTENTS
Page

FOREWORD ................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. 9

Clause

1 Scope....................................................................................................................... 11

2 Normative reference................................................................................................. 11

3 Units....................................................................................................................... 11

4 Natural phenomena.................................................................................................. 13

5 Power supply system environments – Power frequency magnetic fields ..................... 21

5.1 Overhead lines................................................................................................ 21

5.1.1 AC, three-phase lines ........................................................................... 21

5.1.2 HVDC lines........................................................................................... 29

5.2 Underground cables......................................................................................... 31

5.2.1 Single-conductor cables........................................................................ 31

5.2.2 Multi-conductor cables .......................................................................... 35

5.3 Power supply authorities' medium and high voltage premises ........................... 37

5.4 Power supply authorities' low voltage premises ................................................ 41

6 Traction system environment .................................................................................... 43

7 Industrial environment............................................................................................... 47

7.1 Welding equipment.......................................................................................... 47

7.2 Steel furnaces................................................................................................. 49

7.3 Industrial equipment in general use.................................................................. 51

8 Commercial office environment ................................................................................. 53

9 Residential environment – Household appliances ...................................................... 55

9.1 Internal wiring in residential buildings............................................................... 55

9.2 Residential appliances..................................................................................... 57

10 Hospital environment................................................................................................ 61

10.1 General........................................................................................................... 61

10.2 Treatment of patients....................................................................................... 61

10.3 Ward areas ..................................................................................................... 63

11 Summary and comparisons of the magnetic fields produced by various sources ........ 63

12 Bibliography.............................................................................................................. 69

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INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
___________
ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC) –
Part 2: Environment –
Section 7: Low frequency magnetic fields
in various environments
FOREWORD

1) The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of the IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, the IEC publishes International Standards. Their preparation is

entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with may

participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. The IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization

for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two

organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of the IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an

international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation

from all interested National Committees.

3) The documents produced have the form of recommendations for international use and are published in the form

of standards, technical reports or guides and they are accepted by the National Committees in that sense.

4) In order to promote international unification, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC International

Standards transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional standards. Any

divergence between the IEC Standard and the corresponding national or regional standard shall be clearly

indicated in the latter.

5) The IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with one of its standards.

6) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject

of patent rights. The IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. In

exceptional circumstances, a technical committee may propose the publication of a technical

report of one of the following types:
• type 1, when the required support cannot be obtained for the publication of an
International Standard, despite repeated efforts;

• type 2, when the subject is still under technical development or where for any other

reason there is the future but no immediate possibility of an agreement on an International

Standard;

• type 3, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from that

which is normally published as an International Standard, for example "state of the art".

Technical reports of types 1 and 2 are subject to review within three years of publication to

decide whether they can be transformed into International Standards. Technical reports of

type 3 do not necessarily have to be reviewed until the data they provide are considered to be

no longer valid or useful.

IEC 61000-2-7, which is a technical report of type 3, has been prepared by subcommittee 77A:

Low frequency phenomena, of IEC technical committee 77: Electromagnetic Compatibility.

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The text of this technical report is based on the following documents:
Committee draft Report on voting
77A/134/CDV 77A/151A/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this technical report can be found in the report

on voting indicated in the above table.

This document is issued in the type 3 technical report series of publications (according to

G.3.2.3 of part 1 of the IEC/ISO Directives) as a purely informative document.
This document is not to be regarded as an International Standard.
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INTRODUCTION
IEC 61000 is published in separate parts according to the following structure:
Part 1: General
General considerations (introduction, fundamental principles)
Definitions, terminology
Part 2: Environment
Description of the environment
Classification of the environment
Compatibility levels
Part 3: Limits
Emission limits
Immunity limits (in so far as they do not fall under responsibility of product
committees)
Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques
Measurement techniques
Testing techniques
Part 5: Installation and mitigation guidelines
Installation guidelines
Mitigation methods and devices
Part 6: Generic standards
Part 9: Miscellaneous

Each part is further subdivided into sections which are to be published either as International

Standards or as technical reports.

These standards and reports will be published in chronological order and numbered

accordingly.
This section is a technical report of type 3.
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ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC) –
Part 2: Environment –
Section 7: Low frequency magnetic fields
in various environments
1 Scope

Interest in magnetic fields has been stimulated in recent years by concern over the

physiological effects they may have on humans and animals and the deleterious effects they

have on the performance of some electrical equipment, particularly video display units.

Investigations have yielded results which are presented in this report as reference values.

Note 1 – The European Union EMC Directive has prompted magnetic field measurements, particularly in respect of

the commercial office environments associated with supply authority substations and electrical distribution systems

within buildings. Supply authorities have sponsored most of the work and the results are generally within the

frequency range of 50 Hz to 2 kHz, and presented as r.m.s. values. There is, however, a need to have some

knowledge about d.c. fields and the fields up to 150 kHz as they may interfere with some types of equipment.

Note 2 – Most of the magnetic field data in this report is associated with sinusoidal current sources and r.m.s.

values may be assumed unless otherwise stated.

Power supply systems operating at voltages less than or equal to 1 000 V are designated low-voltage, those above

1 000 V and up to 35 kV are designated medium-voltage, and those in excess of 35 kV are designated high-voltage.

2 Normative reference

The following normative document contains provisions which, through reference in this text,

constitute provisions of this technical report. At the time of publication, the edition indicated

was valid. All normative documents are subject to revision, and parties to agreements based

on this technical report are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent

edition of the normative document indicated below. Members of IEC and ISO maintain registers

of currently valid International Standards.

IEC 60050(161):1990, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Chapter 161: Electro-

magnetic compatibility.
3 Units

Magnetic field values in this report are either expressed in field strengths of amperes per

metre, A/m, or in flux densities of microtesla, μT. Where the older flux density unit of

milligauss, mG, has appeared in reference documents it has been converted to μT by the

following relationship:
1 μT = 10 mG ≈ 0,796 A/m
The following units are applied in the present report:
Magnetic field strength: H in A/m
Magnetic flux density: B = μ × H in T (Tesla)
whereby the permeability μ =μ × μ and μ = 1,256⋅10 (Wb/Am)
r 0 0
in air the relative permeability μ = 1 and B (μT) = 1,256 H (A/m)
4 –9
NOTE – 1 T = 1 Wb/m = 10 G and B = 1,256·10 G (in air)
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Example: Magnetic field of a single conductor

The relationship between the magnetic field strength and magnetic induction at a distance d

from a single conductor carrying a current I is given by the following expressions:

H = (A/m)
2πd
B = 1,256 (μT)
2dπ
IEC 1 527/97

An alternating current produces an alternating magnetic field, and in the case of a multi-phase

cable or overhead line, the alternating magnetic field rotates as it results from the vector sum

of the fields produced by individual phase currents.

An alternating magnetic field will induce an electromotive force in any electrical conductor to

which it is exposed. This effect is utilised by meters which have search coils. Such meters are

in common use.

Other types of meter used for low frequency measurements utilise the Hall effect. These

meters are not so good for measuring the fields from environmental sources, but they are very

useful when measuring points in space and static magnetic fields.
4 Natural phenomena
Three kinds of natural magnetic fields have to be considered:
– the earth’s magnetic field (a static field);

– magnetic fields produced by thunderstorms and solar activity (time-varying with very low

frequencies);
– magnetic fields caused by lightning strokes (pulses).

The first measurements and use of magnetic fields related to navigation and intense study of

the earth's magnetic fields has resulted in the production of field maps, an example of which is

given in figure 1 [1] . All unscreened conductors moving in the earth's magnetic field will

generate a voltage across their ends of a magnitude related to the speed and direction of

movement. Such voltage may disturb sensitive electronic devices in associated circuits. Static

electrical equipment is not normally affected by the earth's field.
___________
Figures in square brackets refer to the bibliography.
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The earth's static magnetic field is nearly always present as a steady state background reading

at 0 Hz to site measurements. Near the poles flux densities are as high as 60 μT whilst at the

equator they are only 30 μT.

A normal value assumed for the purpose of calculations is 50 μT [1]. See figure 1.

IEC 1 528/97
Figure 1 – The earth's total magnetic field at the surface in μT

Natural phenomena, such as thunderstorms and solar activity, produce time-varying magnetic

fields in the extra-low-frequency range. Such fields are generally of low strength, up to 0,01 μT

(8 mA/m), although during intense magnetic storms, they can reach intensities of about 0,5 μT

(0,4 A/m).

Very little data is available regarding the number of lightning strokes that a particular location

may receive in a year. However the ceraunic map in figure 2 [2] does indicate the level of

activity and the probability of the highest fields being achieved.
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IEC 1 529/97
Figure 2 – Map showing thunderstorm days per year throughout the world

NOTE – This map is based on information of the World Meteorological Organization for 1955.

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Probability
99,99
99,95
99,9
99,8
99,5
Positive strokes
Negative strokes
0,5
0,2
0,1
0,05
0,02

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 100 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 000

Lightning stroke current in kA
IEC 1 530/97
Figure 3 – Cumulative frequency of lightning current from IEC 61024-1-1

The following reference values for the cumulative frequency of lightning current (see figure 3):

Negative stroke Positive stroke
5 % 80 kA 250 kA
50 % 33 kA 35 kA
95 % 7 kA 5 kA

The lightning stroke creates magnetic field pulses with a rise time of about 1 μs and a mid-

magnetic duration of about 100 μs.
The resulting magnetic field can be calculated according to the relationship:
H = e.g. with I = 200 kA and d = 1 km: H = 32 A/m and B = 40 μT
peak
2πd
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5 Power supply system environments – Power frequency magnetic fields

Magnetic field values relevant to power supply systems are dependent on the load current at

the time measurements are taken, the system voltage, which determines the clearances of

overhead line conductors to ground, and the depth and construction of underground cables.

Wherever possible, the values stated in this section have been referenced to the system

voltage and maximum load conditions, or expressed in terms per kiloampere, kA, of conductor

current.
5.1 Overhead lines

Magnetic fields produced by current flowing through electricity distribution overhead lines are

influenced principally by the magnitude of the current, the electrical phase configuration and

the physical configuration of the conductors. The voltage at which a power line operates is

significant because it determines the height of conductors above ground and also the phase

separation between conductors and to earthed metal used for construction purposes.

There are so many system voltages, conductor current ratings and construction standards in

use throughout the world that magnetic field data cannot be provided for every particular type

of installation. However, the typical installations and magnetic field characteristics that are

defined in the following text are good models on which to base predictions of fields for other

particular installations.

If detailed values of flux density for particular lines are required, it would be necessary to

consider the conditions of the individual lines such as wire configurations, height above ground

and line current. The following approximate formula applies:
H = 140 in A/m for 1 kA
hx+
where:
e is the distance between external conductors;
h is the height above ground;
x is the distance from central conductor to the
point P to be considered.
IEC 1 531/97
5.1.1 AC, three-phase lines

As the flux densities associated with power lines are linearly related to line current it is easy to

deduce values for particular values of current. The maximum line currents under normal

operating conditions are approximately as follows:
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– low voltage lines 0,4 kA
– medium voltage lines 0,6 kA
– 110 kV and 220 kV lines 1,0 kA
– 380 kV lines 2,0 kA
– 750 kV lines 3,0 kA

If necessary, more accurate current values may be obtained from supply utilities and railway

companies. However, under fault conditions such as single phase or double phase short

circuits, the magnetic fields of three conductors are not balanced, and the magnetic field may

be increased by a factor of 20; such conditions may be expected to endure for a few seconds

for low and medium voltage networks and for less than 0,2 seconds for high voltage networks.

Figure 4, left side, shows the envelope of the profile of the maximum magnetic flux density per

kA of line current, for high voltage, single three-phase transmission lines, at mid-span at a

distance x from the centre of the conductor system, and at a height of 1 m from ground level

based on VDE data [3].

Figure 4, right side, shows the envelope of the profile of the magnetic flux density per kA of line

current for medium and low voltage single three-phase distribution lines operating at 20 and

0,4 kV respectively, at a distance x from the centre of the conductor system at mid-span, and

at a height of 1 m from ground level based on VDE data [3].
It can be observed that the profile curves:

– are lower at higher voltages because of the higher levels of the conductors above ground,

– and become broader at higher voltages because of the increasing distance between the

conductors.

The actual magnetic flux density depends on the line current. Referring to the envelope profiles

in figure 4 and to the maximum line currents given above, the range of the actual maximum

magnetic flux is summarized in table 1; it indicates a range of 3 μT to 44 μT.

The magnetic flux profile depends also on the line configuration. Figure 5 [4] shows practical

examples of actual high voltage lines (with an “oscillation” of the maximum value).

The 765 kV and 400 kV lines have a flat configuration of three phases and the 132 kV and

220 kV lines have a trifoil configuration. The latter configuration leads to significantly lower

magnetic field values.

Figure 6 [3] shows the dependence of the magnetic flux density on the height above ground at

mid-span of the lines considered in figure 4. It may be used to deduce the magnetic flux

density at heights above ground in excess of 1 m by application of the values given in figure 4.

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Transmission lines Distribution lines
B μT
110 kV - 380 kV 35
0,4 kV - 20 kV
110 kV 30
(6 m)
220 kV
(7 m)
380 kV
(8 m)
20 kV
0,4 kV

m 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 m

Distance from the centre of the line
IEC 1 532/97

Figure 4 – Envelope of the maximum magnetic flux of single circuit, flat configuration overhead

lines measured horizontally from the centre of the line 1 m above ground level
at minimum ground clearances at mid-span
Table 1 – Range of magnitude of the maximum magnetic flux density
produced by power lines
Line voltage Maximum flux per kA Maximum current Maximum actual
magnetic flux
kV B μT kA B μT
380 22 2 44
220 25 1 25
110 30 1 30
20 20 0,6 12
0,4 7 0,4 3
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Magnetic flux density μT

132 kV 220 kV 400 kV 765 kV

375 A 1 000 A 1 500 A 2 100 A

765 kV
400 kV
220 kV
132 kV

-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40

Distance from centre of line (metres)
IEC 1 533/97
Figure 5 – Examples of magnetic flux densities, 1 m above ground,
associated with HV lines under average load conditions
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240
400 V
220
20 kV
200
110 kV
Magnetic flux
density B Factor (%)
180
220 kV
160
140
380 kV
120
100

1 1,5 2 2,5 3

Height above ground 'h' (m)
IEC 1 534/97

Figure 6 – Dependence of the magnetic flux density on the height above ground up to the

minimum permitted distance from 400 V to 380 kV three-phase lines and 20 kV railway contact

wires at minimum ground clearances in mid-span referred to the maximum magnetic flux density

at 1 m above ground and valid only for flat configuration of phase conductors
5.1.2 HVDC lines

Figure 7 [3] gives magnetic flux density characteristics of typical high-voltage d.c. overhead

lines and figure 6 [3] gives the multiplying factors in terms of percentage for reference points at

height h m above ground level. All the d.c. characteristics are used in the same manner as the

a.c. line characteristics.
Earth wire
Earth wire
+ -
16,20 m
h in metres
Line measurement
Line measurement
Magnetic flux
density B
Bipolar HVDC line
Monopolar HVDC line
μT/kA

-50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 (m)

Distance
IEC 1 535/97

Figure 7 – Curve of the magnetic flux density per kA operating current in the vicinity

of a high-voltage d.c. overhead line with an operating voltage of +450 kV or ±450 kV

at a point 1 m above the ground
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Table 2 – Magnetic flux density in μT per kA operating current of high-voltage overhead lines

at various line voltages and tower heights
Monopolar line Bipolar line
Voltage Height Max. Distance Distance Max. Distance Distance
kV m
–10 m –20 m ±10 m ±20 m
250 23 31 25 13 31 15 5
450 30 25 23 14 25 19 8
600 30 21 21 10 21 18 9
5.2 Underground cables
5.2.1 Single-conductor cables

Table 3 gives typical environment flux densities for locations associated with supply networks

having single-conductor cable systems.
Table 3 – Typical magnetic flux density in μT, associated
with supply network single-conductor cable systems
Horizontal distance from installation
Supply network 0 m 10 m 20 m 30 m
240/415 V house supplies 1,3 0,3
Less than 0,1 μT
66 kV distribution supply 2,1 0,7 0,3 0,1
220 kV cable 15,0 0,6 0,2 Less than 0,1
220 kV overhead double circuit 5,0 1,2 0,2 Less than 0,1

For the flat configuration shown in figure 8, and for different depths (h) and spacings (a)

between the individual cables, without taking account of the screening effect on the cable

sheaths, the magnetic flux densities shown in table 4 are representative of typical values

associated with an operating current of 500 A per phase. The reference point x = 0 m, from

which location distances are measured, is assigned to the centre cable.
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+ x
- x
IEC 1 536/97
Figure 8 – Configuration of single-conductor cables laid in flat formation

Similar fields to those defined in this section occur in the vicinity of low-voltage flat

configuration cables connected to medium voltage transformers installed within buildings, and

main distribution cables forming part of consumers' electrical installations.

Figure 9 [3] gives a qualitative curve of magnetic flux densities on the basis of values in

table 4, line 5, and demonstrates the reductions achieved by laying cables at greater depth and

reduced spacing.
200
180
160
140
2 = 0,7 mh
Magnetic flux
120
density B
100
1 = 1,0 mh
3 = 1,7 mh

10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10

- Distance (metres) +x x
IEC 1 537/97

Figure 9 – Comparison of magnetic flux density characteristics of single core cables laid at

depths of 0,7 m (curve 2), 1,7 m (curve 3), with a cable laid at a depth of 1 m (curve 1)

Magnetic flux densities are expressed as a percentage of the maximum value associated with

curve 1. The cable configuration is as figure 9 with dimensions corresponding to table 4, line 5.

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Table 4 – Magnetic flux densities of three-phase systems with single-conductor cables

in flat configuration at operating currents of 500 A (figure 8 refers)
Cable Depth Spacing between Magnetic flux density
h μT
diameter the individual
conductor cables
at distance +x or –x from the centre of the cable
mm m
024 68 10
1 0,02 8,6 1,7 0,5 0,2 0,1 0,09
0,03 0,7 0,02 17,6 1,9 0,5 0,2 0,1 0,09
(LV 1 0,05 13,8 2,8 0,8 0,4 0,2 0,1
MV) 0,7 0,05 28 3,1 0,8 0,4 0,2 0,1
1* 0,07* 17,2 3,5 1 0,5 0,3 0,2
0,7 0,07 34,7 3,9 1,1 0,5 0,3 0,2
0,1 1,7 0,18 17,5 7,6 2,8 1,3 0,8 0,5
(HV) 1 0,18 48,5 10,5 3,1 1,4 0,8 0,5
* See figure 9.

The magnetic flux densities can be converted on a linear basis for other operating currents.

With bundled single-conductor cables in a triangular configuration, the magnetic flux densities

are approximately the same as multi-conductor cables with three-phase conductors.

5.2.2 Multi-conductor cables
Tables 5 and 6 [3] contain magnetic flux densi
...

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