Internet of Things (IoT) - Industrial IoT

ISO/IEC TR 30166:2020 (E) describes the following:
• general Industrial IoT (IIoT) systems and landscapes which outline characteristics, technical aspects and functional as well as non-functional elements of the IIoT structure and a listing of standardizing organisations, consortia and open-source communities with work on all aspects on IIoT;
• considerations for the future standardization perspective of IIoT including risk analysis, new technologies and identified collaboration

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
28-Apr-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
29-Apr-2020
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ISO/IEC TR 30166
Edition 1.0 2020-04
TECHNICAL
REPORT
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Internet of things (IoT) – Industrial IoT
ISO/IEC TR 30166:2020-04(en)
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ISO/IEC TR 30166
Edition 1.0 2020-04
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Internet of things (IoT) – Industrial IoT
INTERNATIONAL
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– 2 – ISO/IEC TR 30166:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 10

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 10

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 10

4 Abbreviated terms ......................................................................................................... 10

5 IIoT systems and landscape, see [1] .............................................................................. 12

5.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 12

5.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 12

5.1.2 Architecture ................................................................................................... 15

5.1.3 Implementation of IIoT systems ..................................................................... 15

5.1.4 IIoT use case implementations ...................................................................... 16

5.1.5 Edge (fog) computing in IIoT, see [2] ............................................................. 16

5.1.6 Interoperability and conformance ................................................................... 16

5.1.7 IIoT characteristics trustworthiness ................................................................ 17

5.1.8 Wearables in IIoT .......................................................................................... 18

5.1.9 Cross-cutting activities on IIoT ....................................................................... 18

5.2 Analysis consideration on IIoT landscape of systems ............................................ 19

5.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 19

5.2.2 IIoT systems and architecture ........................................................................ 19

5.2.3 IIoT application (virtual/physical use case) .................................................... 22

5.2.4 IIoT connectivity ............................................................................................ 23

5.2.5 IIoT interoperability focus .............................................................................. 23

5.2.6 The IIoT user, see [20] .................................................................................. 23

5.2.7 IIoT migration strategies, see [29] .................................................................. 24

5.3 General definition of IIoT and smart manufacturing (SM) ....................................... 25

5.3.1 Definition of IIoT ............................................................................................ 25

5.3.2 Cyber physical systems differentiation in the IIoT .......................................... 26

5.3.3 Industrial Internet to CPPS and CPS definition .............................................. 26

5.3.4 Smart Manufacturing differentiation vs. IIoT ................................................... 26

5.3.5 Verticals of IoT market ................................................................................... 26

5.4 Smart Manufacturing and IIoT ............................................................................... 28

5.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 28

5.4.2 The IIoT high-level view ................................................................................. 28

5.4.3 Industrial products/services life cycle – in IIoT/Smart Manufacturing .............. 30

5.4.4 Industrial manufacturing/automation through (IT/OT) standardization –

CPPS ............................................................................................................ 30

5.5 Collaboration considerations on an IIoT reference architecture for

standardization (use case driven) ......................................................................... 31

5.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 31

5.5.2 General comparison of RAs and models on IIoT, see [37] .............................. 31

5.5.3 IIoT systems characteristics: connectivity and communication aspects .......... 31

5.5.4 IIoT semantic aspects: IIoT characteristics .................................................... 32

5.5.5 Data scale in IIoT .......................................................................................... 37

5.5.6 Runtime integration of IIoT ............................................................................ 37

5.5.7 Edge computing in IIoT .................................................................................. 37

5.5.8 The endpoint – considerations on IIoT ........................................................... 37

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ISO/IEC TR 30166:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020 – 3 –

5.5.9 “Dependability” for IIoT systems (IEC TC 56) ................................................. 38

6 Considerations for future standardization of IIoT ............................................................ 38

6.1 Main findings by this document on IIoT standardization ........................................ 38

6.2 Risk for standards development on IIoT ................................................................ 39

6.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 39

6.2.2 Avoiding work duplication on IIoT standards development – across

SDOs ............................................................................................................. 39

6.2.3 Important to IIoT: "semantics above syntax", see [55] .................................... 39

6.2.4 Standards for handling the “ownership of data” in IIoT, see [56] .................... 39

6.2.5 Vocabulary definitions – issues to IIoT ........................................................... 40

6.3 Perspective to development of standards for IIoT .................................................. 40

6.3.1 "Digital twins" – as a generic concept in IIoT ................................................. 40

6.3.2 (AI) Artificial Intelligence to be used by IIoT (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 42) .............. 41

6.3.3 Federation of cloud in/between IIoT systems (DIN SPEC 92222) ................... 42

6.3.4 Future standardization on: “microservices and micro-applications in IIoT”

see [40] ......................................................................................................... 42

6.3.5 “Blockchain technology” – future standardization in IIoT ................................ 42

6.3.6 “Wearables” (in IIoT) ...................................................................................... 43

6.3.7 Compatibility requirements and model – for devices – within IIoT

systems ......................................................................................................... 43

6.4 Roadmap perspective analysis for future standardization work for IIoT ................. 45

6.4.1 Future standardization work for IIoT as a vertical domain of the IoT .............. 45

6.4.2 ISO/IEC collaboration in relation to IIoT ......................................................... 47

Annex A (informative) Listing of all SDOs, non-SDOs, consortia, FOSS (free open

source systems) in context of the IIoT mentioned in this document ................................ 50

A.1 SDOs recognized/identified as of interest to IIoT and also in relation to

Clause 5 on standardization landscape in IIoT ...................................................... 50

A.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 50

A.1.2 3GPP 3 Generation Partnership Project ...................................................... 50

A.1.3 ETSI (European Telecommunication Standards Institute) .............................. 51

A.1.4 IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) ................................. 51

A.1.5 ISO/IEC ......................................................................................................... 52

A.2 IIoT related initiatives/engagements by national standardization bodies ................ 61

A.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 61

A.2.2 Sweden – LISA .............................................................................................. 61

A.2.3 France – “Usine du Futur”, see [67] ............................................................... 62

A.2.4 Germany – Industrie 4.0, see [68] .................................................................. 63

A.2.5 Korea – “Korea – Manufacturing Industry Innovation 3.0 strategy”, ................ 63

A.2.6 China – Industrial Initiatives (Standards Development) .................................. 64

A.2.7 Japan (RRI and IVI) ....................................................................................... 65

A.2.8 USA – CPS/CPPS/IIoT Standards Initiatives .................................................. 67

A.2.9 IIoT activities by EC EU ................................................................................. 69

A.3 Industrial consortia recognized/identified as being of interest on working

about the IIoT ....................................................................................................... 69

A.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 69

A.3.2 Alliance of Industrial Internet: “Chinese Model of Smart Manufacturing

in context of program China Manufacturing 2025” [70] ................................... 70

A.3.3 5G-ACIA in IIoT, and Smart Manufacturing .................................................... 70

A.3.4 China Edge Computing Consortium ECC ....................................................... 71

A.3.5 DMG (Data Mining Group) ............................................................................. 71

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– 4 – ISO/IEC TR 30166:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020

A.3.6 eCl@ss .......................................................................................................... 71

A.3.7 IIC (Industrial Internet Consortium) ................................................................ 73

A.3.8 International Data Spaces .............................................................................. 73

A.3.9 Industrial Value Chain Initiative (IVI) .............................................................. 73

A.3.10 ISA (International Society of Automation) ...................................................... 74

A.3.11 oneM2M – also linked to ETSI above ............................................................. 74

A.3.12 OPC Foundation ............................................................................................ 74

A.3.13 Automation ML .............................................................................................. 75

A.3.14 OMAC (Organization for Machine Automation and Control), see [71] ............. 75

A.3.15 IIoT Semantic: WiSE-IoT (Worldwide interoperability for semantics IoT),

see [72] ......................................................................................................... 75

A.4 RFC-based standards development recognized as being of interest to IIoT ........... 76

A.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 76

A.4.2 IETF/IRTF on IT Section related standards development also in IIoT ............. 76

A.4.3 OASIS – Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information

Standards ...................................................................................................... 77

A.4.4 OCF (Open Connectivity Foundation) ............................................................ 77

A.4.5 ODVA – Open DeviceNet Vendors Association .............................................. 78

A.4.6 OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) .............................................................. 78

A.4.7 OMG (Object Management Group) ................................................................. 79

A.4.8 OpenFog Consortium – former, now part of IIC .............................................. 80

A.4.9 The Open Group ............................................................................................ 80

A.4.10 Project Haystack – IIoT Semantic .................................................................. 81

A.4.11 W3C – World Wide Web Consortium .............................................................. 81

A.5 Consortial work on standardization by reference ................................................... 82

A.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 82

A.5.2 IIRA (by IIC) .................................................................................................. 82

A.5.3 Bluetooth SIG ................................................................................................ 83

A.5.4 IO-Link – on Wireless Industrial RealTime Communication ............................ 83

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 85

Figure 1 – Six typical features of IIoT ...................................................................................... 8

Figure 2 – IIoT mapping landscape description for SDO and non-SDO, consortia,

FOSS .................................................................................................................................... 14

Figure 3 – Trustworthiness functional components as identified in ISO/IEC 30141:2018 ....... 18

Figure 4 – Migration approach towards IIoT systems ............................................................ 25

Figure 5 – IoT SDOs and alliances landscape (vertical and horizontal domains) ................... 27

Figure 6 – Layout of the overall view on IIoT in the SC 41 context – the IoT bird’s eye

view in ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 41, see [34]. ................................................................................ 29

Figure 7 – Diagram showing that the IIoT is part of the IoT applications domain (bird’s

eye view), see [35] ................................................................................................................ 30

Figure 8 – IIoT connectivity stack from IICF, see [38] ............................................................ 32

Figure 9 – The semiotic triangle ............................................................................................ 33

Figure 10 – Semantics in IIoT meaning context, i.e. sensing ................................................. 36

Figure A.1 – Structure of IEC TC 65 and ISO/TC 184 JWG 21 .............................................. 58

Figure A.2 – ISO/IEC Taskforce Standards Map Smart Manufacturing .................................. 59

Figure A.3 – KOSF logo ........................................................................................................ 64

Figure A.4 – Link reference on Chinese GB/T standards vs. OPC/UA ................................... 65

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ISO/IEC TR 30166:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020 – 5 –

Figure A.5 – Robot Revolution & Industrial IoT Initiative ....................................................... 66

Figure A.6 – RRI and cooperative relationship ...................................................................... 66

Figure A.7 – Industrial Value Chain Initiative (IVI) ................................................................. 67

Figure A.8 – NIST logo ......................................................................................................... 68

Figure A.9 – eCl@ss in Context to other SDO’s and institutions ............................................ 72

Figure A.10 – Activities in the BIM domain: ........................................................................... 72

Figure A.11 – Overview of the W3C WoT Building Blocks ..................................................... 82

Table A.1 – List of protocol for IIoT / SM use case by NC China ........................................... 64

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– 6 – ISO/IEC TR 30166:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020
INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) – INDUSTRIAL IoT
FOREWORD

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Standard, for example "state of the art".

ISO/IEC TR 30166, which is a Technical Report, has been prepared by subcommittee 41:

Internet of Things and related technologies, of ISO/IEC joint technical committee 1:

Information technology.
The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
Enquiry draft Report on voting
JTC1-SC41/95/DTR JTC1-SC41/113/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for the approval of this Technical Report can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

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ISO/IEC TR 30166:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

The IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things) is an identified vertical of the IoT, as seen throughout

this document in general.

It consists of Industrial (electronic) communication-capable electronic systems and devices,

which can be recognized as the integration base, to allow seamless communication, data

processing, data access and data exchange in regard to sensors (sensing), auto-ID

(automatic (global, unique) identification), and actors (acting, steering).

This is connected based upon a homogeneous as well as heterogeneous – mostly, but not

exclusively, IP based – networking structure, capable of being able to interact seamlessly, in

a flat, mesh or hierarchical architecture.

This document is intended for those users who want to get a large-scale informative overview

of the current standardization activities and standardization landscape of SDOs, consortia and

open-source communities in the field of IIoT.

Therefore, it is primarily intended for standardization managers, system architects, OT and IT

specialists with a substantial understanding of technical language in the context of discrete

manufacturing and/or process industries and with a focus on future global advanced smart

industries.

It lists also national and cooperative initiatives in regard to IIoT and the partly touching field of

Smart Manufacturing – with at least distinct working activities on IIoT in terms of their

capabilities and individual working scope. It also lists the identified ones in Annex A.

First of all, a definition is used based upon work by CESI in the whitepaper on IIoT from the

China NC in 2017:
"IIoT is a new industrial ecosystem of service driven built based on the network
interconnection, data interoperability and system interoperability of industrial

resources, to realize the flexible configuration of the manufacturing materials, the on-

demand execution of the manufacturing process, the rational optimization of the
manufacturing process and the rapid adaptation of the manufacturing environment,
and to achieve the efficient utilization of the resources.

IIoT shows six typical features: intelligent perception, ubiquitous connectivity, precise

control, digital modelling, real-time analysis and iterative optimization. (See Figure 1.)

Intelligent perception. It is the base of IIoT. The massive data generated from
industrial production, logistics, sales and other industrial chain links are the

information data of different dimensions in the industrial life cycle obtained by IIoT in

such perceptual means as the sensor and RFID, including: State information about
industrial resources, such as personnel, machines, raw materials, processes and
environment.

Ubiquitous connectivity. It is the precondition of IIoT. Industrial resources are

connected or linked to the Internet through wired or wireless ways, forming a

convenient and efficient information channel for IIoT and realizing interconnection and

intercommunication of industrial resource data, and the breadth and depth of the
connection between machines and machines, machines and people, machines and the
environment are expanded.

Digital modelling. It is the method of IIoT. Digital modelling maps industrial resources

into digital space, and simulates industrial production processes in a virtual world,

which can realize the abstract modelling of all elements in industrial production

process by virtue of the powerful information processing ability in digital space and

provide effective decision-making for the operation of industrial chain of IIoT entities.

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– 8 – ISO/IEC TR 30166:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020

Real-time analysis. It is the means of IIoT. The perceived industrial resource data can

be processed in real time in in digital space by means of technical analysis, to obtain

the internal relationship between the state of industrial resources in the virtual and the

real space; in addition, the abstract data can be further visualized to complete the

real-time response of external physical entities.

Precise control. It is the purpose of IIoT. Through the processes of state perception,

information interconnection, digital modelling, real-time analysis, etc. of industrial

resources, the precise control can be converted into the control commands that the

industrial resource entities can understand based on the decision formed in virtual

space, and then practical operation shall be conducted to achieve precise information

interaction and seamless collaboration of industrial resources.

Iterative optimization. It is the effect of IIoT. IIoT system can learn and upgrade itself

continuously. It can form effective and inheritable knowledge base, model base and

resource base by processing, analyzing and storing industrial resource data. It can

iterate and optimize till the optimal goal facing industrial resource manufacturing raw

materials, manufacturing processes, manufacturing processes and manufacturing
environment."
SOURCE: CESI
Figure 1 – Six typical features of IIoT
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ISO/IEC
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