Transmitting and receiving equipment for radiocommunication - Radio spectrum measurement method - 300-GHz spectrum measurement equipment

IEC TR 63352:2022 describes a high-dynamic-range spectrum measurement system to measure spectra in the frequency range 140 GHz to 300 GHz. Although millimeter-wave (mmWave) technology has high potential for both industries and users, there are no developed techniques for evaluating spectra suppressing the unwanted response generated in the measurement system. This document also provides background information, describes system configurations, key mmWave pre-selector technology, as well as some examples of the spurious measurement of antennas under test (AUTs) over the air.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
25-Apr-2022
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
26-Apr-2022
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IEC TR 63352
Edition 1.0 2022-04
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Transmitting and receiving equipment for radiocommunication – Radio
spectrum measurement method – 300-GHz spectrum measurement equipment
IEC TR 63352:2022-04(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TR 63352
Edition 1.0 2022-04
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Transmitting and receiving equipment for radiocommunication – Radio
spectrum measurement method – 300-GHz spectrum measurement equipment
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.060.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-1096-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 63352:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ........................................................................ 7

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 7

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................... 7

4 Background to measurement up to 300 GHz .................................................................... 8

4.1 IEEE Std 802.15.3d ................................................................................................ 8

4.2 FOD radar ............................................................................................................... 8

4.3 Experimental frequency license above 95 GHz ....................................................... 8

4.4 ITU WRC-19 agenda item 1.15 ............................................................................... 9

4.5 Issue of conventional spectrum measurement for mmWave .................................... 9

5 300-GHz band spectrum measurement .......................................................................... 10

5.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 10

5.2 300-GHz spectrum analyser configuration ............................................................. 11

5.3 mmWave pre-selector ........................................................................................... 13

5.4 Performance of mmWave spectrum analyser ........................................................ 15

5.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 15

5.4.2 Signal source for calibration and test ............................................................. 16

5.4.3 Spectrum measurement ................................................................................. 17

5.4.4 Unwanted response ....................................................................................... 18

5.4.5 Displayed average noise level ....................................................................... 20

5.4.6 Third-order intercept point ............................................................................. 20

6 Spectrum analyser overall performance ......................................................................... 21

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 21

6.2 Measurement examples ........................................................................................ 21

6.3 Integrated spectrum measurement system evaluation ........................................... 22

6.4 Propagation loss measurement results .................................................................. 23

6.5 Evaluation with integrated spectrum measurement system .................................... 24

6.6 Discussion of evaluation results ............................................................................ 27

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 29

Figure 1 – IEEE Std 802.15.3d-2017 (Amendment 2) frequency plan ...................................... 8

Figure 2 – Spectrum observed by spectrum analyser without pre-selector............................. 10

Figure 3 – External appearance of 300-GHz band spectrum analyser ................................... 11

Figure 4 – Standard spectrum analyser configuration ............................................................ 11

Figure 5 – 300-GHz spectrum analysis system with optical local signal generation ............... 12

Figure 6 – 300-GHz spectrum analysis system with electrical local signal generation............ 12

Figure 7 – Standard spectrum-analyser configuration ........................................................... 13

Figure 8 – Image response mechanism ................................................................................. 14

Figure 9 – Conventional preselection method........................................................................ 14

Figure 10 – Filter-bank type pre-selector ............................................................................... 15

Figure 11 – Measurement results .......................................................................................... 15

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IEC TR 63352:2022 © IEC 2022 – 3 –

Figure 12 – Measurement set-up .......................................................................................... 16

Figure 13 – System set-up for level calibration ...................................................................... 16

Figure 14 – Signal source for level calibration and evaluation ............................................... 16

Figure 15 – Signal source output power ................................................................................ 17

Figure 16 – Signal source spurious performance................................................................... 17

Figure 17 – Spectrum measurement result from 255 GHz to 315 GHz ................................... 18

Figure 18 – Relationship between input RF signal and displayed frequency .......................... 19

Figure 19 – Comparison of spurious response with and without pre-selector

(RBW = 1 MHz, Detection = Positive/Negative) ..................................................................... 19

Figure 20 – Displayed average noise level ............................................................................ 20

Figure 21 – Third-order intercept point .................................................................................. 20

Figure 22 – TOI measurement results (Span 0 Hz, ATT 0 dB, RBW 300 Hz) ......................... 21

Figure 23 – Integrated spectrum measurement system ......................................................... 22

Figure 24 – Integrated spectrum measurement system evaluation ........................................ 23

Figure 25 – Propagation loss measurement system .............................................................. 23

Figure 26 – Propagation loss (propagation distance d = 500 mm) ......................................... 24

Figure 27 – Spectrum evaluation in OTA measurement environment ..................................... 25

Figure 28 – Integrated spectrum measurement system monitoring screens ........................... 26

Figure 29 – Output signal directivity ...................................................................................... 28

Table 1 – Frequency bands covered by spectrum analyser ................................................... 10

Table 2 – J-band spectrum analyser target specifications ..................................................... 11

Table 3 – Comparison of two local signal generation methods .............................................. 13

Table 4 – Frequency bands covered by spectrum analyser ................................................... 21

Table 5 – Standard gain horn antenna specifications ............................................................ 23

Table 6 – 12 Multiplier specifications .................................................................................... 25

Table 7 – Output signal and spurious frequency (11,75 GHz input frequency) ....................... 25

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– 4 – IEC TR 63352:2022 © IEC 2022
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING EQUIPMENT FOR
RADIOCOMMUNICATION –
RADIO SPECTRUM MEASUREMENT METHOD – 300-GHz SPECTRUM
MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

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rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC TR 63352 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 103: Transmitting equipment for

radiocommunication. It is a Technical Report.
The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
103/206/DTR 103/223/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this Technical Report is English.
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IEC TR 63352:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates that it

contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding of its

contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
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– 6 – IEC TR 63352:2022 © IEC 2022
INTRODUCTION

This document describes a high-dynamic-range spectrum measurement system to measure

spectra in the frequency range 140 GHz to 300 GHz. Although millimeter-wave (mmWave)

technology has high potential for both industries and users, there are no developed techniques

for evaluating spectra suppressing the unwanted response generated in the measurement

system. In addition, the commercialized spectrum analyser for this frequency band cannot

accurately measure low power input signals due to the insufficient dynamic range while high

power signals are input to the spectrum analyser simultaneously. This document describes the

high-dynamic-range spectrum measurement system with low unwanted response for measuring

spectra in the frequency range 140 GHz to 300 GHz, and proposes an mmWave pre-selector

to suppress the unwanted response generated in the measurement system.
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IEC TR 63352:2022 © IEC 2022 – 7 –
TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING EQUIPMENT FOR
RADIOCOMMUNICATION –
RADIO SPECTRUM MEASUREMENT METHOD – 300-GHz SPECTRUM
MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT
1 Scope

This document specifies spectrum measurement methods in the frequency range 140 GHz to

300 GHz. This document also provides background information, describes system

configurations, key mmWave pre-selector technology, as well as some examples of the spurious

measurement of antennas under test (AUTs) over the air.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.2 Abbreviated terms
mmWave millimetre-wave
ACLR adjacent channel leakage power ratio
ATT attenuator
AUT antenna under test
DANL displayed average noise level
DUT device under test
FCC Federal Communications Commission
FOD foreign object debris
IF intermediate frequency
IR infra-red
LIDAR light detection and ranging
LO local oscillator
OOK on-off-keying
OTA over the air
PC personal computer
PHY physical layer
QAM quadrature amplitude modulation
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– 8 – IEC TR 63352:2022 © IEC 2022
RBW resolution bandwidth
RF radio frequency
SHM sub-harmonic mixer
SPA spectrum analyser
TE mode transverse electric mode
TOI third-order intercept
YIG filter yttrium-iron-garnet filter
WRC World Radiocommunication Conference
4 Background to measurement up to 300 GHz
4.1 IEEE Std 802.15.3d

The IEEE SA Standards Board approved the first edition of the IEEE Std 802.15.3 standard on

March 15, 2016; it was also adopted and approved by the ISO/IEC national bodies. There are

three amendments to IEEE Std 802.15.3. IEEE Std 802.15.3d-2017 (Amendment 2) considers

non-coherent OOK and coherent QAM up to 64 on the 300-GHz band. Two PHY modes are

defined that enable data rates of up to 100 Gb/s using eight different bandwidths between 2,16

GHz and 69,12 GHz. The current frequency plan is depicted in Figure 1, although it considers

a broad range of possible channel allocations.
Figure 1 – IEEE Std 802.15.3d-2017 (Amendment 2) frequency plan
4.2 FOD radar

After the Air France Concorde crash in 2000, which was caused by engine ingress of runway

debris, airport operators focused on the use of foreign object debris (FOD) detection systems.

Several technologies, such as cameras, IR, LIDAR, and other sensors are being tested. One

candidate is the mmWave radar because it can detect small metallic objects using converted

automotive radar in the 77-GHz band. If the system requires finer resolution, the 92-GHz to

100-GHz band for radio location services should be used for the purpose.
4.3 Experimental frequency license above 95 GHz
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) announced new rules to encourage the

development of new communication technologies and expedite the deployment of new services

in the spectrum above 95 GHz, such as data-intensive, high-bandwidth applications, as well as

imaging and sensing operations. To enable innovators and entrepreneurs to readily access this

spectrum, the Spectrum Horizons First Report and Order creates a new category of

experimental licenses for use of frequencies between 95 GHz and 3 THz. These licenses will

give innovators the flexibility to conduct experiments lasting up to 10 years, and to more easily

market equipment during the experimental period.
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IEC TR 63352:2022 © IEC 2022 – 9 –
4.4 ITU WRC-19 agenda item 1.15

Agenda item 1.15 covers the identification of frequency bands for use by administrations for

land-mobile and fixed services applications operating in the 275-GHz to 450-GHz frequency

range.
The 275-GHz to 296-GHz, 306-GHz to 313-GHz, 318-GHz to 333-GHz, and 356-GHz to

450-GHz frequency bands are identified for land-mobile and fixed service applications, where

no specific conditions are necessary to protect Earth exploration-satellite service (passive)

applications.

The 296-GHz to 306-GHz, 313-GHz to 318-GHz, and 333-GHz to 356-GHz frequency bands

may only be used by land-mobile and fixed service applications when specific conditions to

ensure protection of Earth exploration-satellite service (passive) applications are determined in

accordance with Resolution 731 (Rev.WRC-19).

In those parts of the 275-GHz to 450-GHz frequency range where radio-astronomy applications

are used, specific conditions (e.g. minimum separation distances and/or avoidance angles) may

be necessary to ensure protection of radio-astronomy sites from land-mobile and/or fixed

service applications on a case-by-case basis in accordance with Resolution 731 (Rev.WRC-19).

Use of the above-mentioned frequency bands by land-mobile and fixed service applications

does not preclude the use by, and does not establish priority over, any other applications of

radio services in the 275-GHz to 450-GHz range.
4.5 Issue of conventional spectrum measurement for mmWave

Unwanted responses in the spectrum-analyser RF front-end prevent accurate spectrum

observation of target signals. There are three main unwanted responses. The first is image

response, which occurs when a signal is input to the spectrum analyser at the image frequency.

The second is multiple response. The frequency components | m * RF frequency – n * Local

frequency | (where m and n are integers) occur due to spectrum-analyser circuit non-linearity.

The multiple response occurs when the frequency of the components equals the IF frequency.

The third is residual response, which occurs due to multiples of internal frequency components,

such as local oscillator frequency and local oscillator intermediate frequency. A pre-selector

can be used to suppress image response. (The two other unwanted responses can be

suppressed by frequency design.) However, there is no tunable pre-selector like a YIG filter for

frequencies above 80 GHz. Figure 2 shows the results of observing a signal using a spectrum

analyser without a pre-selector. Unwanted responses can be seen in addition to the wanted

signal, making it difficult to recognize the wanted signal.
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– 10 – IEC TR 63352:2022 © IEC 2022
Figure 2 – Spectrum observed by spectrum analyser without pre-selector
5 300-GHz band spectrum measurement
5.1 Overview

The 300-GHz spectrum analyser supports signals from 140 GHz to 300 GHz; the 160-GHz

bandwidth is split into three bands and each band is covered by a spectrum analyser. Table 1

shows mmWave frequency band for G-band, H-band and J-band.
Table 1 – Frequency bands covered by spectrum analyser
Frequency [GHz] 140 to 190 185 to 260 255 to 315
Band G-band H-band J-band
Waveguide WR-5 WR-4 WR-3

Figure 3 shows the external appearance of the J-band spectrum analyser and signal source

used for evaluation. The target specifications for the J-band spectrum analyser are given in

Table 2.
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IEC TR 63352:2022 © IEC 2022 – 11 –
Figure 3 – External appearance of 300-GHz band spectrum analyser
Table 2 – J-band spectrum analyser target specifications
Frequency band 255 GHz to 315 GHz
Unwanted response < –60 dBc at –15 dBm input
Displayed average noise level < –130 dBm/Hz
Third-order intercept point > +15 dBm
5.2 300-GHz spectrum analyser configuration

A standard spectrum analyser is composed of an RF front-end including a pre-selector and

mixer, a local oscillator, an IF processing part, and the display as shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4 – Standard spectrum analyser configuration

There are two options for generating local signals above the 100-GHz band. Figure 5 shows

the configuration for generating an optical local signal, and Figure 6 shows the configuration

for generating an electrical local signal.
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– 12 – IEC TR 63352:2022 © IEC 2022
Figure 5 – 300-GHz spectrum analysis system with optical local signal generation

Figure 6 – 300-GHz spectrum analysis system with electrical local signal generation

Table 3 compares these methods for generating the spectrum-analyser local signal. Optical

local signal generation has the advantage, from a frequency extendibility perspective, while

other performances are similar. Future discussions are based on a system using electrical local

signal generation based on the cost advantage.
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IEC TR 63352:2022 © IEC 2022 – 13 –
Table 3 – Comparison of two local signal generation methods
SPA with electrical SPA with electrical
Comment
LO oscillator optical LO oscillator
Dynamic range ++ ++ Equivalent output level and local
signal purity
Measurement speed ++ + Takes time to switch frequency
Frequency extendibility ++ +++ Optical method easier to extend
frequency range
Footprint +++ ++ Equivalent head size but optical
method needs extra box
Cost ++ + Electrical: Optical = 1:1.5
Key
+: Average
++: Good
+++: Excellent
5.3 mmWave pre-selector

Figure 7 shows a standard spectrum-analyser configuration. Distortion components occur due

to the use of non-linear parts, such as the mixer and amplifier, and are displayed as spurious

in the spectrum.
Figure 7 – Standard spectrum-analyser configuration

As explained in 4.5 a pre-selector can suppress image responses. Fomula (1) shows the

frequency relationship of the local signal, RF signal, and IF signal, where the frequencies of the

IF signal, RF signal, and local signal are expressed as f , f , and f , respectively.

IF RF LO
f = f − f
(1)
IF RF LO

Fomula (2) shows the relationship for the image frequency f and Figure 8 shows the

IMG

relationship of each frequency component. When the component f is input to the spectrum

IMG

analyser, a pseudo-response is observed, making it difficult to separate the wanted response

due to f and pseudo-response due to f .
RF IMG
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
– 14 – IEC TR 63352:2022 © IEC 2022
f = 2 × (f − f ) (2)
IMG LO RF
Figure 8 – Image response mechanism

Since the non-linear parts, such as the mixer and amplifier, generate harmonic components,

higher-order image response components are represented by Fomula (3).
f = (m × f ) – (n × f )
(3)
IMG RF LO

The pre-selector is key to reducing spurious response displayed on the spectrum analyser

because it suppresses image responses.

Figure 9 shows the conventional pre-selection method for the mmWave band. Figure 10 shows

a newly developed filter-bank-type pre-selector that is smaller with faster switching and lower

insertion loss compared to the conventional method. Figure 11 shows the measured result of

the filter bank; the insertion loss is less than 5 dB up to 315 GHz.
Figure 9 – Conventional preselection method
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
IEC TR 63352:2022 © IEC 2022 – 15 –
Figure 10 – Filter-bank type pre-selector
Figure 11 – Measurement results
5.4 Performance of mmWave spectrum analyser
5.4.1 General

Figure 12 shows the measurement system configured from a 300-GHz front-end, spectrum

analyser, local signal source, and personal computer (PC). The front-end is configured from a

pre-selector, sub-harmonic mixer (SHM), and IF amplifier to convert the input RF signal to the

IF output. The part generating the local signal includes amplifiers, multipliers, and bandpass

filters. The SHM is used for frequency down-conversion, and the IF frequency relationship is

shown by Fomula (4).
= |f – 2 × f |
f (4)
IF RF LO
The spectrum analyser processes the IF signal to display the spectrum on the PC.
---------------------- Page: 17 ----------------------
– 16 – IEC TR 63352:2022 © IEC 2022
Figure 12 – Measurement set-up
5.4.2 Signal source for calibration and test

Figure 13 shows the set-up for the level calibration. The signal generator outputs a signal with

a frequency of 42,5 GHz to 52,5 GHz to the frequency converter
...

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