Grading capacitors for high-voltage alternating current circuit-breakers - Part 1: General

IEC 62146-1:2013 is applicable to grading capacitors used on circuit-breakers. Their function is to control the voltage distribution across the individual interrupter units of a multi-break circuit-breaker. Grading capacitors can also be used in parallel to the interrupter unit on single break circuit-breakers to modify the Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV). The grading capacitor is a sub-component for the circuit-breaker and shall be specified in accordance with the circuit-breaker specifications. This standard applies to grading capacitors falling into one or both of the following categories for:
- mounting on air-insulated circuit-breakers;
- mounting on enclosed circuit-breakers (for example immersed in SF6, in oil, etc.). The testing for each of the above applications is in some cases different. The object of this standard is:
- to define uniform rules regarding performances, testing and rating;
- to define specific safety rules;
- to provide a guidance for installation and operation. Keywords: grading capacitors, circuit-breakers

Condensateurs de répartition pour disjoncteurs à courant alternatif haute tension - Partie 1: Généralités

La CEI 62146-1:2013 s'applique aux condensateurs de répartition utilisés sur les disjoncteurs. Ces condensateurs ont pour fonction de contrôler la répartition de la tension entre chaque interrupteur d'un disjoncteur à coupure multiple. Les condensateurs de répartition peuvent également être utilisés parallèlement à l'interrupteur de disjoncteurs à coupure unique afin de modifier la tension transitoire de rétablissement (TRV - Transient Recovery Voltage). Le condensateur de répartition est un sous-composant du disjoncteur et il est spécifié conformément aux spécifications des disjoncteurs. La présente norme s'applique aux condensateurs de répartition à l'huile, à gaz et céramique relevant de l'une ou des deux catégories suivantes pour:
- l'installation sur les disjoncteurs isolés dans l'air;
- l'installation sur des disjoncteurs protégés (par exemple, immergés dans du gaz SF6, dans l'huile, etc.). L'essai applicable à chacune des applications susmentionnées est différent dans certains cas. La présente norme a pour objet de:
- définir des règles uniformes concernant les performances, essais et caractéristiques assignées;
- définir des règles de sécurité spécifiques;
- fournir un guide d'installation et d'exploitation. Mots clés: Le condensateur de repartition, disjoncteurs

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
24-Sep-2013
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
25-Sep-2013
Completion Date
25-Sep-2013
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IEC 62146-1
Edition 1.0 2013-09
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Grading capacitors for high-voltage alternating current circuit-breakers –
Part 1: General
Condensateurs de répartition pour disjoncteurs à courant alternatif haute
tension –
Partie 1: Généralités
IEC 62146-1:2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62146-1
Edition 1.0 2013-09
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Grading capacitors for high-voltage alternating current circuit-breakers –
Part 1: General
Condensateurs de répartition pour disjoncteurs à courant alternatif haute
tension –
Partie 1: Généralités
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX W
ICS 31.060.01; 31.060.70 ISBN 978-2-8322-1109-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – 62146-1 © IEC:2013
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................... 7

4 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................. 12

5 Normal and special service conditions ............................................................................ 13

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 13

5.2 Normal service conditions ..................................................................................... 13

5.2.1 Ambient temperature ................................................................................. 13

5.2.2 Mechanical stress and vibrations ............................................................... 13

5.2.3 Additional service conditions for indoor and completely immersed

grading capacitor ....................................................................................... 13

5.3 Special service conditions ..................................................................................... 13

5.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 13

5.3.2 Earthquakes .............................................................................................. 13

6 Ratings ........................................................................................................................... 14

6.1 Rated voltage (U ) ............................................................................................... 14

6.2 Rated insulation level ............................................................................................ 14

6.3 Rated frequency (f ) .............................................................................................. 15

7 Design and construction ................................................................................................. 15

7.1 Capacitance tolerances ......................................................................................... 15

7.2 Capacitor loss requirements .................................................................................. 15

7.3 Angle of mounting ................................................................................................. 15

7.4 Minimum withstand value of mechanical bending load ........................................... 15

7.5 Requirements for impregnation medium in capacitor ............................................. 16

7.6 Protection against corrosion .................................................................................. 16

7.7 Nameplates ........................................................................................................... 16

7.8 Creepage distances for outdoor insulators ............................................................. 16

7.9 Tightness .............................................................................................................. 16

7.9.1 Liquid tightness ......................................................................................... 16

7.9.2 Gas tightness for grading capacitors immersed in gas ............................... 17

8 Type tests ...................................................................................................................... 17

8.1 Information for identification of specimens ............................................................. 17

8.2 Information to be included in type-test reports ....................................................... 17

8.3 Test conditions ...................................................................................................... 18

8.4 Dielectric tests ...................................................................................................... 18

8.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 18

8.4.2 Capacitance measurement at power frequency .......................................... 19

8.4.3 Measurement of the tangent of the loss angle (tanδ) ................................. 20

8.4.4 Partial discharge test ................................................................................. 20

8.4.5 Switching impulse voltage test ................................................................... 21

8.4.6 Lightning and chopped impulse voltage test............................................... 21

8.4.7 Power frequency voltage test. .................................................................... 22

8.5 Voltage test at low and high temperature ............................................................... 22

8.6 Radio interference voltage (RIV) test ..................................................................... 23

8.7 Resonance frequency measurements .................................................................... 23

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
62146-1 © IEC:2013 – 3 –

8.8 Mechanical bending test ........................................................................................ 23

8.9 Tightness test at different temperatures ................................................................ 23

8.10 Tightness test to check gas ingress from a pressurised environment ..................... 24

8.11 Vibration test ......................................................................................................... 24

9 Routine tests .................................................................................................................. 25

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 25

9.2 Test conditions ...................................................................................................... 25

9.3 Capacitance and loss angle measurement at power frequency .............................. 25

9.4 Power frequency voltage test ................................................................................ 26

9.5 Partial discharge test ............................................................................................. 26

9.6 Tightness test ........................................................................................................ 26

9.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 26

9.6.2 Oil impregnated capacitor .......................................................................... 26

9.6.3 Tightness test for gas filled grading capacitors .......................................... 26

9.7 Visual inspection and dimensional check ............................................................... 27

10 Recommendations for transport, storage, erection, operation and maintenance .............. 27

10.1 General ................................................................................................................. 27

10.2 Conditions during transport, storage and installation ............................................. 27

10.3 Installation............................................................................................................. 27

10.4 Unpacking and lifting ............................................................................................. 28

10.5 Assembly .............................................................................................................. 28

10.5.1 Mounting ................................................................................................... 28

10.5.2 Connections to metal parts ........................................................................ 28

10.5.3 Final installation inspection ........................................................................ 28

10.6 Operation .............................................................................................................. 28

10.7 Maintenance .......................................................................................................... 28

10.7.1 General ..................................................................................................... 28

10.7.2 Recommendation for the installation and maintenance .............................. 28

10.7.3 Recommendations for the user .................................................................. 29

10.7.4 Failure report ............................................................................................. 29

11 Safety ............................................................................................................................. 30

11.1 General ................................................................................................................. 30

11.2 Precautions by manufacturers ............................................................................... 30

11.3 Precautions by users ............................................................................................. 31

11.4 National regulations .............................................................................................. 31

12 Environmental aspects ................................................................................................... 31

Annex A (informative) Corrosion: Information regarding service conditions and

recommended test requirements ........................................................................................... 32

Annex B (informative) Resonance frequency measurements ................................................ 33

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 34

Figure 1 – Dielectric type tests .............................................................................................. 19

Figure 2 – Dielectric routine test ........................................................................................... 25

Figure B.1 – Example of resonance frequency measurement recording (see 8.7) .................. 33

Table 1 – Partial discharge test voltages and permissible levels ........................................... 21

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– 4 – 62146-1 © IEC:2013
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
GRADING CAPACITORS FOR HIGH-VOLTAGE
ALTERNATING CURRENT CIRCUIT-BREAKERS –
Part 1: General
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62146-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 33: Power

capacitors and their applications.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
33/535/FDIS 33/541/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 62146 series, published under the general title Grading

capacitators for high-voltage alternating current circuit-breakers, can be found on the IEC

website.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
62146-1 © IEC:2013 – 5 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – 62146-1 © IEC:2013
GRADING CAPACITORS FOR HIGH-VOLTAGE
ALTERNATING CURRENT CIRCUIT-BREAKERS –
Part 1: General
1 Scope

This part of the IEC 62146 series is applicable to grading capacitors used on circuit-breakers.

Their function is to control the voltage distribution across the individual interrupter units of a

multi-break circuit-breaker.

Grading capacitors can also be used in parallel to the interrupter unit on single break circuit-

breakers to modify the Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV).

The grading capacitor is a sub-component for the circuit-breaker and shall be specified in

accordance with the circuit-breaker specifications.

This standard applies to grading capacitors falling into one or both of the following categories

for:
– mounting on air-insulated circuit-breakers;

– mounting on enclosed circuit-breakers (for example immersed in SF , in oil, etc.).

The testing for each of the above applications is in some cases different.
The object of this standard is:
– to define uniform rules regarding performances, testing and rating;
– to define specific safety rules;
– to provide a guidance for installation and operation.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.
IEC 60050 (all parts), International electrotechnical vocabulary (available at
http://www.electropedia.org)

IEC 60060-1:2010, High-voltage test techniques – Part 1: General definitions and test

requirements

IEC 60068-2-17:1994, Official version in Russian – Basic environmental testing procedures –

Part 2-17: Tests – Test Q: Sealing

IEC 60071-1:2006, Insulation co-ordination – Part 1: Definitions, principles and rules

IEC 60270:2000, High-voltage test techniques – Partial discharge measurements
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
62146-1 © IEC:2013 – 7 –

IEC 60376:2005, Specification of technical grade sulfur hexafluoride (SF ) for use in electrical

equipment

IEC 60507-1:1991, Artificial pollution tests on high-voltage insulators to be used on a.c.

systems

IEC 60567:2011, Oil-filled electrical equipment – Sampling of gases and analysis of free and

dissolved gases – Guidance

IEC 60721-1:2002, Classification of environmental conditions – Part 1: Environmental

parameters and their severities

IEC 60815 (all parts), Selection and dimensioning of high-voltage insulators intended for use

in polluted conditions

IEC 61462:2007, Composite hollow insulators – Pressurized and unpressurized insulators for

use in electrical equipment with rated voltage greater than 1 000 V – Definitions, test

methods, acceptance criteria and design recommendations

IEC 62155:2003, Hollow pressurized and unpressurized ceramic and glass insulators for use

in electrical equipment with rated voltages greater than 1 000 V

IEC 62271-1:2007, High-voltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 1: Common specifications

IEC 62271-100:2008, High-voltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 100: Alternating current

circuit-breakers

IEC 62271-203:2003, High-voltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 203: Gas-insulated

metal-enclosed switchgear for rated voltages above 52 kV
IEC 62271-300:2006, High-voltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 300: Seismic
qualification of alternating current circuit-breakers

IEC Guide 109, Environmental aspects – Inclusion in electrotechnical product standards

CISPR 18-2:1986, Radio interference characteristics of overhead power lines and high-

voltage equipment – Part 2: Methods of measurement and procedure for determining limits

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
arcing distance

shortest distance in the air external to the insulator between the metallic parts which normally

have the operating voltage between them
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-471:2007, 471-01-01]
3.2
capacitor element
device consisting essentially of two electrodes separated by a dielectric
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-436:1990, 436-01-03]
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – 62146-1 © IEC:2013
3.3
capacitor losses
active power dissipated in the capacitor
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-436:1990, 436-04-10]
3.4
capacitor terminals

terminals intended for electrical and mechanical connection to the terminals of the interrupter

units of circuit-breakers
3.5
capacitance tolerance

permissible difference between the actual capacitance and the rated capacitance under

specified conditions

Note 1 to entry: The actual capacitance should be measured at, or referred to, the temperature at which the rated

capacitance is defined.
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-436:1990, 436-04-01, modified by addition of Note to entry]
3.6
capacitor unit

assembly of one or more capacitor elements in the same container with terminals brought out

Note 1 to entry: A common type of unit for grading capacitors has a cylindrical housing of insulating material and

metal end flanges which serve as terminals.
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-436:1990, 436-01-04, modified by addition of Note to entry]
3.7
completely immersed capacitor

capacitor, both ends of which are intended to be immersed in insulating media other than

ambient air (e.g. oil or gas)

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-471:2007, 471-02-04, modified (definition originally referred to

"bushing" instead of "capacitor")]
3.8
creepage distance

shortest distance along the surface of a solid insulating material between two conductive

parts

Note 1 to entry: The surface of cement or any other non-insulating jointing material is not considered as forming

part of the creepage distance.

Note 2 to entry: If high-resistance coating is applied to parts of the insulating part of an insulator, such parts are

considered to be effective insulating surface and the distance over them is included in the creepage distance.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-604:1987, 604-03-61, modified by addition of Notes to entry]
3.9
dielectric of a capacitor
insulating material between the electrodes of the capacitor element

Note 1 to entry: The major insulation generally consists of paper, plastic film, or a mixed of paper and plastic film

subsequently treated and impregnated with oil or gas at atmospheric pressure or higher.

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
62146-1 © IEC:2013 – 9 –
3.10
external insulation

distance in air and the surfaces in contact with open air of insulation of the grading capacitor

which are subject to dielectric stresses

Note 1 to entry: They are also subject to to the effects of the atmospheric and other external conditions such as

pollution, humidity, ice, vermin, etc.
3.11
failure
termination of the ability of an item to perform a required function
Note 1 to entry: After failure the item has a fault.

Note 2 to entry: "Failure" is an event, as distinguished from "fault", which is a state.

Note 3 to entry: This concept as defined does not apply to items consisting of software only.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-191:1990, 191-04-01]
3.12
flashover

electric breakdown between conductors in a gas or in a liquid or in a vacuum, at least partly

along the surface of solid insulation
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-212:2012, 212-11-47]
3.13
grading capacitor

capacitor for installation on high-voltage circuit-breakers to control the voltage distribution

across the individual interrupter unit

Note 1 to entry: The grading capacitors alone are accessories of the circuit-breaker

3.14
indoor capacitor

capacitor, both ends of which are intended to be in ambient air at atmospheric pressure but

not exposed to outdoor atmospheric conditions

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-471:2007, 471-02-05, modified (definition originally referred to

"bushing" instead of "capacitor")]
3.15
insulating envelope

insulator which is open from end to end, with or without sheds, including end fittings

Note 1 to entry An insulating envelope can be made from one or more permanently assembled insulating

elements.

Note 2 to entry: The insulating envelope may be in ceramic, glass or analogous inorganic material, cast or

moulded resin, composite insulating material, in one piece or more pieces permanently assembled.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-471:2007, 471-01-08, modified (definition originally referred to a hollow

insulator and Note 2 to entry has been added)]
3.16
outdoor capacitor

capacitor, both ends of which are intended to be in ambient air at atmospheric pressure, and

exposed to outdoor atmospheric conditions
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – 62146-1 © IEC:2013

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-471:2007, 471-02-07, modified (definition originally referred to

"bushing" instead of "capacitor")]
...

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