Electrostatics - Part 4-4: Standard test methods for specific applications - Electrostatic classification of flexible intermediate bulk containers (FIBC)

IEC 61340-4-4:2018 is also available as IEC 61340-4-4:2018 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 61340-4-4:2018 specifies requirements for flexible intermediate bulk containers (FIBC) between 0,25 m3 and 3 m3 in volume, intended for use in hazardous explosive atmospheres. The explosive atmosphere can be created by the contents in the FIBC or can exist outside the FIBC. The requirements include:
– classification and labelling of FIBC;
– classification of inner liners;
– specification of test methods for each type of FIBC, inner liner, labels and document pockets;
– design and performance requirements for FIBC, inner liners, labels and document pockets;
– safe use of FIBC (including those with inner liners) within different zones defined for explosion endangered environments, described for areas where combustible dusts are, or can be, present (IEC 60079-10-2), and for explosive gas atmospheres (IEC 60079-10-1);
– procedures for type qualification and certification of FIBC, including the safe use of inner liners. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition, published in 2012, and Amendment 1:2014. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) in light of experimental evidence, the maximum resistance to ground limit for Type C FIBC, and corresponding resistance limits for inner liners used in Type C FIBC has been increased from 10 M ohms to 100 M ohms;
b) the classification of Type L1 inner liners has been revised and extended to include Type L1C inner liners made from multi-layer materials with a conductive internal layer;
c) a labelling requirement to include a reference to IEC TS 60079-32-1 for guidance on earthing has been added.

Électrostatique - Partie 4-4: Méthodes d'essai normalisées pour des applications spécifiques - Classification électrostatique des grands récipients pour vrac souples (GRVS)

IEC 61340-4-4:2018 est disponible sous forme de IEC 61340-4-4:2018 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente.
L'IEC 61340-4-4:2018 spécifie les exigences relatives aux grands récipients pour vrac souples (GRVS) dont le volume est compris entre 0,25 m3 et 3 m3, destinés à être utilisés dans des atmosphères explosives dangereuses. L'atmosphère explosive peut être créée par le contenu du GRVS ou peut exister à l'extérieur du GRVS. Les exigences comportent:
– la classification et l'étiquetage des GRVS;
– la classification des revêtements protecteurs intérieurs;
– la spécification des méthodes d'essai pour chaque type de GRVS, du revêtement protecteur intérieur, des étiquettes et des pochettes de documents;
– les exigences de conception et de performance des GRVS, des revêtements protecteurs intérieurs, des étiquettes et des pochettes de documents;
– l'utilisation sécurisée des GRVS (incluant ceux qui comportent des revêtements protecteurs intérieurs) dans des zones différentes définies pour des environnements présentant un danger d'explosion, décrite pour des zones où des poussières combustibles sont présentes ou peuvent être présentes (IEC 60079-10-2) et pour des atmosphères explosives gazeuses (IEC 60079-10-1);
– les procédures de qualification de type et de certification des GRVS, incluant l'utilisation sécurisée des revêtements protecteurs intérieurs. Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition, parue en 2012, et l'Amendement 1:2014. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
a) au vu des preuves expérimentales, la limite maximale de résistance de mise à la terre pour les GRVS de Type C, et les limites de résistance associées des revêtements protecteurs intérieurs utilisés dans les GRVS de Type C ont été augmentées de 10 M ohms à 100 M ohms;
b) la classification des revêtements protecteurs intérieurs de Type L1 a été révisée et étendue aux revêtements protecteurs intérieurs de Type L1C fabriqués à partir de matériaux multicouches ayant une couche interne conductrice;
c) une exigence relative à l'étiquetage permettant d'inclure une référence à l'IEC TS 60079-32-1 concernant les recommandations relatives à la mise à la terre a été ajoutée.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Jan-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
30-Jan-2018
Ref Project

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IEC 61340-4-4
Edition 3.0 2018-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Electrostatics –
Part 4-4: Standard test methods for specific applications – Electrostatic
classification of flexible intermediate bulk containers (FIBC)
Électrostatique –
Partie 4-4: Méthodes d'essai normalisées pour des applications spécifiques –
Classification électrostatique des grands récipients pour vrac souples (GRVS)
IEC 61340-4-4:2018-01(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 61340-4-4
Edition 3.0 2018-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Electrostatics –
Part 4-4: Standard test methods for specific applications – Electrostatic
classification of flexible intermediate bulk containers (FIBC)
Électrostatique –
Partie 4-4: Méthodes d'essai normalisées pour des applications spécifiques –
Classification électrostatique des grands récipients pour vrac souples (GRVS)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 17.220.99; 29.020; 55.080 ISBN 978-2-8322-5264-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 61340-4-4:2018 © IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 10

4 Classification ................................................................................................................. 12

4.1 Classification for FIBC .......................................................................................... 12

4.1.1 Principles of classification.............................................................................. 12

4.1.2 Type A ........................................................................................................... 12

4.1.3 Type B ........................................................................................................... 12

4.1.4 Type C........................................................................................................... 12

4.1.5 Type D........................................................................................................... 12

4.2 Principles of classification and requirements for inner liners ................................. 12

4.2.1 Components of inner liners ............................................................................ 12

4.2.2 Surface resistivity measurements for inner liners ........................................... 13

4.2.3 Breakdown voltage measurements for inner liners ......................................... 13

4.2.4 Type L1 ......................................................................................................... 14

4.2.5 Type L1C ....................................................................................................... 15

4.2.6 Type L2 ......................................................................................................... 15

4.2.7 Type L3 ......................................................................................................... 16

4.3 Combination of FIBC and inner liners .................................................................... 17

5 Safe use of FIBC ........................................................................................................... 17

6 Labelling ........................................................................................................................ 19

7 Requirements for FIBC .................................................................................................. 22

7.1 General remarks ................................................................................................... 22

7.2 Requirements for dust environments with ignition energies greater than 3 mJ

(apply to Type B FIBC, Type C FIBC and Type D FIBC) ........................................ 22

7.3 Requirements for vapour and gas atmospheres and for dust environments

with ignition energies of 3 mJ or less .................................................................... 23

7.3.1 Type C FIBC .................................................................................................. 23

7.3.2 Type D FIBC .................................................................................................. 23

8 Atmosphere for conditioning, calibrating and testing ...................................................... 24

8.1 Conditioning time .................................................................................................. 24

8.2 Electrical breakdown voltage, surface resistivity and resistance to

groundable point testing ........................................................................................ 24

8.3 Surface resistivity testing ...................................................................................... 24

8.4 Ignition testing ...................................................................................................... 24

9 Test procedures ............................................................................................................ 24

9.1 Sampling............................................................................................................... 24

9.2 Electrical breakdown voltage................................................................................. 24

9.3 Ignition testing ...................................................................................................... 25

9.3.1 Apparatus ...................................................................................................... 25

9.3.2 Establishing correct charging current ............................................................. 32

9.3.3 Ignition tests .................................................................................................. 32

9.4 Resistance to groundable point ............................................................................. 35

9.4.1 Apparatus ...................................................................................................... 35

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 61340-4-4:2018 © IEC 2018 – 3 –

9.4.2 Test procedure .............................................................................................. 35

10 Test report ..................................................................................................................... 36

10.1 General ................................................................................................................. 36

10.2 For all types of testing .......................................................................................... 37

10.3 For electrical breakdown voltage testing ............................................................... 37

10.4 For ignition testing ................................................................................................ 37

10.5 For resistance to groundable point testing ............................................................. 37

10.6 For surface resistivity testing of inner liners, labels and document pockets ........... 37

10.7 For test reports issued by accredited testing authorities ........................................ 37

Annex A (informative) Electrical breakdown voltage – Typical voltage/time graphs .............. 39

Annex B (normative) Polypropylene pellets for ignition testing ............................................. 40

Annex C (informative) Guidance on test methods for manufacturing quality control .............. 41

C.1 Introductory remarks ............................................................................................. 41

C.2 Test methods ........................................................................................................ 41

C.2.1 Resistance measurements ............................................................................. 41

C.2.2 Charge decay measurements ........................................................................ 42

C.2.3 Charge transfer measurements ...................................................................... 42

Annex D (normative) Classification of hazardous areas and zones ....................................... 43

Annex E (informative) Risks associated with cone discharges .............................................. 44

Annex F (informative) Explanation for resistance and resistivity limits, and thickness

limits for insulating layers of inner liners ............................................................................... 45

F.1 Resistance to groundable point limit for Type C FIBC ........................................... 45

F.2 Resistivity of inner liners ....................................................................................... 45

F.3 Thickness of insulating layers of inner liners ......................................................... 45

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 47

Figure 1 – Examples of inner liners in FIBC .......................................................................... 13

Figure 2 – Example of a label for Type B FIBC ..................................................................... 20

Figure 3 – Example of a label for Type C FIBC ..................................................................... 20

Figure 4 – Example of a label for Type D FIBC ..................................................................... 21

Figure 5 – Example of labels for Type C FIBC designated earth bonding points .................... 21

Figure 6 – Ignition probe ....................................................................................................... 26

Figure 7 – Perforated metal plate for use in ignition probe .................................................... 27

Figure 8 – Gas control and mixing apparatus (schematic) ..................................................... 28

Figure 9 – FIBC filling rig (schematic) ................................................................................... 30

Figure 10 – Corona charging unit (schematic) ....................................................................... 31

Figure A.1 – Example of voltage/time graph for material showing distinct breakdown ............ 39

Figure A.2 – Example of voltage/time graph for material showing reduction in rate of

voltage rise because of conduction within the test material ................................................... 39

Table 1 – Permissible configurations and requirements for Type L1 inner liners (without

conductive internal layers) .................................................................................................... 14

Table 2 – Permissible configurations and requirements for Type L1C inner liners (with

conductive internal layers ) .................................................................................................. 15

Table 3 – Permissible configurations and requirements for Type L2 inner liners .................... 16

Table 4 – Permissible configurations and requirements for Type L3 inner liners .................... 17

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 61340-4-4:2018 © IEC 2018

Table 5 – Use of different types of FIBC ............................................................................... 17

Table 6 – Inner liners and FIBC: combinations that are permissible and not permissible

in hazardous explosive atmospheres .................................................................................... 18

Table 7 – Volume concentrations of flammable gas mixture .................................................. 27

Table 8 – Example of full sample description to be included in the test report ....................... 38

Table B.1 – Particle size distribution of polypropylene pellets ............................................... 40

Table D.1 – Classification of hazardous areas in IEC 60079-10-1 and IEC 60079-10-2 ......... 43

Table D.2 – Classification of zones in IEC 60079-10-1 and IEC 60079-10-2 .......................... 43

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 61340-4-4:2018 © IEC 2018 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ELECTROSTATICS –
Part 4-4: Standard test methods for specific applications –
Electrostatic classification of flexible intermediate bulk containers (FIBC)
FOREWORD

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International Standard IEC 61340-4-4 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 101:

Electrostatics.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition, published in 2012, and

Amendment 1:2014. This edition constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) in light of experimental evidence, the maximum resistance to ground limit for Type C FIBC,

and corresponding resistance limits for inner liners used in Type C FIBC has been

7 8
increased from 1,0 × 10 Ω to 1,0 × 10 Ω;

b) the classification of Type L1 inner liners has been revised and extended to include Type

L1C inner liners made from multi-layer materials with a conductive internal layer;

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 61340-4-4:2018 © IEC 2018

c) a labelling requirement to include a reference to IEC TS 60079-32-1 for guidance on

earthing has been added.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
101/546/FDIS 101/555/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 61340 series, published under the general title Electrostatics, can

be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

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understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 61340-4-4:2018 © IEC 2018 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

Flexible intermediate bulk containers (FIBC) are widely used for the storage, transportation

and handling of powdered, flaked or granular material. Typically, they are constructed from

woven polypropylene fabric in the form of cubic bags of about 1 m volume, although they can

3 3

vary in shape and in size from 0,25 m to 3 m . The fabric used may be a single layer, a

multi-layer laminate, or a coated fabric. Untreated polypropylene is an electrical insulator, as

is often the case with the products placed in FIBC. There is ample opportunity for the

generation of electrostatic charge during filling and emptying operations and in unprotected

FIBC high levels of charge can quickly build up. In such cases, electrostatic discharges are

inevitable and can be a severe problem when FIBC are used in hazardous explosive
atmospheres.

A hazardous explosive atmosphere can be generated when handling fine powders that create

dust clouds or thin layers of powder, both of which can be ignited by electrostatic discharges.

A hazardous explosive atmosphere can also be generated when using gases or volatile

solvents. In these industrial situations, there is clearly a need to eliminate incendive

electrostatic discharges.

As with any industrial equipment, a thorough risk assessment should always be conducted

before using FIBC in potentially hazardous situations. This part of IEC 61340 describes a

system of classification, test methods, performance and design requirements and safe use

procedures that can be used by manufacturers, specifiers and end-users as part of a risk

assessment of any FIBC intended for use within a hazardous explosive atmosphere. However,

it does not include procedures for evaluating the specific risks of electrostatic discharges

arising from products within FIBC, for example cone discharges, from personnel or from

equipment used near FIBC. Information on risks associated with cone discharges is given in

Annex E.

CAUTION: The test methods specified in this document involve the use of high voltage

power supplies and flammable gases that may present hazards if handled incorrectly,

particularly by unqualified or inexperienced personnel. Users of this document are

encouraged to carry out proper risk assessments and pay due regard to local regulations

before undertaking any of the test procedures.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 61340-4-4:2018 © IEC 2018
ELECTROSTATICS –
Part 4-4: Standard test methods for specific applications –
Electrostatic classification of flexible intermediate bulk containers (FIBC)
1 Scope

This part of IEC 61340 specifies requirements for flexible intermediate bulk containers (FIBC)

3 3

between 0,25 m and 3 m in volume, intended for use in hazardous explosive atmospheres.

The explosive atmosphere can be created by the contents in the FIBC or can exist outside the

FIBC.
The requirements include:
– classification and labelling of FIBC;
– classification of inner liners;

– specification of test methods for each type of FIBC, inner liner, labels and document

pockets;

– design and performance requirements for FIBC, inner liners, labels and document pockets;

– safe use of FIBC (including those with inner liners) within different zones defined for

explosion endangered environments, described for areas where combustible dusts are, or

can be, present (IEC 60079-10-2), and for explosive gas atmospheres (IEC 60079-10-1);

– procedures for type qualification and certification of FIBC, including the safe use of inner

liners.

NOTE 1 Guidance on test methods that can be used for manufacturing quality control is given in Annex C.

The requirements of this document are applicable to all types of FIBC and inner liners, tested

as manufactured, prior to use and intended for use in hazardous explosive atmospheres:

Zones 1 and 2 (Groups IIA and IIB only) and Zones 21 and 22 (see Annex D for classification

of hazardous areas and explosion groups). For some types of FIBC, the requirements of this

document apply only to use in hazardous explosive atmospheres with minimum ignition

energy of 0,14 mJ or greater and where charging currents do not exceed 3,0 µA.
NOTE 2

0,14 mJ represents a realistic minimum ignition energy for a Group IIB gas or vapour atmosphere. Although more

sensitive materials exist, 0,14 mJ is the lowest minimum ignition energy of any material that is likely to be present

when FIBC are emptied. 3,0 µA is the highest charging current likely to be found in common industrial processes.

This combination of minimum ignition energy and charging current represents the most severe conditions that

might be expected in practice.

FIBC are not normally used in Zone 0 or Zone 20. If FIBC are used in Zone 0 or Zone 20, the

requirements of this document are applicable, together with additional requirements that are

beyond the scope of this document to define.
The volume contained within FIBC can be designated as Zone 20, in which case the
requirements of this document are applicable.

Solids containing residual solvent can result in a hazardous explosive atmosphere within

FIBC, possibly resulting in the volume being designated as Zone 1 or Zone 2; in which case

the requirements of this document are applicable.

Compliance with the requirements specified in this document does not necessarily ensure that

hazardous electrostatic discharges, for example cone discharges, will not be generated by the

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 61340-4-4:2018 © IEC 2018 – 9 –
contents in
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