Fluids for electrotechnical applications - Unused mineral insulating oils for transformers and switchgear

IEC 60296:2012 is now available as IEC Standards+ 60296:2012 which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 60296:2012 is applicable to specifications and test methods for unused mineral insulating oils. It applies to oil intended for use in transformers, switchgear and similar electrical equipment in which oil is required for insulation and heat transfer. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- specifications for corrosive sulphur compounds that can lead to copper sulphide deposition in transformers (in non-passivated and passivated oils);
- definitions of additives in oil; and
- re-insertion of a missing note on oxidation.

Fluides pour applications électrotechniques - Huiles minérales isolantes neuves pour transformateurs et appareillages de connexion

IEC 60296:2012 est disponible sous forme de IEC Standards+ 60296:2012 qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente.
IEC 60296:2012 s'applique aux spécifications et méthodes d'essais pour les huiles minérales isolantes neuves. Elle s'applique à l'huile destinée à l'utilisation dans les transformateurs, disjoncteurs et matériels électriques analogues, dans lesquels l'huile est nécessaire comme fluide isolant et caloporteur. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
- des spécifications pour les composés soufrés corrosifs qui peuvent entraîner un dépôt de sulfure de cuivre à l'intérieur des transformateurs (dans les huiles non-passivées et passivées);
- les définitions d'additifs dans l'huile; et
- la ré-insertion d'une note manquante concernant l'oxydation.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
19-Feb-2012
Current Stage
DELPUB - Deleted Publication
Completion Date
26-Jun-2020
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IEC 60296
Edition 4.0 2012-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Fluids for electrotechnical applications – Unused mineral insulating oils for
transformers and switchgear
Fluides pour applications électrotechniques – Huiles minérales isolantes neuves
pour transformateurs et appareillages de connexion
IEC 60296:2012
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60296
Edition 4.0 2012-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Fluids for electrotechnical applications – Unused mineral insulating oils for
transformers and switchgear
Fluides pour applications électrotechniques – Huiles minérales isolantes neuves
pour transformateurs et appareillages de connexion
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX S
ICS 29.040 ISBN 978-2-88912-928-7

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – 60296 © IEC:2012
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................... 9

4 Properties of oil .............................................................................................................. 10

4.1 Functional properties ............................................................................................. 10

4.2 Refining and stability ............................................................................................. 10

4.3 Performance .......................................................................................................... 10

4.4 Health, safety and environment (HSE) properties .................................................. 10

5 Classification, identification, general delivery requirements and sampling....................... 11

5.1 Classification ......................................................................................................... 11

5.1.1 Classes ..................................................................................................... 11

5.1.2 Antioxidant additive (inhibitor) content ....................................................... 11

5.1.3 Lowest cold start energizing temperature (LCSET) .................................... 11

5.2 Requirements ........................................................................................................ 11

5.3 Miscibility .............................................................................................................. 11

5.4 Identification and general delivery requirements .................................................... 11

5.5 Sampling ............................................................................................................... 12

6 Properties, their significance and test methods ............................................................... 12

6.1 Viscosity................................................................................................................ 12

6.2 Pour point ............................................................................................................. 12

6.3 Water content ........................................................................................................ 12

6.4 Breakdown voltage ................................................................................................ 13

6.5 Dielectric dissipation factor (DDF) ......................................................................... 13

6.6 Appearance ........................................................................................................... 13

6.7 Acidity ................................................................................................................... 13

6.8 Interfacial tension (IFT) ......................................................................................... 13

6.9 Sulphur content ..................................................................................................... 13

6.10 Corrosive and potentially corrosive sulphur ........................................................... 13

6.11 Additives (see 3.4) ................................................................................................ 14

6.11.1 General ..................................................................................................... 14

6.11.2 Antioxidant additives (see 3.5) ................................................................... 14

6.11.3 Metal passivators ...................................................................................... 14

6.11.4 Pour point depressants .............................................................................. 15

6.12 Oxidation stability .................................................................................................. 15

6.13 Gassing tendency .................................................................................................. 15

6.14 Electrostatic charging tendency (ECT) ................................................................... 15

6.15 Flash point ............................................................................................................ 15

6.16 Density .................................................................................................................. 15

6.17 Polycyclic aromatic content (PCAs) ....................................................................... 16

6.18 Polychlorinated biphenyl content (PCBs) ............................................................... 16

6.19 2-Furfural (2-FAL) and related compounds content ................................................ 16

6.20 Particle content ..................................................................................................... 16

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
60296 © IEC:2012 – 3 –

6.21 DBDS content ....................................................................................................... 16

6.22 Stray gassing of oil ................................................................................................ 16

7 Specific requirements for special applications ................................................................ 18

7.1 Higher oxidation stability and low sulphur content ................................................. 18

7.2 Electrostatic charging tendency (ECT) ................................................................... 18

7.3 Gassing tendency .................................................................................................. 18

Annex A (informative) Potentially corrosive sulphur ............................................................. 19

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 21

Table 1 – Maximum viscosity and pour point of transformer oil at lowest cold start

energizing temperature (LCSET) ........................................................................................... 12

Table 2 – General specifications ........................................................................................... 17

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – 60296 © IEC:2012
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FLUIDS FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS –
UNUSED MINERAL INSULATING OILS FOR
TRANSFORMERS AND SWITCHGEAR
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60296 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 10: Fluids

for electrotechnical applications.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition, published in 2003. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

– specifications for corrosive sulphur compounds that can lead to copper sulphide

deposition in transformers (in non-passivated and passivated oils);
– definitions of additives in oil; and
– re-insertion of a missing note on oxidation.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
60296 © IEC:2012 – 5 –
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
10/878/FDIS 10/885/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – 60296 © IEC:2012
INTRODUCTION

This International Standard does not purport to address all the safety problems associated

with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of the standard to establish appropriate health

and safety practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

The mineral insulating oils which are the subject of this standard should be handled with due

regard to personal hygiene. Direct contact with the eyes may cause irritation. In the case of

eye contact, irrigation with copious quantities of clean running water should be carried out

and medical advice sought. Some of the tests specified in this standard involve the use of

processes that could lead to a hazardous situation. Attention is drawn to the relevant standard

for guidance.

This standard is applicable to mineral insulating oils, chemicals and used sample containers.

The disposal of these items should be carried out according to local regulations with regard to

their impact on the environment. Every precaution should be taken to prevent release of

mineral insulating oil into the environment.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
60296 © IEC:2012 – 7 –
FLUIDS FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS –
UNUSED MINERAL INSULATING OILS FOR
TRANSFORMERS AND SWITCHGEAR
1 Scope

This International Standard is applicable to specifications and test methods for unused

mineral insulating oils (see Clause 3 for definitions). It applies to oil delivered to the agreed

point and time of delivery, intended for use in transformers, switchgear and similar electrical

equipment in which oil is required for insulation and heat transfer. These oils are obtained by

refining, modifying and/or blending of petroleum products and other hydrocarbons.

Oils with and without additives are both within the scope of this standard.
This standard is applicable only to unused mineral insulating oils.
Recycled oils are beyond the scope of this standard.

NOTE Definitions and specifications for recycled oils will be covered by IEC 62701 .

This standard does not apply to mineral insulating oils used as impregnants in cables or

capacitors.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.

IEC 60076-2, Power transformers – Part 2: Temperature rise for liquid-immersed transformers

IEC 60156, Insulating liquids – Determination of the breakdown voltage at power frequency –

Test method

IEC 60247, Insulating liquids – Measurement of relative permittivity, dielectric dissipation

factor (tan δ) and d.c. resistivity

IEC 60422, Mineral insulating oils in electrical equipment – Supervision and maintenance

guidance
IEC 60475, Method of sampling liquid dielectrics

IEC 60628:1985, Gassing of insulating liquids under electrical stress and ionization

IEC 60666, Detection and determination of specified additives in mineral insulating oils

IEC 60814, Insulating liquids – Oil-impregnated paper and pressboard – Determination of

water by automatic coulometric Karl Fischer titration
—————————
In preparation.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – 60296 © IEC:2012
IEC 60970, Insulating liquids – Methods for counting and sizing particles

IEC 61125:1992, Unused hydrocarbon-based insulating liquids – Test methods for evaluating

the oxidation stability
Amendment 1 (2004)

IEC 61198, Mineral insulating oils – Methods for the determination of 2-furfural and related

compounds

IEC 61619, Insulating liquids – Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) – Method

of determination by capillary column gas chromatography

IEC 61620, Insulating liquids – Determination of the dielectric dissipation factor by

measurement of the conductance and capacitance – Test method

IEC 61868, Mineral insulating oils – Determination of kinematic viscosity at very low

temperatures

IEC 62021-1, Insulating liquids – Determination of acidity – Part 1: Automatic potentiometric

titration

IEC 62021-2, Insulating liquids – Determination of acidity – Part 2: Colourimetric titration

IEC 62535:2008, Insulating liquids – Test method for detection of potentially corrosive sulphur

in used and unused insulating oils
ISO 2719, Determination of flash point – Pensky-Martens closed cup method
ISO 3016, Petroleum products – Determination of pour point

ISO 3104, Petroleum products – Transparent and opaque liquids – Determination of kinematic

viscosity and calculation of dynamic viscosity

ISO 3675, Crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products – Laboratory determination of

density – Hydrometer method

ISO 12185, Crude petroleum and petroleum products – Determination of density – Oscillating

U-tube method

ISO 14596, Petroleum products – Determination of sulfur content – Wavelength-dispersive X-

ray fluorescence spectrometry

ASTM D971, Standard Test Method for Interfacial Tension of Oil Against Water by the Ring

Method

ASTM D7150, Standard Test Method for the Determination of Gassing Characteristics of

Insulating Liquids Under Thermal Stress at Low temperature

DIN 51353, Testing of insulating oils; detection of corrosive sulfur; Silver strip test

EN 14210, Surface active agents – Determination of interfacial tension of solutions of surface

active agents by the stirrup or ring method

IP 346, Determination of polycyclic aromatics in lubricant base oils and asphaltene free

petroleum fractions – Dimethylsulfoxide refractive method
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
60296 © IEC:2012 – 9 –

IP 373, Determination of the sulphur content of light and middle distillates – Oxidative

microcoulometry
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
transformer oil
mineral insulating oil for transformers and similar electrical equipment
3.2
low temperature switchgear oil

mineral insulating oil for oil-filled switchgear for outdoor application in very cold climatic

conditions
3.3
mineral insulating oil

insulating oil obtained by refining, modifying and/or blending of petroleum products and other

hydrocarbons

Note 1 to entry This does not include insulating liquids such as esters, synthetic aromatics or silicone fluids.

3.4
additive

chemical substance that is added to mineral insulating oil in order to improve certain

characteristics

Note 1 to entry Examples include antioxidants, metal passivators, metal deactivators, electrostatic charging

tendency depressants, gas absorbers, pour point depressants, anti-foam agents and refining process improvers.

3.5
antioxidant additive

additive incorporated in mineral insulating oil that improves oxidation stability

Note 1 to entry A large number of additives which improve oxidation stability, including inhibitors, peroxide

decomposers, metal passivators and metal deactivators, are available and may be used in oils if declared (see

6.11.1 and 6.11.2).
3.5.1
inhibitor

antioxidant additives of the phenolic-or amine- type, such as DBPC and DBP described in

IEC 60666

Note 1 to entry DBPC = 2,6-di-tert-butyl-para-cresol; DBP = 2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol.

3.5.2
other antioxidant additive
antioxidant additive of the sulphur- or phosphorous- type
3.5.3
passivator

metal passivator additive used primarily as electrostatic charging depressant, but which may

also improve oxidation stability

Note 1 to entry Metal passivators are sometimes described as metal deactivators or corrosion inhibitors.

3.6
uninhibited oil
mineral insulating oil containing no inhibitor
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – 60296 © IEC:2012

Note 1 to entry No inhibitor means that the total inhibitor content is below the detection limit of 0,01 % indicated

in IEC 60666.
3.7
trace inhibited oil

mineral insulating oil containing less than 0,08 % of total inhibitor content as measured by

IEC 60666
3.8
inhibited oil

mineral insulating oil containing a minimum of 0,08 % and a maximum of 0,40 % of total

inhibitor content as measured by IEC 60666
3.9
unused mineral insulating oil
mineral insulating oil not recycled as delivered by the supplier

Note 1 to entry Such an oil has not been used in, nor been in contact with electrical equipment or other equipment

not required for manufacture, storage or transport. The manufacturer and supplier of unused oil will have taken all

reasonable precautions to ensure that there is no contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls or terphenyls (PCB,

PCT), used, reclaimed or dechlorinated oil or other contaminants.

Note 2 to entry The definition of recycled oils will be given in IEC 62701 (in preparation).

Note 3 to entry A blend of unused and recycled oil in any proportion is regarded as being recycled.

4 Properties of oil
NOTE Oil characteristics are listed in Tables 1 and 2 and in Clause 6.
4.1 Functional properties

Properties of oil that have an impact on its function as an insulating and cooling liquid.

NOTE Functional properties include viscosity, density, pour point, water content, breakdown voltage and dielectric

dissipation factor.
4.2 Refining and stability

Properties of oil that are influenced by quality and type of refining and additives.

NOTE These can include appearance, interfacial tension, sulphur content, acidity, corrosive sulphur, 2-furfural

and related compounds content and stray gassing.
4.3 Performance

Properties that are related to the long-term behaviour of oil in service and/or its reaction to

high electric stress and temperature.

NOTE Examples include oxidation stability, gassing tendency and electrostatic charging tendency (ECT).

4.4 Health, safety and environment (HSE) properties
Oil properties related to safe handling and environment protection.

NOTE Examples can include flash point, density, PCA (polycyclic aromatics) and PCB/PCT (polychlorinated

biphenyls/ terphenyls).
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
60296 © IEC:2012 – 11 –
5 Classification, identification, general delivery requirements and sampling
5.1 Classification
5.1.1 Classes

For the purposes of this standard, mineral insulating oils are classified into two classes:

– transformer oils;
– low temperature switchgear oils.
5.1.2 Antioxidant additive (inhibitor) content

Transformer oils are classified into three groups, according to their content of antioxidant

additive:
– uninhibited transformer oils: marked with U;
– trace inhibited transformer oils: marked with T;
– inhibited transformer oils: marked with I.
5.1.3 Lowest cold start energizing temperature (LCSET)
After the inhibitor marking, the LCSET shall be indicated.

Standard LCSET in this standard is –30 °C; optionally, other LCSET can be selected

according to Table 1.
5.2 Requirements
General requirements of this standard are given in Table 2.
Specific requirements are defined under Clause 7.
5.3 Miscibility

Unused mineral insulating oils of the same class (5.1.1), the same group (5.1.2), same

LCSET (5.1.3) and containing the same types of additives are considered to be miscible and

compatible with each other (see IEC 60422).
5.4 Identification and general delivery requirements
Identification and general delivery requirements are as follows:

a) Oil is normally delivered in bulk, rail tank cars, tank containers or packed in drums or IBC

(intermediate bulk containers). These shall be clean and suitable for this purpose to avoid

any contamination.
b) Oil drums and sample containers shall carry at least the following markings:
– supplier's designation;
– classification (see 5.1);
– oil quantity.

c) As agreed between the supplier and purchaser each oil delivery may be accompanied by a

document specifying the supplier’s designation, oil classification and compliance

certificate.
NOTE This standard may be traceable to a specific batch of oil processed.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – 60296 © IEC:2012

d) The supplier shall declare the generic type of all additives, and their concentrations in the

cases of inhibitors and passivators.
5.5 Sampling

Sampling shall be carried out in accordance with the procedure described in IEC 60475.

6 Properties, their sign
...

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