Low-voltage surge protective devices - Part 31: Requirements and test methods for SPDs for photovoltaic installations

IEC 61643-31:2018 is applicable to Surge Protective Devices (SPDs), intended for surge protection against indirect and direct effects of lightning or other transient overvoltages. These devices are designed to be connected to the DC side of photovoltaic installations rated up to 1 500 V DC. These devices contain at least one non-linear component and are intended to limit surge voltages and divert surge currents. Performance characteristics, safety requirements, standard methods for testing and ratings are established. SPDs complying with this standard are exclusively dedicated to be installed on the DC side of photovoltaic generators and the DC side of inverters. SPDs for PV systems with energy storage (e.g. batteries, capacitor banks) are not covered. SPDs with separate input and output terminals that contain specific series impedance between these terminal(s) (so called two-port SPDs according to IEC 61643-11:2011) are not covered. SPDs compliant with this standard are designed to be permanently connected where connection and disconnection of fixed SPDs can only be done using a tool. This standard does not apply to portable SPDs.
The contents of the corrigendum of June 2022 have been included in this copy.

Parafoudres basse tension - Partie 31: Parafoudres pour usage spécifique y compris en courant continu - Exigences et méthodes d'essai des parafoudres pour installations photovoltaïques

IEC 61643-31:2018 est applicable aux parafoudres (SPD) de protection contre les effets indirects et directs de la foudre ou contre les surtensions transitoires. Ces dispositifs sont conçus pour être connectés en courant continu aux installations photovoltaïques de tension continue assignée jusqu’à 1 500 V. Ces dispositifs comportent au moins un composant non linéaire et sont utilisés pour limiter les surtensions et écouler les courants de foudre. Les caractéristiques de fonctionnement, les exigences de sécurité, les méthodes normalisées d'essai ainsi que les valeurs assignées applicables sont définies. Les parafoudres conformes à la présente norme sont exclusivement destinés à être installés en courant continu sur les générateurs photovoltaïques et en courant continu sur les onduleurs. Les parafoudres pour systèmes photovoltaïques (systèmes PV) avec stockage d’énergie (par exemple, les batteries d’accumulateurs, les batteries de condensateurs) ne sont pas couverts. Les parafoudres équipés de bornes d’entrée et de sortie séparées (désignés comme des parafoudres à deux ports selon l’IEC 61643-11:2011) avec une impédance série spécifique entre ces bornes ne sont pas couverts. Les parafoudres conformes à la présente norme sont conçus pour être raccordés de façon permanente lorsque la connexion et la déconnexion des parafoudres installés à poste fixe ne peuvent s’effectuer que par l’intermédiaire d’un outil. La présente norme ne s’applique pas aux parafoudres portables.
Mots clés: installations photovoltaïques , foudre ou contre les surtensions transitoires
Le contenu du corrigendum de juin 2022 a été pris en considération dans cet exemplaire.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Jan-2018
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
10-Jan-2018
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IEC 61643-31
Edition 1.0 2018-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Low-voltage surge protective devices –
Part 31: Requirements and test methods for SPDs for photovoltaic installations
Parafoudres basse tension –
Partie 31: Parafoudres pour usage spécifique y compris en courant continu –
Exigences et méthodes d'essai des parafoudres pour installations
photovoltaïques
IEC 61643-31:2018-01(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 61643-31
Edition 1.0 2018-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Low-voltage surge protective devices –
Part 31: Requirements and test methods for SPDs for photovoltaic installations
Parafoudres basse tension –
Partie 31: Parafoudres pour usage spécifique y compris en courant continu –
Exigences et méthodes d'essai des parafoudres pour installations
photovoltaïques
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.240.01; 29.240.10 ISBN 978-2-8322-5211-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 61643-31:2018 © IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms, definitions, acronyms and symbols ....................................................................... 9

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 9

3.2 Acronyms / Symbols ............................................................................................. 16

4 Service conditions ......................................................................................................... 17

4.1 Voltage ................................................................................................................. 17

4.2 Air pressure and altitude ....................................................................................... 17

4.3 Temperatures ....................................................................................................... 17

4.4 Humidity ............................................................................................................... 18

5 Classification ................................................................................................................. 18

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 18

5.2 SPD design ........................................................................................................... 18

5.3 Class I, II and III tests ........................................................................................... 18

5.4 Location ................................................................................................................ 18

5.4.1 Indoor ............................................................................................................ 18

5.4.2 Outdoor ......................................................................................................... 18

5.5 Accessibility .......................................................................................................... 18

5.5.1 Accessible ..................................................................................................... 18

5.5.2 Inaccessible .................................................................................................. 18

5.6 Disconnectors (including overcurrent protection) ................................................... 18

5.7 Degree of protection provided by enclosures according to IP-code of

IEC 60529 ............................................................................................................. 19

5.8 Temperature and humidity range ........................................................................... 19

5.9 Multipole SPD ....................................................................................................... 19

5.10 SPD failure mode .................................................................................................. 19

5.11 PV earthing system ............................................................................................... 19

6 Requirements ................................................................................................................ 19

6.1 General requirements ........................................................................................... 19

6.1.1 Identification .................................................................................................. 19

6.1.2 Marking ......................................................................................................... 21

6.2 Electrical requirements ......................................................................................... 21

6.2.1 Protection against direct contact .................................................................... 21

6.2.2 Residual current I ..................................................................................... 21

6.2.3 Voltage protection level U ............................................................................ 21

6.2.4 Operating duty ............................................................................................... 21

6.2.5 Disconnectors and status indicators ............................................................... 22

6.2.6 Insulation resistance ...................................................................................... 23

6.2.7 Dielectric withstand ....................................................................................... 23

6.2.8 Continuous current I ............................................................................... 23

CPV

6.2.9 Total discharge current I (for multipole SPDs) ........................................ 23

Total

6.3 Mechanical requirements ...................................................................................... 23

6.3.1 Mounting ....................................................................................................... 23

6.3.2 Screws, current carrying parts and connections ............................................. 23

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 61643-31:2018 © IEC 2018 – 3 –

6.3.3 External connections ..................................................................................... 23

6.3.4 Air clearances and creepage distances .......................................................... 24

6.3.5 Mechanical strength....................................................................................... 24

6.4 Environmental and material requirements ............................................................. 24

6.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 24

6.4.2 Life test under damp heat .............................................................................. 24

6.4.3 Electromagnetic compatibility ........................................................................ 24

6.5 Additional requirements for specific SPD designs ................................................. 25

6.5.1 One-port SPDs with separate input/output terminals – Rated load

current I ....................................................................................................... 25

6.5.2 Environmental tests for outdoor SPDs ........................................................... 25

6.5.3 SPDs with separate isolated circuits .............................................................. 25

6.6 Additional parameter if declared by the manufacturer – Maximum discharge

current I ......................................................................................................... 25

max

7 Type tests ..................................................................................................................... 25

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 25

7.2 Testing procedures ............................................................................................... 26

7.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 26

7.2.2 Test impulses ................................................................................................ 30

7.2.3 Characteristics of power sources for testing ................................................... 30

7.3 Indelibility of markings .......................................................................................... 32

7.4 Electrical tests ...................................................................................................... 32

7.4.1 Residual current I ..................................................................................... 32

7.4.2 Operating duty test ........................................................................................ 33

7.4.3 Disconnectors and safety performance of overstressed SPDs ........................ 37

7.4.4 SPD failure mode behaviour test ................................................................... 38

7.4.5 Dielectric withstand ....................................................................................... 41

7.4.6 Continuous current I ............................................................................... 42

CPV

7.5 Mechanical tests ................................................................................................... 42

7.5.1 Verification of air clearances and creepage distances .................................... 42

7.5.2 Pass criteria .................................................................................................. 42

7.6 Environmental and material tests .......................................................................... 45

7.6.1 Life test under damp heat .............................................................................. 45

7.6.2 Pass criteria .................................................................................................. 45

7.7 Additional tests for specific SPD designs .............................................................. 46

7.7.1 Test for one-port SPDs with separate input/output terminals .......................... 46

7.7.2 Environmental tests for outdoor SPDs ........................................................... 46

7.7.3 SPDs with separate isolated circuits .............................................................. 46

8 Routine and acceptance tests ........................................................................................ 46

8.1 Routine tests......................................................................................................... 46

8.2 Acceptance tests .................................................................................................. 47

Annex A (normative) Tests to determine the presence of a voltage-switching

component and the magnitude of the follow current of an SPD ...................................... 48

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 48

A.2 Test to determine the presence of a voltage-switching component ........................ 48

A.3 Test to determine the magnitude of the follow current ........................................... 48

Annex B (informative) Transient behaviour of the PV test source ......................................... 49

B.1 Transient behaviour of the PV test source according to 7.2.3.1 ............................. 49

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 61643-31:2018 © IEC 2018
B.2 Test setup using a semiconductor switch to determine the transient

behaviour of a PV test source ............................................................................... 49

B.3 Alternative test setup using a fuse ........................................................................ 50

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 53

Figure 1 – I/U characteristics ................................................................................................ 31

Figure 2 – Flow chart of the operating duty test .................................................................... 33

Figure 3 – Example of test setup for operating duty test ........................................................ 34

Figure 4 – Operating duty test timing diagram for test classes I and II .................................. 35

Figure 5 – Additional duty test timing diagram for test class I ................................................ 36

Figure 6 – Operating duty test timing diagram for test class III .............................................. 36

Figure 7 – Example of sample preparation for SPD failure mode behaviour test .................... 39

Figure B.1 – Test setup using an adjustable semiconductor switch to determine the

transient behaviour of a PV test source ................................................................................. 49

Figure B.2 – Time behaviour of voltage and current during disconnection operating

time of a semiconductor switch at a PV-source I = 4 A, open-circuit voltage = 640 V ........ 49

Figure B.3 – Semiconductor disconnection behaviour (normalized) with intersection

point i(t) / u(t) ........................................................................................................................ 50

Figure B.4 – I/U-characteristic of the PV test source calculated from the normalized

current and voltage records in Figure B.3 ............................................................................. 50

Figure B.5 – Test setup using a fuse to determine the transient behaviour of a PV test

source .................................................................................................................................. 51

Figure B.6 – Normalized disconnection behaviour during operation of a fuse rated

0,1 x I at a PV test source with intersection point i(t) and u(t) ...................................... 51

SCPV

Figure B.7 – I/U-characteristic of the PV test source calculated from the normalized

current and voltage records in Figure B.6 ............................................................................. 52

Table 1 – List of acronyms and symbols ............................................................................... 17

Table 2 – Compliant termination and connection methods ..................................................... 24

Table 3 – Environmental and material requirements .............................................................. 24

Table 4 – Type test requirements for SPDs ........................................................................... 28

Table 5 – Common pass criteria for type tests ...................................................................... 29

Table 6 – Specific power source characteristics for operating duty tests ............................... 31

Table 7 – Specific power source characteristics for failure mode tests .................................. 32

Table 8 – Dielectric withstand ............................................................................................... 41

Table 9 – Air clearances for SPDs ........................................................................................ 43

Table 10 – Creepage distances for SPDs .............................................................................. 44

Table 11 – Relationship between material groups and classifications .................................... 45

Table 12 – Test conductors for rated load current test .......................................................... 46

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 61643-31:2018 © IEC 2018 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
LOW-VOLTAGE SURGE PROTECTIVE DEVICES –
Part 31: Requirements and test methods
for SPDs for photovoltaic installations
FOREWORD

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patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 61643-31 has been prepared by subcommittee 37A: Low-voltage

surge protective devices, of IEC technical committee 37: Surge arresters.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
37A/306/FDIS 37A/310/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 61643-31:2018 © IEC 2018

A list of all parts of the IEC 61643 series can be found, under the general title Low-voltage

surge protective devices, on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 61643-31:2018 © IEC 2018 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

This part of IEC 61643 addresses safety and performance tests for surge protective devices

(SPDs) to be installed on the DC side of photovoltaic installations to protect against induced

and direct lightning effects.
There are three classes of tests:

1) The Class I test is intended to simulate partial conducted lightning current impulses. SPDs

subjected to Class I test methods are generally recommended for locations at points of

high exposure, e.g., line entrances to buildings protected by lightning protection systems.

2) SPDs tested to Class II or Class III test methods are subjected to impulses of shorter

duration.
3) SPDs are tested on a “black box” basis as far as possible.
Tests take into account that photovoltaic generators:
• behave like current generators,

• that their output current depends on the incident light intensity and temperature,

• that their short-circuit current is slightly higher than the operating output current,

• are connected in series and/or parallel combinations leading to a great variety of voltages,

currents and powers from a few hundreds of W (in residential installations) to several MW

(photovoltaic fields).

The specific electrical parameters of PV installations on the DC side require specific test

requirements for SPDs.

IEC 61643-32 addresses the selection and application principles of SPDs in practical

situations for PV application (work in progress).
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 61643-31:2018 © IEC 2018
LOW-VOLTAGE SURGE PROTECTIVE DEVICES –
Part 31: Requirements and test methods
for SPDs for photovoltaic installations
1 Scope

This part of IEC 61643 is applicable to Surge Protective Devices (SPDs), intended for surge

protection against indirect and direct effects of lightning or other transient overvoltages.

These devices are designed to be connected to the DC side of photovoltaic installations rated

up to 1 500 V DC.

These devices contain at least one non-linear component and are intended to limit surge

voltages and divert surge currents. Performance characteristics, safety requirements,

standard methods for testing and ratings are established.

SPDs complying with this standard are exclusively dedicated to be installed on the DC side of

photovoltaic generators and the DC side of inverters.

SPDs for PV systems with energy storage (e.g. batteries, capacitor banks) are not covered.

SPDs with separate input and output terminals that contain specific series impedance

between these terminal(s) (so called two-port SPDs according to IEC 61643-11:2011) are not

covered.
SPDs compliant with th
...

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