Internet of Things (IoT) — IoT applications for electronic label system (ELS)

This document specifies the system framework, IoT application model and overall technical requirements for ELS. This document applies to the design and development of the IoT applications for ELS. The IoT applications for ELS specified in this document are mainly applicable to the retail industry, and can also provide reference for the design and development of the IoT applications for ELS in other industries.

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General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-May-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
31-May-2022
Due Date
25-Nov-2023
Completion Date
31-May-2022
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ISO/IEC 30169:2022 - Internet of Things (IoT) — IoT applications for electronic label system (ELS) Released:5/31/2022
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ISO/IEC 30169
Edition 1.0 2022-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Internet of things (IoT) –
IoT applications for electronic label system (ELS)
ISO/IEC 30169:2022-05(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30169
Edition 1.0 2022-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Internet of things (IoT) –
IoT applications for electronic label system (ELS)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-1700-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – ISO/IEC 30169:2022  ISO/IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................... 7

5 Motivation ........................................................................................................................ 7

5.1 Background............................................................................................................. 7

5.2 Purpose and significance ........................................................................................ 8

6 System framework and IoT application model .................................................................. 8

6.1 General ................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 System framework .................................................................................................. 8

6.3 IoT application model .............................................................................................. 9

6.3.1 General ........................................................................................................... 9

6.3.2 User ................................................................................................................ 9

6.3.3 ELS backend system ..................................................................................... 10

6.3.4 Database ....................................................................................................... 11

6.3.5 IoT gateway ................................................................................................... 11

6.3.6 ELs ................................................................................................................ 12

6.3.7 Perception objects ......................................................................................... 12

7 General technical requirements ..................................................................................... 12

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 12

7.2 Function requirements .......................................................................................... 12

7.2.1 ELS backend system ..................................................................................... 12

7.2.2 Database ....................................................................................................... 14

7.2.3 IoT gateway ................................................................................................... 14

7.2.4 ELs ................................................................................................................ 14

7.3 Interface requirements .......................................................................................... 15

7.3.1 ELS backend system ..................................................................................... 15

7.3.2 Database ....................................................................................................... 15

7.3.3 IoT gateway ................................................................................................... 16

7.3.4 ELs ................................................................................................................ 16

7.3.5 System scalability .......................................................................................... 16

7.4 Performance requirements .................................................................................... 16

7.4.1 ELS backend system ..................................................................................... 16

7.4.2 Database ....................................................................................................... 16

7.4.3 IoT gateway ................................................................................................... 17

7.4.4 ELs ................................................................................................................ 17

Annex A (normative) Reference testing requirements ........................................................... 19

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 19

A.2 Mechanical testing of display devices ................................................................... 19

A.3 System performance testing .................................................................................. 19

Annex B (informative) Application scenarios, and use cases of ELS..................................... 20

B.1 Application scenarios ............................................................................................ 20

B.1.1 Consumer-oriented representation of merchandise information ...................... 20

B.1.2 Staff-oriented representation of merchandise management information ......... 20

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ISO/IEC 30169:2022  ISO/IEC 2022 – 3 –

B.1.3 P2P delivery and self pick-up oriented merchandise collection....................... 21

B.2 Use cases ............................................................................................................. 21

B.2.1 Grocery store ................................................................................................. 21

B.2.2 Cosmetics shop ............................................................................................. 21

B.2.3 Fashion shop ................................................................................................. 21

B.2.4 Industry factory .............................................................................................. 22

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 23

Figure 1 – System framework of the IoT applications for ELS .................................................. 8

Figure 2 – IoT application model of the IoT applications for ELS ............................................. 9

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– 4 – ISO/IEC 30169:2022  ISO/IEC 2022
INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) –
IoT APPLICATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC LABEL SYSTEM (ELS)
FOREWORD

1) ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical Commission)

form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of ISO or IEC

participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees established by the

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in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC and ISO on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an

international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation

from all interested IEC and ISO National bodies.

3) IEC and ISO documents have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC and

ISO National bodies in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of

IEC and ISO documents is accurate, IEC and ISO cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used

or for any misinterpretation by any end user.

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divergence between any IEC and ISO document and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be

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responsible for any services carried out by independent certification bodies.
6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this document.

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other IEC and ISO documents.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this document. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this document.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this ISO/IEC document may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC and ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/IEC 30169 has been prepared by subcommittee 41: Internet of Things and Digital Twin, of

ISO/IEC joint technical committee 1: Information technology. It is an International Standard.

The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
JTC1-SC41/277/FDIS JTC1-SC41/287/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1, available at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs

and www.iso.org/directives.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30169:2022  ISO/IEC 2022 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

The development of information technology has brought a lot of changes in daily life, especially

with the invention and emergence of IoT technology. IoT technology makes things connected

with each other, in order to enhance the efficiency, provide effective monitoring and reduce the

cost for all the regular management, maintenance, and other business events for those things.

Because of the information explosion era, there is rapid replacement of information, along with

the rich variety of the information and the extremely short life cycle of the information. It is very

difficult for traditional labels (the paper labels) to adapt to such a quick pace of information

updates. Affected by the IoT technology, traditional labels began the process of becoming

digitalized and interconnected.

However, the process of promotion and distribution of the electronic label system (ELS) is much

faster than the formation of the worldwide marketing regulation system for such a newly

emerging IoT application. To help the marketing maintain the operation under a healthy,

sustainable, and controllable condition, it is urgent to develop the ELS focused standard(s) to

accelerate standardization for the ELS design and distribution. At the same time, the ELS

focused standard(s) will actually support the relevant global marketing regulation.

This document is in response to the demand described above. To achieve this goal, the first

step is to provide a general design guide, and the overall technical requirements. This document

briefly defines the system framework and IoT application model for ELS, which will firstly specify

the components of ELS, duties of each component, regulations for business access logic and

data flow between adjacent components. Then, the overall requirements in terms of system

functions, system interfaces and system performances are specified in this document to simplify

and unify the design of ELS. In conclusion, the purpose of this document is to help ensure the

quality of service (QoS) and design conformance of ELS in the retail industry.

In order to avoid some unnecessary confusion regarding this document and to distinguish this

document from other publications, the core concepts of this document are focused only on the

overview and general requirements (discussed above) of the ELS itself.

For example, typical things out of the scope of this document include, but are not limited to,

a) electronic product labelling,
b) RFID-specified applications, and
c) health informatics.
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– 6 – ISO/IEC 30169:2022  ISO/IEC 2022
INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) –
IoT APPLICATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC LABEL SYSTEM (ELS)
1 Scope

This document specifies the system framework, IoT application model and overall technical

requirements for electronic label system (ELS).

This document applies to the design and development of the IoT applications for ELS.

The IoT applications for ELS specified in this document are mainly applicable to the retail

industry, and can also provide reference for the design and development of the IoT applications

for ELS in other industries.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
electronic label

IoT device which attaches to a physical item having a display for the

information about the item and its perceived environment and also having information

transmission via an RF data link

Note 1 to entry: Examples of the information about the item and its perceived environment include, but are not

limited to, prices, stock status, promotional advertisement, barcode, two-dimensional code, temperature, humidity,

ambient light conditions.
3.2
electronic label system
ELS

system with a few to a large number of electronic labels designed for IoT

applications
3.3
ELS backend system

subsystem intended to realize the business service functions and the equipment control

functions of ELS

Note 1 to entry: The ELS backend system provides unified planning and management services for business

activities that utilize the ELS, and it also provides a centralized equipment monitoring service.

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ISO/IEC 30169:2022  ISO/IEC 2022 – 7 –
3.4
IoT gateway

entity of an IoT system that connects one or more proximity networks and the IoT devices on

those networks to each other and to one or more access networks
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 20924:2021, 3.2.8]
4 Abbreviated terms
AES advanced encryption standard
GUI graphic user interface
IoT Internet of Things
LAN local area network
MRC machine-readable code
NFC near field communication
QoS quality of service
SSL secure socket layer
TLS transport layer security
5 Motivation
5.1 Background

In the retail industry, paper labels have a long history of being used to show consumers key

information about merchandise. Obviously, with paper labels, all the maintenance work

(including, but not limited to, information update, label inspection, label replacement) will be

done by humans. In addition, in traditional retail activities, there are many other tasks that need

to be done manually besides the maintenance of labels, including, but not limited to, inventory

inspection, replenishment of goods, payment and settlement. The drawbacks of using paper

labels include, but are not limited to, rising labour costs, inefficient business activities, error-

prone, service and management is not timely. Such drawbacks are attracting more and more

attention from the retail industry.

To address these issues, the retail industry needed to introduce an innovative business mode.

Therefore, the ELS was invented, which has been adopted by the retail industry since 1993.

According to relevant research, ELS has a global market size of over $15 billion and market

penetration of over 10 %; in other words, more than 100 retail chains in more than 55 countries

are covered (with more than 12 000 stores in total). Annex B gives some information about the

application scenarios and use cases of ELS.

At present, the display technology of electronic label in the global market is at a mature stage,

mainly using two display technologies: liquid crystal display (LCD) and electronic paper

(including monochrome display and multi-colour display). In terms of system related

technologies, ELS manufacturers are actively developing and distributing the system to promote

its popularity in the global market.

In recent years, with the rapid evolution and iteration of IoT technology, the application of IoT

has been gradually promoted and adopted in various industries. At the same time, this means

that the ELS also coincided with a good opportunity – its advantages include, but are not limited

to, convenient template design for display contents, fully automatic data update mode, the

highly effective operation management, lightweight devices, low power consumption, support

for the sensing and monitoring of target object. The application of ELS is being gradually

accepted by and popularized in other industries besides the retail industry (the core application

field), including, but not limited to, health services, public transportation, logistics, financial

transactions, advertising. In terms of the core application field, ELS has been globally and

widely used in places including, but not limited to, mainstream shopping malls, supermarkets.

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – ISO/IEC 30169:2022  ISO/IEC 2022

In terms of other application fields, the application of ELS in global markets shows a quick

growth trend. Therefore, ELS has great market potential, and ELS is the mainstream of future

development.
5.2 Purpose and significance

At present, ELS has rapidly and globally penetrated into our daily life. When an innovative

technology is rapidly promoted and deployed, the problems and potential risks are revealed

gradually. These problems and potential risks are mainly raised from the technical level and

business consistency level.

a) In terms of technology, the technologies to realize the ELS have diversified forms. The

problems caused by the lack of standardization and uniformity will mainly focus on the

following four points:
1) uncertainty of ELS system framework and IoT application model;
2) uncertainty of ELS functions;
3) uncertainty of the necessary interfaces;
4) uncertainty of ELS performance.

b) In terms of business consistency, when some businesses need to extend ELS in parallel to

integrate two or more ELSs (ELSs are from different manufacturers or different series) into

a larger ELS, a unified requirement for ELS design and distribution is the key.

In conclusion, normalization and standardization are the optimal solution to address the above

problems. Therefore, applications for ELS has been proposed as the subject of a future

International Standard. The follow-up development of this standard project will be researched

and reviewed closely related to the above issues, in order to make this International Standard

implementable. In addition, this solution will also contribute to the standardization of ELS

product acceptance and ensure the QoS for consumers.
6 System framework and IoT application model
6.1 General
Clause 6 specifies the system framework and IoT application model for ELS.
6.2 System framework
Figure 1 – System framework of the IoT applications for ELS

As shown in Figure 1, the system framework of the IoT applications for ELS shall be based on

a complete ELS. It shall be able to extend with a single ELS or multiple ELSs in parallel (via

third-party bridging service or services) according to the actual business requirements.

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30169:2022  ISO/IEC 2022 – 9 –

Each complete ELS shall be composed of ELS backend system, database, IoT gateway and ELs.

a) The backend system shall include two functions: business service, equipment management

and control.

b) The data categories in the database shall include business data and equipment data.

6.3 IoT application model
6.3.1 General
Figure 2 – IoT application model of the IoT applications for ELS

As shown in Figure 2, the IoT application model of the IoT applications for ELS shall be able to

be divided into five levels. The order of authority from top to bottom is user, ELS backend

system and database, IoT gateway, ELs, perception objects.

The data flow direction and business access logic in Figure 2 have been marked with solid

arrows and dash arrows, respectively.

Access between all levels shall be performed downward/upward level-by-level; no cross-level

access(s) is allowed, except from the user to the ELs.

Subclauses 6.3.2 to 6.3.7 provide the description how each part relates to the domain-based

reference model in the IoT Reference Architecture.
6.3.2 User

This level relates to the user domain of the domain-based reference model, but more focuses

on human user.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – ISO/IEC 30169:2022  ISO/IEC 2022

Specified in ELS, this level is the top of the IoT application model, which shall be able to provide

user entities (ELS owners, operation and maintenance personnel, and consumers) with access

interfaces of ELS, including, but not limited to, the direct access to the ELs via MRC scanning,

NFC. The access purpose shall include, but is not limited to, information query, payment, and

information within certain authority.

Consumers shall only be able to perform basic actions, including, but not limited to, public

information access, suggestions and advice feedback.

Operation and maintenance personnel shall only be able to perform regular maintenance for

the ELS backend system and database via the account with proper authorities. The
maintenance activities shall strictly follow the requirements of the ELS owners.

The ELS owners shall have the maximum access authorities and shall be able to monitor all of

the data in the ELS backend system and database, excluding payment information and

customer personal data.

The business access logic of this level to the ELS backend system, database, and ELs shall be

unidirectional. The data flow between this level and ELS backend system shall be bidirectional;

the data flow between this level and database shall be bidirectional; the direct data flow between

this level and ELs shall be prohibited. This level should be able to actively access the ELS

backend system, database, and ELs; such business access logics are irreversible.
6.3.3 ELS backend system

This level has a hybrid relation to the domains of the domain-based reference model, which

includes the operations and management domain, the application and service domain.

Specified in ELS, this level shall be able to support the IoT applications for ELS in terms of

business service, equipment management and control, and data exchange within the system.

The authority level of business service function in the ELS backend system shall be higher than

the authority level of equipment management and control function. The equipment management

and control function is controlled by the business service function.

NOTE 1 The authority levels of the business service function and equipment management and control function, and

the relationship between those two functions described here can confuse. The ELS can be thought of as a factory,

the business service function as a chief manager, and the equipment management and control function as an

executor. The chief manager will arrange necessary works for the executor according to the input business

instructions from users. Next, the chief manager will receive the execution results from the executor and then

feedback the desired results to the user. Both the business service function and the equipment management and

control function are function collections, they contain a variety of business purpose functions and equipment relevant

functions, respectively, according to different actual business demands.

For instance, the functions contained in the equipment management and control function are more fundamental than

the functions contained in the business service function. To realize a function in the business service function, it is

possible that the cooperation of multiple functions is needed in the equipment management and control function;

functions in the business service function can call functions in the equipment management and control function, but

the reverse call is not supported and is forbidden. In general, the data received by the equipment management and

control function are not raw data from users, but processed data from the business function service instead.

NOTE 2 The detailed classification of those functions is out of scope.

The business access logic between the business service function, the equipment management

and control function in the ELS backend system, and the business database in the database

shall be unidirectional for all. The corresponding data flows shall be bidirectional for all. The

business service function shall be able to actively access the equipment management and

control function, and the business database in the database. Such business access logic is

irreversible.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30169:2022  ISO/IEC 2022 – 11 –

The business access logic between the device control function in the ELS backend system and

the device database in the database
...

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