Information technology -- Learning, education and training -- Collaborative technology -- Collaborative workplace

ISO 19778-2:2015 specifies the Data Model for a collaborative environment. The collaborative environment Data Model composes collaborative tools and declares their collaborative functions by specifying their names. These names can be used as references to collaborative tools and collaborative functions specified in detail by further specifications or standards. Where no such specifications or standards are available or identified, the provision of descriptions for human interpretation may support harmonized use of these names.

Technologies de l'information -- Apprentissage, éducation et formation -- Technologies collaboratives -- Lieu de travail collaboratif

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18-Oct-2015
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 19778-2
Second edition
2015-10-15
Information technology —
Learning, education and training
— Collaborative technology —
Collaborative workplace —
Part 2:
Collaborative environment data model
Technologies de l’information — Apprentissage, éducation et
formation — Technologies collaboratives — Lieu de travail
collaboratif —
Partie 2: Modèle de données de l’environnement collaboratif
Reference number
ISO/IEC 19778-2:2015(E)
ISO/IEC 2015
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ISO/IEC 19778-2:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

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ii © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 19778-2:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

1.1 Statement of scope ............................................................................................................................................................................... 1

1.2 Subjects and aspects not currently addressed ............................................................................................................ 1

1.3 Excluded subjects and aspects .................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Abbreviated terms and acronyms ...................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Collaborative environment Data Model ....................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Data Model representation ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Collaborative environment Data Model diagram ...................................................................................................... 2

5.3 Collaborative environment Data Model specification ........................................................................................... 3

5.4 Supplementing information for DMEs of the CE DM .............................................................................................. 8

5.4.1 AE CE_General .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4.2 DE CE_Name ......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4.3 DE CE_Description .......................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4.4 AE CE_ID .................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.4.5 DE CE_ID_source............................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4.6 DE CE_ID_value .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.4.7 AE CW_ID-Ref...................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4.8 DE CW_ID-Ref_source ...............................................................................................................................................10

5.4.9 DE CW_ID-Ref_value ..................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.10 AE CE_Tools .......................................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.11 DE CE_Tools_spec_source ......................................................................................................................................10

5.4.12 AE CE_Tool ..........................................................................................................................................................................11

5.4.13 DE CE_Tool_name .........................................................................................................................................................11

5.4.14 DE CE_Tool_description ..........................................................................................................................................11

5.4.15 AE CE_Functions ............................................................................................................................................................11

5.4.16 DE CE_Functions_spec_source ...........................................................................................................................11

5.4.17 AE CE_Function ..............................................................................................................................................................11

5.4.18 DE CE_Function_name ..............................................................................................................................................11

5.4.19 DE CE_Function_description ...............................................................................................................................11

6 Conformance ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) Alphabetical list of terms .................................................................................................................................13

Annex B (informative) Examples for collaborative functions ..................................................................................................15

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 19778-2:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, Subcommittee

SC 36, Information technology for learning, education and training.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC 19778-2:2008), of which it constitutes

a minor revision.

ISO/IEC 19778 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information technology — Learning,

education and training — Collaborative technology — Collaborative workplace:
— Part 1: Collaborative workplace data model
— Part 2: Collaborative environment data model
— Part 3: Collaborative group data model
iv © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 19778-2:2015(E)
Introduction

ISO/IEC 19778 provides Data Models for specifying collaborative workplaces and their components.

ISO/IEC 19778-1 provides general information for all parts, and specifies a Data Model which, by

reference, composes the Data Model instantiations of the two main components of a collaborative

workplace: the collaborative environment and the collaborative group. This part of ISO/IEC 19778 provides

the Data Model for the collaborative environment and specifies information related to the service aspects

of a collaborative workplace. ISO/IEC 19778-3 provides the Data Model for the collaborative group and

specifies information related to the roles and the membership of a collaborative workplace.

The main accomplishment of this part of ISO/IEC 19778 is to specify the composition of the collaborative

tools which are integrated in the collaborative service(s) of a collaborative workplace. As collaborative

tools frequently provide several collaborative functions, these collaborative functions are also identified

in the collaborative environment Data Model.
The purposes of this part of ISO/IEC 19778 are the following:

— to provide a standardized way of defining and instantiating, as an independent entity, the

service(s) and associated entities of a collaborative workplace (this is done by associating these

services and entities with a collaborative environment identifier unique within a particular domain

or application context);

— to specify the technical and infrastructural requirements of a collaborative workplace for the purpose

of set-up, employment, management, administration, and evaluation of its collaborative environment.

The detailed specification of the collaborative tools and their collaborative functions is not provided

in this part of ISO/IEC 19778; however, it may be linked to the collaborative environment Data Model

instantiations by referring to “potential further specifications or standards” that are not identified

and possibly do not yet even exist. (One of the intentions of this part of ISO/IEC 19778 is to encourage

adopters to develop and harmonize such specifications.)

Linkages to “potential further specifications or standards” are constituted by employing a “source/value”

approach, where the value (e.g. the name of a collaborative tool or collaborative function) is taken from a

“source”, a specification or standard, which declares the names and specifies the details of collaborative

tools or collaborative functions. The “source” itself is specified by reference, using a URL. The intention

of this “source/value” approach is to provide a simple method for linking developing specifications or

standards to the Data Model of this part of ISO/IEC 19778 without needing to identify them beforehand.

This highly flexible method reflects the fact that ISO/IEC 19778-2 is a part of a multipart standard that

represents prospective technology. Figure 1 illustrates how this is achieved.
© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC 19778-2:2015(E)
Figure 1 — Composing collaborative tools and declaring collaborative functions
in this part of ISO/IEC 19778

In this part of ISO/IEC 19778, “composing collaborative tools” and “declaring their collaborative

functions” are generally performed by specifying names of collaborative tools and collaborative

functions. Further information on these collaborative tools and collaborative functions may be specified

in “potential further specifications or standards” which are not included in this part of ISO/IEC 19778.

The adopters of this part of ISO/IEC 19778 may decide whether or not to use such “potential further

specifications or standards”. If no “potential further specifications or standards” are used, the names

and properties of collaborative tools and collaborative functions need to be consistently known in the

user community. This, however, also means that the interoperability of Data Model instantiations of this

kind is limited to this “harmonized” user community.

Where the need for broader interoperability exists, external “specifications or standards” are required.

They would at least define a set of collaborative tools or collaborative functions, provide names for

them, and describe their properties. Of course, such “specifications or standards” could be very simple

and general. However, they could be highly sophisticated and detailed as well. Where a collaborative

environment Data Model instantiation makes use of such an external “specification or standard”, it

references it and adopts the names for collaborative tools or collaborative functions as shown in Figure 1.

Using this first edition of this part of ISO/IEC 19778 provides utmost flexibility at the risk of a low-

level of interoperability. It allows adopters to experiment with diverse specifications for collaborative

tools or collaborative functions. It is intended as a step towards broader harmonization of collaborative

tools or collaborative functions with respect to their specification and naming. This expected progress

in harmonization will be reflected by future editions of this part of ISO/IEC 19778, while today’s users

can employ this first edition instantly.
vi © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 19778-2:2015(E)
Information technology — Learning, education and training
— Collaborative technology — Collaborative workplace —
Part 2:
Collaborative environment data model
1 Scope
1.1 Statement of scope

This part of ISO/IEC 19778 specifies the Data Model for a collaborative environment.

The collaborative environment Data Model composes collaborative tools and declares their collaborative

functions by specifying their names. These names can be used as references to collaborative tools

and collaborative functions specified in detail by further specifications or standards. Where no

such specifications or standards are available or identified, the provision of descriptions for human

interpretation may support harmonized use of these names.
1.2 Subjects and aspects not currently addressed

In future editions of this part of ISO/IEC 19778, extended support for adapting collaborative

environments to preferences and needs of participants may be provided. Such support can be gained by

prioritizing the collaborative effects (defining which collaborative effects are intended to be supported)

in contrast to the collaborative tools and collaborative functions (defining by which technical provisions

the intended collaborative effects are supported).
1.3 Excluded subjects and aspects

Subjects and aspects not provided by this part of ISO/IEC 19778, but which it is anticipated will be

provided by further specifications or standards include the following:

— the detailed specification of collaborative tools or collaborative functions (such specification is left to

further specifications or standards and means service component harmonization which is excluded

from this part of ISO/IEC 19778);

— the detailed specification of collaborative effects (such specification is left to further specifications or

standards and addresses application modelling which is excluded from this part of ISO/IEC 19778);

— the specification of methods for integrating collaborative tools or collaborative functions into services

(as this affects service modelling which is excluded from this part of ISO/IEC 19778).

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 19778-1:— , Information technology — Learning, education and training — Collaborative

technology — Collaborative workplace — Part 1: Collaborative workplace data model

1) To be published.
© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 19778-2:2015(E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 19778-1 apply.

4 Abbreviated terms and acronyms

NOTE Some of the abbreviated terms or acronyms in this Clause represent terms defined in ISO/IEC 19778-

1:—, Clause 3. The term numbers are provided in brackets.
AE Aggregating Element (see 3.1.1)
CE Collaborative Environment (see 3.2.3)
CW Collaborative Workplace (see 3.2.8)
DE Data Element (see 3.1.5)
DM Data Model (see 3.1.7)
DME Data Model Element (see 3.1.8)
ID Identifier
Ref Reference
URI Uniform Resource Identifier
URL Uniform Resource Locator (world wide web address)
XML eXtensible Markup Language
XSD XML Schema Definition
5 Collaborative environment Data Model
5.1 Data Model representation

The table-based Data Model representation used here corresponds to the specification provided in

ISO/IEC 19778-1:—, 5.1.
5.2 Collaborative environment Data Model diagram

Figure 2 provides a relational overview for the collaborative environment Data Model as specified in

this part of ISO/IEC 19778. This diagram also indicates specifications or standards which are as of yet

unidentified and out of scope for this part of ISO/IEC 19778, but which may play a significant role in its

implementation.

The Data Model is outlined inside the large dashed box. The Root Element on top represents the basis for

this Data Model and is not represented in the table representation. The indices of the branches are denoted.

2 © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 19778-2:2015(E)

Figure 2 — Collaborative environment Data Model and external specifications or standards

Four potential further specifications or standards are denoted as grey boxes outside the large dashed

box to the right. The arrows from the DMEs to these boxes represent references from this Data Model to

such specifications or standards. Where such specifications or standards are referenced, they impose

regulations on “value” or “name” DMEs as specified in the Datatype column of the Data Model table in 5.3.

5.3 Collaborative environment Data Model specification

The following specification of the Data Model uses the tabular representation specified in

ISO/IEC 19778-1:—, 5.1.
© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/IEC 19778-2:2015(E)
4 © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
Table 1 — Collaborative Environment Data Model
Identifier Designation Definition Obligation Multiplicity Datatype Examples
1 CE_General Information describing the collabo- mandatory 1
rative environment as a whole

1.1 CE_Name A title or name by which the col- optional 1 ISO/IEC 11404:2007, 10.1.5 Computer Graphics Exercises

laborative environment is generally “C h a r ac t er s t r i n g ( I S O/
known IEC 10646)”
Supported Length = 100 char-
acters

1.2 CE_Description An account of the collaborative optional 1 ISO/IEC 11404:2007, 10.1.5 Environment for collaborative

environment “C h a r ac t er s t r i n g ( I S O/ work on Computer Graphics
IEC 10646)” exercises
Supported Length = 4000 char-
acters
1.3 CE_ID An identifier for the collaborative mandatory 1
environment

1.3.1 CE_ID_source The name or URI of the identification optional 1 ISO/IEC 11404:2007, 10.1.5 http://www.gris.informatik.

scheme used to generate the value “C h a r ac t er s t r i n g ( I S O/ tu-darmstadt.de/idformats/

of the collaborative environment IEC 10646)” identifier_type.pdf
identifier. A namespace scheme.
Supported Length = 250 char-
acters

1.3.2 CE_ID_value Value of the collaborative environ- mandatory 1 ISO/IEC 11404:2007, 10.1.5 de_tu-darmstadt_informatik_

ment identifier “C h a r ac t er s t r i n g ( I S O/ gris_20060707_13582578
IEC 10646)”
Supported Length = 250 char-
acters
Permissible values shall comply
with any specification or stand-
ard identified by the reference
value in DE 1.3.1 (if provided).
1.4 CW_ID-Ref Collaborative workplace identifier optional 1
reference
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ISO/IEC 19778-2:2015(E)
© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved 5
Table 1 (continued)
Identifier Designation Definition Obligation Multiplicity Datatype Examples

1.4.1 CW_ID-Ref_source The name or URI of the identifica- optional 1 ISO/IEC 11404:2007, 10.1.5 http://www.gris.informatik.

tion scheme used to generate the “C h a r ac t er s t r i n g ( I S O/ tu-darmstadt.de/idformats/

value of the collaborative workplace IEC 10646)” identifier_type.pdf
identifier reference. A namespace
Supported Length = 250 char-
scheme.
acters

1.4.2 CW_ID-Ref_value Value of the collaborative workplace mandatory 1 ISO/IEC 11404:2007, 10.1.5 de_tu-darmstadt_informatik_

identifier reference; the correspond- “C h a r ac t er s t r i n g ( I S O/ gris_20060910_10141733

ing collaborative workplace identifier IEC 10646”
is specified in Data Element “ISO/
Supported Length = 250 char-
IEC 19778-1:—, 1.3.2”.
acters
Permissible values shall comply
with any specification or stand-
ard identified by the reference
value in DE 1.4.1 (if provided).
2 CE_Tools Specification of the collaborative mandatory 1
tools of the collaborative environment

2.1 CE_Tools_spec_source URI of the specification of permis- optional 1 ISO/IEC 11404:2007, 10.1.5 http://www.gris.informatik.

sible collaborative tools’ names and “C h a r ac t er s t r i n g ( I S O/ tu-darmstadt.de/tools.pdf

specifications. A namespace scheme. IEC 10646)”
Supported Length = 250 char-
acters
2.2 CE_Tool Collaborative tool specification mandatory 1..20

2.2.1 CE_Tool_name Name of the collaborative tool mandatory 1 ISO/IEC 11404:2007, 10.1.5 Chat

“C h a r ac t er s t r i n g ( I S O/
IEC 10646)”
Supported Length = 100 char-
acters
Permissible values shall comply
with any specification or stand-
ard identified by the reference
value in DE 2.1 (if provided).
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ISO/IEC 19778-2:2015(E)
6 © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
Table 1 (continued)
Identifier Designation Definition Obligation Multiplicity Datatype Examples

2.2.2 CE_Tool_description Description of the collaborative tool optional 1 ISO/IEC 11404:2007, 10.1.5 Proprietory tool

“C h a r ac t er s t r i n g ( I S O/
IEC 10646)”
Supported Length = 4000 char-
acters
2.2.3 CE_Functions Specification of the collaborative optional 1
function(s) of the collaborative tool

2.2.3.1 CE _Functions_spec_ URI of the specification of permis- optional 1 ISO/IEC 11404:2007, 10.1.5 http://www.gris.informatik.

source sible collaborative functions’ names “C h a r ac t er s t r i n g ( I S O/ tu-darmstadt.de/functions.pdf

and specifications. A namespace IEC 10646)”
scheme.
Supported Length = 250 char-
acters
2.2.3.2 CE_Function Collaborative function specification mandatory 1..20

2.2.3.2.1 CE_Function_name Name of the collaborative function mandatory 1 ISO/IEC 11404:2007, 10.1.5 Upload

“C h a r ac t er s t r i n g ( I S O/
IEC 10646)”
Supported Length = 100 char-
acters
Permissible values shall comply
with any specification or stand-
ard identified by the reference
value in DE 2.2.3.1 (if provided).

2.2.3.2.2 CE_Function_description Description of the collaborative optional 1 ISO/IEC 11404:2007, 10.1.5 File upload function

function “C h a r ac t er s t r i n g ( I S O/
IEC 10646)”
Supported Length = 4000 char-
acters
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ISO/IEC 19778-2:2015(E)
© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO/IEC 19778-2:2015(E)
5.4 Supplementing information for DMEs of the CE DM
5.4.1 AE CE_General

This Aggregating Element groups the general information that describes this collaborative

environment as a whole.
5.4.2 DE CE_Name
Name given to the collaborative environment.
NOTE This name is solely intended for human use.
5.4.3 DE CE_Description
Description of the collaborative environment.
NOTE This description is solely intended for human reading and understanding.
5.4.4 AE CE_ID

This Aggregating Element groups the source and value of the collaborative environment identifier that

serves as a label for a collaborative environment Data Model instantiation (for allowing to reference it

from the associated collaborative workplace Data Model instantiation, or from external objects).

Figure 3 — Linkages between the collaborative environment, the associated
collaborative workplace, and the associated collaborative group
8 © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 19778-2:2015(E)

In order to support more than a single identifier format, a “source-value” approach has been applied in

this Aggregating Element. Accordingly, the value of the sub-element “source” specifies a Uniform Resource

Identifier (URI), that can be used for establishing the range of uniqueness for the collaborative environment

identifier value; it could also represent a URI that procures access to a data object that specifies the

identifier format. The sub-element “value” serves as a label for the associated collaborative environment.

5.4.5 DE CE_ID_source

The value of this Data Element specifies the URI of the source where the regulations are provided that

are associated with the used collaborative environment ID value. The purpose of this value is manifold.

— The URI (in its capacity of being a globally unique identifier) unambiguously identifies a particular

community that is responsible for the uniqueness of the used collaborative environment ID values

within this community.

— The URI provides access to the regulations regarding the format of the admissible collaborative

environment ID values. These regulations generally specify how such identifiers are constructed

(within the limits of their datatype). Typically, such a specification may restrict the permitted

character set, may specify particular characters with special meaning (e.g. separators between

distinct fields of the character string), may (for Data Model instantiations only) restrict the supported

number of characters of the character string, etc.

NOTE 1 The format of such regulations is not specified in this part of ISO/IEC 19778. Particularly, it is left

open whether such regulations are appropriate for automated use or just for human reading, understanding,

and observance.

NOTE 2 This Data Element is optional in order to allow simple applications of this Data Model, where the

practicing community takes care that the collaborative group identifier values are unambiguous.

NOTE 3 At the time of the publication of this part of ISO/IEC 19778, direct or indirect reference to RFC 3986 -

Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax {http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt} was recommended.

5.4.6
...

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