Information technology -- Learning, education and training -- Metadata for learning resources

ISO/IEC 19788-4:2014 specifies, in a rule-based manner, metadata elements and their attributes for the description of learning resources. This includes the rules governing the identification of metadata elements and the specification of metadata attributes. These metadata elements are used to form the description of a learning resource, i.e. as a metadata learning resource (MLR) record. This part of ISO/IEC 19788 specifies, using ISO/IEC 19788-1, technical aspects of learning resources, i.e., requirements for use, location, size, etc.

Technologies de l'information -- Apprentissage, éducation et formation -- Métadonnées pour ressources d'apprentissage

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Published
Publication Date
19-Nov-2014
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9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
07-Oct-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 19788-4
First edition
2014-12-01
Information technology — Learning,
education and training — Metadata
for learning resources —
Part 4:
Technical elements
Technologies de l’information — Apprentissage, éducation et
formation — Métadonnées pour ressources d’apprentissage —
Partie 4: Éléments techniques
Reference number
ISO/IEC 19788-4:2014(E)
ISO/IEC 2014
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 19788-4:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 19788-4:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5 Data element specifications ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Location (DES0100) ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Size (DES0200) ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3 Duration (DES0300) ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.4 IT platform requirement (DES0400) ................................................................................................................................... 6

5.5 Optional technical features (DES0500) ............................................................................................................................. 6

5.6 Has media format information (DES0600) .................................................................................................................... 7

5.7 Medium of recording (DES0700) ............................................................................................................................................ 7

5.8 Medium format ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6 Resource Class ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1 Learning resource class ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Media format information class ............................................................................................................................................... 9

7 Predefined rule sets .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

Annex A (informative) Human interface equivalents: ISO English and ISO French ..........................................10

Annex B (informative) Concept map for ISO/IEC 19788-4 ..........................................................................................................11

Annex C (informative) Crosswalk to MLR .....................................................................................................................................................12

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO/IEC 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 19788-4:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of the joint technical committee is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the joint technical committee are circulated to national bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the national bodies

casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/IEC 19788-4 was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 36, Information technology for learning, education and training.

ISO/IEC 19788 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information technology — Learning,

education and training — Metadata for learning resources
— Part 1: Framework
— Part 2: Dublin Core elements
— Part 3: Basic application profile
— Part 4: Technical elements
— Part 5: Educational elements
— Part 6: Availability, distribution, and intellectual property elements
— Part 8: Data elements for MLR records
— Part 9: Data elements for Persons
The following files are under preparation:
— Part 7: Bindings

— Part 10: Application profile for access, distribution and intellectual property (WIPO compliant) elements

— Part 11: Migration from LOM to MLR
iv © ISO/IEC 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 19788-4:2014(E)
Introduction
Overall purpose of this International Standard

The primary purpose of this International Standard is to facilitate: (1) the description of a learning

resource by providing a standards-based approach to the identification and specification of the metadata

elements required to describe a learning resource, e.g. as a metadata learning resource (MLR) record;

and (2) the search, discovery, acquisition, evaluation, and use of learning resources, for instance by

learners, instructors, or automated software processes. The interoperability of these functions can be

achieved through harvesting or federated search processes, among other technologies and solutions.

This International Standard is based on identified user requirements.

This International Standard has a modular structure with all subsequent parts corresponding to a

specified set of user requirements for the identification and specification of metadata elements having

a particular focus and intended use in the description of a learning resource. This includes categories

of metadata elements focused on technical perspectives, pedagogical aspects, availability accessibility,

and intellectual property aspects, bindings, etc.
Purpose and overview of this part of ISO/IEC 19788

Learning resources, like any others, can have technical characteristics that affect or limit how the

resource can be used. These technical metadata elements describing learning resources are illustrated

in a conceptual model in Annex B. Some characteristics of significance in educational contexts have not

yet been defined in metadata standards. This part of ISO/IEC 19788 defines how such characteristics

should be described. These metadata elements can be used in combination with metadata elements from

other parts of this International Standard. They can also be used in combination with elements from

other metadata specifications, IEEE 1484.12.1-2002 Learning Object Metadata (LOM) or other metadata

schemas. More detailed media format can be extracted from the media file(s) for example information

about the codec required, bandwidth, resolution, and other technical information.

In particular, metadata elements in this part of ISO/IEC 19788 anticipate technical characteristics for

emerging technologies such as tablets and mobile phones. This part of ISO/IEC 19788 metadata elements

can be refined, conforming to this International Standard, by particular communities according to their

needs.
© ISO/IEC 2014 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 19788-4:2014(E)
Information technology — Learning, education and
training — Metadata for learning resources —
Part 4:
Technical elements
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies, in a rule-based manner, metadata elements and their attributes

for the description of learning resources. This includes the rules governing the identification of metadata

elements and the specification of metadata attributes.

These metadata elements are used to form the description of a learning resource, i.e. as a metadata

learning resource (MLR) record.

This part of ISO/IEC 19788 specifies, using ISO/IEC 19788-1, technical aspects of learning resources, i.e.,

requirements for use, location, size, etc.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011 Information technology — Metadata for Learning Resources (MLR) — Part 1:

Framework
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011 and the

following apply.
3.1
attribute
characteristic of an object or entity
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.4]
3.2
attribute value
information recorded as the attribute (3.1) in a data element (3.4)
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.5]
3.3
content value

information recorded as the content of the data element (3.4), in compliance with its data element

specification (3.5)
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.10]
© ISO/IEC 2014 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 19788-4:2014(E)
3.4
data element
unit of data described in a data element specification (3.5)
[SOURCE: ISO 9735-1:2002, 4.28]
3.5
data element specification

set of attributes (3.1) and attribute value (3.2) rules characterizing a set of data elements (3.4)

Note 1 to entry: Adapted from the definition of “simple data element specification” in ISO/IEC 9735-1:2002, 4.106.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.14]
3.6
definition

representation of a concept by a descriptive statement which serves differentiate it from related concepts

[SOURCE: ISO 1087-1:2000, 3.3.1]
3.7
domain

resource class (3.15) whose resources (3.14) are described by the data element (3.4)

under consideration

Note 1 to entry: A central resource class for ISO/IEC 19788 is Learning Resource (the set of all learning resources).

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.16]
3.8
identifier
sequence of characters capable of uniquely identifying an entity

Note 1 to entry: An identifier is linguistically neutral, with no translation provided.

Note 2 to entry: An identifier may be of the nature of a composite identifier, i.e. a unique identifier, consisting of

two or more identifiers and/or other data elements, whose inter-workings are rule-based and which together

serve as a “single” identifier.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.19]
3.9
learning resource
resource (3.14) used for learning, education, and training
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.20]
3.10
literal
string representing a value
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.21]
3.11
name
designation of an object by a linguistic expression
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 11179-1:2004, 3.2.21]
2 © ISO/IEC 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 19788-4:2014(E)
3.12
range

resource class (3.15) to which the content values (3.3) of the data element (3.4) belong, or

set of literals (3.10) comprising the string representations of the permissible values of the data element

under consideration
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.28]
3.13
refine

have an associated property which is a sub-property of the property

associated with

Note 1 to entry: This implies that the value of the domain attribute of the first data element specification is

identical or a proper subset of the value of the domain attribute of the second data element specification and that

the value of the range attribute of the first data element specification is identical or a proper subset of the value of

the range attribute of the second data element specification.

Note 2 to entry: Data element instances of the first data element specification are said refine data element

instances of the second data element specification.
EXAMPLE 1 Property “is son of” refines property “is child of”.
EXAMPLE 2 Property “has mother” refines property “has parent”.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.29]
3.14
resource

entity that can be identified and referenced by an unambiguous and stable identifier (3.8) in a recognized

identification system.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.30]
3.15
resource class
set of resourc
...

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