Service activities relating to drinking water supply systems and wastewater systems — Crisis management — Good practice for technical aspects

ISO/TS 24520:2017 provides guidance to water utilities on good practice in technical aspects of crisis management. ISO/TS 24520:2017 is applicable to all water utilities, of whatever size, whether public or private, that wish to review the effectiveness and efficiency of their service activities relating to preparation for, response to and recovery from a crisis.

Activités relatives aux services de l'eau potable et de l'assainissement — Gestion de crise — Les bonnes pratiques pour les aspects techniques

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Sep-2017
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Completion Date
29-Jun-2022
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TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 24520
First edition
2017-09
Service activities relating to drinking
water supply systems and wastewater
systems — Crisis management — Good
practice for technical aspects
Activités relatives aux services de l’eau potable et de
l’assainissement — Gestion de crise — Les bonnes pratiques pour les
aspects techniques
Reference number
ISO/TS 24520:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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ISO/TS 24520:2017(E)
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© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

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ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 24520:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Concepts and principles ................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.2 Crisis management phases ........................................................................................................................................................... 8

5 Preparedness ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.2 Establishing the context ...............................................................................................................................................................11

5.3 Commitment ..........................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.4 Risk assessment ..................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.5 Procedures and plans, responding, repairing and restoring ........................................................................12

5.6 Structure and organization .......................................................................................................................................................13

5.7 Procedures and tools to identify a crisis and initiate the crisis management team.................13

5.8 Training and exercise .....................................................................................................................................................................15

5.9 Crisis management team .............................................................................................................................................................16

5.10 Communication and cooperation.........................................................................................................................................16

5.10.1 Crisis management team communications with users and other stakeholders ....16

5.10.2 Cooperation and communications between the water utility and the

relevant authorities in the event of a crisis ............................................................................................18

5.11 Provisions of plans and resources .......................................................................................................................................20

5.11.1 Emergency physical facilities .............................................................................................................................20

5.11.2 Water utility personnel safety measures .................................................................................................20

5.11.3 Sampling and analysis capability and capacity ..................................................................................20

5.11.4 Alternative water supply ........................................................................................................................................20

5.11.5 Resource availability .................................................................................................................................................20

5.12 Monitoring and review ..................................................................................................................................................................20

5.13 Documentation ....................................................................................................................................................................................20

6 Response ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................21

6.2 Situation ascertainment ...............................................................................................................................................................21

6.3 Situation assessment ......................................................................................................................................................................21

6.4 Decision making ..................................................................................................................................................................................22

6.5 Implementation of decisions and issuing of orders .............................................................................................22

6.6 Supervision and control ...............................................................................................................................................................22

6.7 Process for risk assessment during a crisis ................................................................................................................22

6.8 Communications feedback .........................................................................................................................................................23

7 Recovery to normal operation.............................................................................................................................................................23

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................23

7.2 Survey for restoration purposes ...........................................................................................................................................23

7.3 Restoration alternatives ...............................................................................................................................................................24

7.4 Priorities in recovery ......................................................................................................................................................................24

7.5 Planning the deployment of recovery measures ....................................................................................................25

7.6 Repairing the damage ....................................................................................................................................................................25

7.7 Verification ..............................................................................................................................................................................................26

7.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................26

7.7.2 Verification of quality in the drinking water supply system ...................................................26

7.7.3 Verification of quality in the wastewater system ..............................................................................26

7.8 Restoring the service ......................................................................................................................................................................27

7.8.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................27

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ISO/TS 24520:2017(E)

7.8.2 Restoration of drinking water service ........................................................................................................27

7.8.3 Restoration of wastewater service ................................................................................................................27

7.9 Assessments for recovery stage ............................................................................................................................................27

8 Monitoring and review of the crisis management system .....................................................................................27

8.1 Performance measurement and monitoring ..............................................................................................................27

8.2 Issues to address when monitoring the performance of a training procedure ............................28

8.3 Crisis management system maintenance process .................................................................................................28

8.4 Crisis management system assessment .........................................................................................................................29

9 Management review .......................................................................................................................................................................................29

Annex A (informative) Preparedness................................................................................................................................................................31

Annex B (informative) Recovery to normal operation ....................................................................................................................41

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................43

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ISO/TS 24520:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: w w w . i s o .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 224, Service activities relating to drinking

water supply systems and wastewater systems — Quality criteria of the service and performance indicators.

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/TS 24520:2017(E)
Introduction

Water is the source of life, without which humans, as well as other species, cannot survive. In many

countries, there is a lack of knowledge regarding crisis management of drinking water and wastewater

services.

Impairment of the drinking water service would change the quality of life of the affected population

in the immediate period while in the medium-term it could affect their ability to survive. Therefore,

the continuous and orderly supply of clean water is of paramount importance for the population. The

collection, treatment and safe disposal of sanitary wastewater are also important if illness and/or

inundation are to be prevented and the environment protected. This document describes good practice

in the establishment of technical crisis management systems drawn from experience contributed by

relevant national authorities.

The approach of a water utility when preparing for any crisis should encompass all pertinent aspects of

water supply and the collection, treatment and safe disposal of wastewater. The water utility needs to

cooperate with all relevant authorities concerned with the crisis. Effective crisis management should

ensure that the actions taken before, during and after the crisis consider the natural environment as

well as the impact on the health and wellbeing of the population. Effective communication with the

public is necessary to mitigate or prevent panic and to establish trust in the water utility by disclosing

important information appropriately in the area affected by a crisis, in neighbouring areas or to any

other stakeholders.

This document can be used as a toolkit by water utilities where they wish to review their current

capability to prepare for, respond to and recover from a crisis in an effective and efficient manner. It

is not intended as a complete guide to crisis management. Water utilities can consult ISO 24518 if they

need further guidance.
vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 24520:2017(E)
Service activities relating to drinking water supply systems
and wastewater systems — Crisis management — Good
practice for technical aspects
1 Scope

This document provides guidance to water utilities on good practice in technical aspects of crisis

management.

This document is applicable to all water utilities, of whatever size, whether public or private, that wish

to review the effectiveness and efficiency of their service activities relating to preparation for, response

to and recovery from a crisis.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
alternative wastewater service

wastewater (3.40) service (3.37) provided to users (3.39) by means other than through the normal

collection and treatment system
3.2
alternative water supply

water provided to users (3.39) by means other than through the normal treatment and distribution system

3.3
analysis

systematic examination in which the biological or technical system is decomposed into its component

parts using suitable methods, after which the parts are then organized and evaluated

Note 1 to entry: Analysis also includes water quality sampling operations carried out after sample preparation to

determine the amount of concentration of the analyte(s) of interest present in the sample.

3.4
asset
capital-forming goods used for the provision of the service (3.37)

Note 1 to entry: Assets can be tangible or intangible. Examples of tangible assets are land, buildings, pipes, tanks,

treatment plants, equipment and hardware. Examples of intangible assets are software and databases.

Note 2 to entry: Contrary to consumables, assets can be depreciated (tangible assets) or amortized (intangible

assets) in accounting systems.
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ISO/TS 24520:2017(E)
3.5
audit

systematic, independent and documented process (3.30) for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it

objectively to determine the extent to which the audit criteria are fulfilled

Note 1 to entry: An audit can be an internal audit (first party) or an external audit (second party or third party)

and it can be a combined audit (combining two or more disciplines).
Note 2 to entry: “Audit evidence” and “audit criteria” are defined in ISO 19011.
3.6
availability

extent to which the infrastructure (3.20), assets (3.4), resources and employees of a water utility (3.41)

enable effective provision of services (3.37) to users (3.39) according to specified performances (3.27)

3.7
capability
quality (3.31) of being able to perform a given activity
3.8
competence
ability to apply knowledge and skills to achieve intended results

Note 1 to entry: Demonstrated competence is sometimes referred to as qualification.

3.9
consequence
outcome of an event affecting objectives (3.25)
3.10
continual improvement
recurring activity to enhance performance (3.27)

Note 1 to entry: The process (3.30) of establishing objectives (3.25) and finding opportunities for improvement is a

continual process through the use of audit (3.5) findings and audit conclusions, analysis (3.3) of data, management

(3.23) reviews or other means and generally leads to corrective action or preventive action.

3.11
crisis

event or situation which affects or is likely to affect the organization (3.26) or its provided services (3.37)

which requires more than the usual means of operation and/or organizational structures to deal with it

3.12
crisis management plan

document specifying which procedures (3.29) and associated resources should be applied by whom and

where to a particular type of crisis (3.11)
3.13
drinking water
DEPRECATED: potable water
water intended for human consumption

Note 1 to entry: Requirements (3.34) for drinking water quality (3.31) specifications are generally laid down by

the national relevant authorities. Guidelines are established by the World Health Organization (WHO).

3.14
effectiveness
extent to which planned activities are realized and planned results are achieved
3.15
efficiency
relationship between the result achieved and the resources used
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ISO/TS 24520:2017(E)
3.16
environment

surroundings in which an organization (3.26) operates, including air, water, land, natural resources,

flora, fauna, humans and their interrelation

Note 1 to entry: Surroundings in this context extend from within an organization to the global system.

Note 2 to entry: For the application of this document, environment is considered as a specific stakeholder (3.38).

The interests of this specific stakeholder can be represented by relevant authorities (3.33), by the communities or

by other groups, such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
3.17
hazard
source of potential harm

Note 1 to entry: Harm in the context of a water utility can include injury to stakeholders; compromising of public

health; degradation of the environment; a deterioration in service quality; reputational and/or financial damage;

and consequential sanctioning by the relevant authorities.

Note 2 to entry: Capacity for harm can also arise from compromised service provision. In this context a hazard

can be considered to be a biological, chemical, physical or radiological agent in, or condition of, water with the

potential to cause harm to public health or the environment (3.16). This perspective is based on the definition of

“hazard” in the WHO Water Safety Plan Manual [expanded to include “condition”, which includes quantity (i.e. a

shortage or an excess), hence making it applicable also to wastewater (3.40) service (3.37)].

Note 3 to entry: Other sources of potential harm exist within the water utility’s organizational context. These

hazards can be internal or external to the organization (3.26). Internal hazards could be tangible (e.g. a toxic

chemical store; potential energy stored behind a dam perched on a hillside above a town; a chamber potentially

containing a hazardous atmosphere) or intangible (e.g. poorly documented procedures; inadequate training; an

inappropriate organizational culture). External hazards could be tangible (e.g. earthquake; flooding; forest fire)

or intangible (e.g. social unrest; terrorism, cyber threat, corruption; financial instability).

3.18
hazardous event

event that introduces one or more hazards (3.17) to, or fails to remove them from, the drinking water

(3.13) system or the wastewater (3.40) system

Note 1 to entry: The equivalent French word for the English expression “hazardous event” is “evenement

dangereux”. However, the English word “danger” has been removed from this document as it is synonymous with

“hazard”. Both “hazard” and “danger” convey the concept of a potential risk (3.36). When it comes to describing

hazard, the English terminology remains consistent, e.g. “fire hazard”, but the equivalent French expression “Il y

a risque d’incendie” migrates to using the equivalent of the English term “risk”. The difficulty is that the meanings

of “hazard” and “risk” are subtly different in English. The first conveys the potential exposure (i.e. the impact)

while the second additionally conveys the likelihood of that impact’s occurrence (risk = impact × likelihood). So a

“hazardous event” might be a lightning strike in a wooded area. But if this occurred when the woodland was wet,

rather than dry, the risk of a resulting fire would be low rather than high.
3.19
incident
deviation from normal operating conditions

Note 1 to entry: An incident is characterized by its cause, the extent and the consequences (3.9) of the deviation.

3.20
infrastructure

system of facilities, equipment and services (3.37) needed for the operation of a utility organization (3.26)

Note 1 to entry: In a water utility (3.41), it is advisable to reserve the term “infrastructure” for physically fixed

equipment and installations.
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ISO/TS 24520:2017(E)
3.21
interruption
situation where the service (3.37) is not available
Note 1 to entry: Interruptions can be planned or unplanned.
3.22
maintenance

combination of all technical, administrative and managerial actions during the life cycle of an asset (3.4)

intended to retain it in, or restore it to, a state in which it can perform the required function

3.23
management
coordinated activities to direct and control a service (3.37)

Note 1 to entry: Management can include establishing policies (3.28) and objectives (3.25), and processes (3.30) to

achieve these objectives.

Note 2 to entry: The word “management” sometimes refers to people, i.e. a person or group of people with

authority and responsibility for the conduct and control of a service. When “management” is used in this sense, it

should always be used with some form of qualifier to avoid confusion with the concept “management” as a set of

activities defined above. For example, “management should…” is deprecated, whereas “crisis management team

should…” is acceptable. Otherwise, different words should be adopted to convey the concept when related to

people, e.g. managerial or managers.

Note 3 to entry: The term “management” can be qualified by a specific domain it addresses. Examples are public

health management, environmental management, risk management, etc.
3.24
monitoring

determining the status of a system, a process (3.30), a product, a service (3.37) or an activity

Note 1 to entry: For the determination of the status, there can be a need to check, supervise or critically observe.

Note 2 to entry: Monitoring is generally a determination of the status of an object carried out at different stages

or different times.
3.25
objective
result to be achieved
Note 1 to entry: An objective can be strategic, tactical or operational.

Note 2 to entry: Objectives can relate to different disciplines (such as financial, health and safety, and

environmental objectives) and can apply at different levels [such as strategic, organization-wide, project, product

and process (3.30)].

Note 3 to entry: An objective can be expressed in other ways, e.g. as an intended outcome, a purpose, an

operational criterion, as a crisis (3.11) objective or by the use of other words with similar meaning (e.g. aim, goal

or target).

Note 4 to entry: In the context of a crisis management system, crisis objectives are set by the organization (3.26),

consistent with the crisis management policy (3.28), to achieve specific results.

3.26
organization

person or group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and relationships

to achieve its objectives (3.25)

Note 1 to entry: The concept of organization includes, but is not limited to, sole-trader, company, corporation,

firm, enterprise, authority, partnership, association, charity or institution, or part or combination thereof,

whether incorporated or not, public or private.

Note 2 to entry: For the purposes of this document, the organization will usually be a water utility (3.41).

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3.27
performance
measurable result

Note 1 to entry: Performance can relate either to quantitative or qualitative findings.

Note 2 to entry: Performance can relate to the management (3.23) of activities, processes (3.30), products, services

(3.37), systems or organizations (3.26).
3.28
policy

agreed intentions and direction for performing a service (3.37) as formally expressed by the technical

management board
3.29
procedure
specified way to carry out an activity or a process (3.30)
Note 1 to entry: Procedures can be documented or not.
3.30
process

set of interrelated or interacting activities that use inputs to deliver an intended result

3.31
quality
degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements (3.34)

Note 1 to entry: There is a clear distinction between quality of the product [drinking water (3.13) or treated

wastewater (3.40)] and quality of the service (3.37). This document does not give technical specifications for

product quality.
3.32
recovery

provision of policies (3.28), procedures (3.29) and process (3.30) that are necessary to restore operations

critical to the resumption of service
...

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