Information technology -- Radio frequency identification (RFID) for item management: Data protocol

ISO/IEC 15961-4:2016 provides a set of application commands and their associated responses for the following functions: - to start and stop battery assistance; - to select and de-select a particular sensory function supported by the RFID tag; - to set sensor parameters both initially and ongoing; - to start and stop the sensor monitoring the environment; - to access sensor data; - to establish the battery status. ISO/IEC 24753 defines the encoding rules for identifying sensors, their functions, their delivered measurements, and the processing rules for sensor data. As such, it receives commands as defined in ISO/IEC 15961-4:2016 and provides the information that is required for the appropriate responses.

Technologies de l'information -- Identification par radiofréquence (RFID) pour la gestion d'objets: Protocole de données

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Published
Publication Date
03-Aug-2016
Current Stage
9020 - International Standard under periodical review
Start Date
15-Jul-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 15961-4
First edition
2016-08-01
Information technology — Radio
frequency identification (RFID) for
item management: Data protocol —
Part 4:
Application interface commands for
battery assist and sensor functionality
Technologies de l’information — Identification par radiofréquence
(RFID) pour la gestion d’objets: Protocole de données —
Partie 4: Commandes de l’interface d’application pour l’assistance de
la batterie et la fonctionnalité du capteur
Reference number
ISO/IEC 15961-4:2016(E)
ISO/IEC 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 15961-4:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 15961-4:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Conformance of the Sensor Processor ................................................................................................................................ 2

4.3 Application conformance ............................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Logical interface model ................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Application commands .................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 The sensor information model for full function sensors .................................................................................... 3

5.4 The sensor information model for simple sensors .................................................................................................. 4

6 Simple sensor commands ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1 Current air interface reference ................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.2 Memory mapped simple sensors ............................................................................................................................................ 5

6.3 Ported simple sensors ...................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.3.1 Write-Sample-And-Configuration-Record ................................................................................................. 6

6.3.2 Read-Simple-Sensor-Data-Block ........................................................................................................................ 8

6.3.3 Other simple sensor commands ......................................................................................................................10

7 Full function sensors .....................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.2 Write-Sample-And-Configuration ........................................................................................................................................11

7.2.1 Write-Sample-And-Configuration command ........................................................................................11

7.2.2 Write-Sample-And-Configuration response ..........................................................................................14

7.3 Read-Alarm-Status ............................................................................................................................................................................15

7.3.1 Read-Alarm-Status command ............................................................................................................................15

7.3.2 Read-Alarm-Status response ..............................................................................................................................16

7.4 Read-Event-Record-Segments ................................................................................................................................................17

7.4.1 Read-Event-Record-Segments command ................................................................................................17

7.4.2 Read-Event-Record-Segments response ..................................................................................................19

7.5 Other full function sensor commands..............................................................................................................................24

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................25

© ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 15961-4:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, Subcommittee

SC 31, Automatic identification and data capture techniques.
A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 15961 series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 15961-4:2016(E)
Introduction

The technology of radio frequency identification (RFID) is based on non-contact electronic

communication across an air interface. The structure of the bits stored in the memory of the RFID tag is

invisible and accessible between the RFID tag and the interrogator only by the use of the appropriate air

interface protocol, as specified in the corresponding part of ISO/IEC 18000. Since the initial publication

of ISO/IEC 18000, it has become possible to add sensors to the RFID tag using various physical methods,

but always using the air interface protocol as a consistent means of communicating between the RFID

tag and the interrogator.

For sensor information, functional commands from the application and responses from the interrogator

are processed in a standard way. This allows equipment to be interoperable. In special cases, when the

sensor is attached to or integrated within an RFID tag, this enables configuration parameters to be

encoded in one system’s implementation with the resultant sensory information to be read at a later

time in a completely different and unknown system’s implementation. The data bits stored on each RFID

tag and sensor shall be formatted in such a way as to be reliably read at the point of use if the sensor is

to fulfil its basic objective. The integrity of this is achieved through the use of an application protocol,

for example, as supported by the functional commands specified in this document and as specified in

ISO/IEC 24791.

Manufacturers of radio frequency identification equipment (interrogators, RFID tags, etc.),

manufacturers of sensors and users of RFID technology supporting sensors each require a publicly

available application protocol. This document specifies the sensor encoding and processing rules, which

are independent of any of the air interface standards defined in the various parts of ISO/IEC 18000. As

such, the sensor encoding and processing rules are consistent components in the RFID system that may,

independently, evolve to support additional air interface protocols and different types of sensors.

The documents that comprise the data protocol are the following.

— ISO/IEC 15961-1 defines the transfer of data to and from the application, supported by appropriate

application commands and responses.

— ISO/IEC 15961-2 defines the registration procedure of data constructs to ensure that as new

applications adopt the data protocol, it becomes a relatively straightforward process to support

that application. This can be achieved by the registration authority publishing regular updates of

the RFID data constructs that have been assigned, and for a means of incorporating these updates

into the processes of ISO/IEC 15961-1.

— ISO/IEC 15961-3 defines the data constructs and the rules that govern their use.

— ISO/IEC 15961-4 defines the transfer of sensor data to and from the application, supported by

appropriate application commands and responses.

— ISO/IEC 15962 specifies the overall process and the methodologies developed to format the

application data into a structure to store on the RFID tag.

— ISO/IEC 24753 specifies the overall process and methodologies developed to format and process

sensory information in a standardised manner and provide an interface with the appropriate air

interface protocol.
© ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 15961-4:2016(E)
Information technology — Radio frequency identification
(RFID) for item management: Data protocol —
Part 4:
Application interface commands for battery assist and
sensor functionality
1 Scope

This document provides a set of application commands and their associated responses for the following

functions:
— to start and stop battery assistance;

— to select and de-select a particular sensory function supported by the RFID tag;

— to set sensor parameters both initially and ongoing;
— to start and stop the sensor monitoring the environment;
— to access sensor data;
— to establish the battery status.

ISO/IEC 24753 defines the encoding rules for identifying sensors, their functions, their delivered

measurements, and the processing rules for sensor data. As such, it receives commands as defined in

this document and provides the information that is required for the appropriate responses.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 18000-63, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management – Part

63: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type C

ISO/IEC 18000-64, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 64: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type D

ISO/IEC 24753:2011, Information technology — Radio frequency identification (RFID) for item

management — Application protocol: encoding and processing rules for sensors and batteries

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 19762, ISO/IEC IEEE 21451-

7, ISO/IEC 24753, and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
© ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 15961-4:2016(E)
3.1
sensor processor

implementation of the processes specified in ISO/IEC 24753 to convert between data and information

relevant to the application layer and the bit based encoding on the sensor memory

4 Conformance
4.1 General

The commands and responses in this document are only expressed in an abstract syntax. Their

structure is determined by the records and fields on the particular sensor. As such, conformance to

this document for a particular sensor system is specifically indicated by the resultant proper encoding

according to ISO/IEC 24753 and then passed through RFID air interface protocols to the sensor.

The arguments and fields contained in individual commands and responses identify what needs to be

taken into account for correct input to the ISO/IEC 24753 Sensor Processor to achieve a valid encoding.

Also, they identify what an application expects to have returned following access to a sensor on an

RFID tag. Because of the way the protocol is structured, the commands and responses specified in this

document are, to a large extent, independent of particular RFID tag types that support sensors. The

effect of this is that ISO/IEC 24753 can specify conformance requirements for valid encoding, which

this document cannot.

All the commands and arguments, and their associated processes, are specified in detail in

ISO/IEC 24753. Object Identifiers are used throughout that document to uniquely identify arguments

within commands and responses for each type of sensor. Object Identifiers are also used to identify

fields with particular sensor records.
4.2 Conformance of the Sensor Processor

The Sensor Processor is, effectively, the implementation of ISO/IEC 24753. An implementation of

ISO/IEC 24753 is required to support one or both of the following:

a) all the processes that are required to support all aspects of full function sensors for configuration

and interpretation of sensor data;

b) all the processes that are required to support all aspects of simple sensors for configuration and

interpretation of sensor data.
4.3 Application conformance

An application is expected to support the commands and responses that are defined in ISO/IEC 24753

for full function sensors and/or simple sensors. Therefore, this document shall support either one or

both options a) and b) in 4.2 as determined by the implementation of ISO/IEC 24753 with which it

interfaces.

In addition, the application conformance requirements defined by the commands and responses in

this document may be simplified to address a specific type of simple or full function sensor, even to

the extent of only the records and commands required for that sensor. For the commands that are

supported, all the arguments in the command and response shall be supported to achieve the interface

with the sensor processor.
2 © ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 15961-4:2016(E)
5 Logical interface model
5.1 General

The processes defined in this document are implemented between the application and the air interface

protocol. This document performs similar functions for sensory data as ISO/IEC 15961-1 does for item-

related data. The relationship and basic functions of the standards are illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure 1 — Basic application interface model

ISO/IEC 24753 is an essential reading in implementing this document. Reference needs to be made

to that standard for a full description of the component parts of the model relevant to sensors and

batteries. An overview relevant to this document is provided below.
5.2 Application commands

A set of functional application commands is required to enable the application to identify what sensor

functions are supported, to access data from sensors, to access the status of the battery power, and

to reset values such as alarm values for the sensor activity. These are defined in Clause 6 for simple

sensors and Clause 7 for full function sensors.

The structure of the application commands and response can be determined by clauses in ISO/IEC 24753

that use the same name. The structure of these commands may be derived from the set of Object

Identifiers applicable for each command and response as specified in ISO/IEC 24753. Because of this,

only selected application interface commands are fully described in this document.

5.3 The sensor information model for full function sensors

The sensor information model for full function sensors (Figure 2) shows the relationship between

component processes and structures described later in ISO/IEC 24753 for full function sensors specified

in ISO/IEC IEEE 21451-7. A physical sensor is defined as one that monitors a particular environmental

feature capable of being expressed in terms of an SI unit or derived SI unit. A given physical sensor

may support a number of logical sensors, each of which specifies a method of event data output, e.g.

maximum value, observed value below a threshold qualified by a timestamp, count of events observed

that are above a threshold.
© ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/IEC 15961-4:2016(E)
Figure 2 — Sensor information model for full function sensors

Figure 2 clearly illustrates that the commands and responses defined in this document need to be able

to communicate with the Sensor Processor, which is the implementation of ISO/IEC 24753. In turn, the

specific arguments within the commands and responses need to comply with the requirements of the

five sensor records:
— Record 1: Sensor identifier;
— Record 2: Sensor characteristics record;
— Record 3: Sample and configuration record;
— Record 4: Event admin record;
— Record 5: Event record.
The commands are described in Clause 6.
5.4 The sensor information model for simple sensors

A simple sensor provides limited functional support to determine whether the temperature or other

environmental conditions have gone outside some allowable limits. These sensors are defined as

factory programmed, which restrict parameter setting from a fully open systems application, but allow

data to be captured using open system air interface commands and processes.

The prime operating mode of a simple sensor is to provide the simple sensor data block using some

delivery mechanism defined by the air protocol interface. The simple sensor data block is a short bit-

based code that provides sensor characteristics, configuration, and alarm data. Currently, this is 32-

bits long, but provision exists for a maximum length of 48-bits.
4 © ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 15961-4:2016(E)

There are two formats of simple sensor. The memory-mapped simple sensor supports only the simple

sensor data block, which is on the same integrated circuit platform as the data on the RFID tag. The

ported simple sensor supports additional mandatory and optional records, as detailed in the list below.

An annex of ISO/IEC 18000-63 defines the requirements for processing these records if present on the

ported simple sensor.
NOTE ISO/IEC 18000-64 does not support ported simple sensors.
The sequence of records is as follows:
— Record 1: Simple sensor data block (mandatory for both implementations);
— Record 2: Manufacturer record (mandatory only for the ported simple sensor);

— Record 3: Authorization password record (optional for the ported simple sensor);

— Record 4: Calibration record (recommended for the ported simple sensor);

— Record 5: Sample and configuration record (mandatory only for the ported simple sensor);

— Record 6: Event record (recommended for the ported simple sensor);

— Record 7: Time synchronisation record (mandatory only for the ported simple sensor and only if the

event record is present).
6 Simple sensor commands
6.1 Current air interface reference

The processing of commands (and responses) for simple sensors is specified in ISO/IEC 24753, which

uses Object Identifiers to identify the specific arguments. As such, it is possible in this document to

specify the structure of commands and responses in a manner that does not depend on the existence

of a particular type of simple sensor. There can only be 16 different types of simple sensor, and the

sensor manufacturer permanently encodes a 3-bit binary value into a predefined location in the sensor

memory to identify the sensor type. In turn, the type code is included as a specific arc in the Object

Identifier.

Simple sensors as specified in ISO/IEC 18000-63 and ISO/IEC 18000-64 are used throughout this

document to describe arguments and processes. Later versions of these air interface protocols need

to be checked for type codes not addressed here (see the current list in 6.3.1.1). If the basic design for

simple sensors is maintained in the air interface protocol and in ISO/IEC 24753, then this document

can persist. However, the introduction of a possible 48-bit simple sensor can only be supported with a

revision to this document.
6.2 Memory mapped simple sensors

The encoding for configuring and reading memory-mapped simple sensors is specified in the

ISO/IEC 18000 series of standards that support such sensors. The current air interface protocols that

support the memory-mapped simple sensors to achieve this are as follows.

— For ISO/IEC 18000-63 (Type C), standard read and write commands are used in addressing the

relevant memory bank to transfer the bit string representing the simple sensor data block. The

simple sensor data block can also be transmitted as part of the reply to the ACK command, where it

is appended to the unique item identifier encoded in memory bank 1.

— The simple sensor data block is transmitted as part of the data packet for an ISO/IEC 18000-64

(Type D) tag.
© ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/IEC 15961-4:2016(E)
ISO/IEC 24753 defines two commands for memory mapped simple sensors:
— Write-Simple-Sensor-Data-Block command;
— Read-Simple-Sensor-Data-Block command.

However, no processes are specified to achieve the bit string that needs to be transferred via the air

interface write command, nor any rules to interpret these bits when the simple sensor data block is

read from the RFID tag. The application interface functions required are identical to two commands

more fully defined for ported simple sensors in this document. Therefore, the equivalent command and

response defined in this document (see 6.3.1 and 6.3.2) and the associated processes in ISO/IEC 24753

should be applied to the memory-mapped simple sensors. The memory mapped Write-Simple-

Sensor-Data-Block command is directly equivalent to the ported simple sensor Write-Sample-And-

Configuration-Record command (see 6.3.1). The memory-mapped Read-Simple-Sensor-Data-Block

command is directly equivalent to the ported simple sensor command of the same name (see 6.3.1).

6.3 Ported simple sensors
6.3.1 Write-Sample-And-Configuration-Record
6.3.1.1 Write-Sample-And-Configuration-Record command

The Write-Sample-And-Configuration-Record command is used to write user-controlled parameters

to a simple sensor, either for the initial mission or to reconfigure on a subsequent mission. The

command cannot be invoked for reconfiguration if any of the alarm bits has been set. The command is

only concerned with providing input that will result in the encoding of bits 22 to 4 (where bit 22 is MSB)

of the simple sensor data block.

This command applies to both types of simple sensor: memory-mapped and ported simple sensor.

Before this command can be invoked, it is necessary to read the simple sensor data block on the tag.

This can be achieved by invoking the Read-Simple-Sensor-Data-Block command (see 6.3.2) and

ignoring all but these three fields, represented by the encoding in bits 31 to 23:

— sensor type, for which the following type codes apply:
— Type 0 for temperature sensors with a span of 14 °C;
— Type 1 for temperature sensors with a span of 28 °C;
— Type 2 for relative humidity sensors;
— Type 3 for impact sensors;
— Type 4 for tilt sensors;
— measurement span;
— accuracy.

The Password argument is conditional because it only applies to some ported simple sensors. If the

password is not known, then its size can be determined by invoking the Read-Manufacturer’s-Record

command where bits 5 and 6 declare the size of the password. The password is a write-once process

and is not readable. Therefore, to process the configuration command when a password is set on the

ported simple sensor, it is essential to match the password both in terms of length and value.

The Sampling-Regime argument applies only to temperature and humidity simple sensors. It defines

one of 16 sampling intervals, ranging from 5 min to 8 h. The definition of the sample intervals and

the mapping between the bit-based codes and the presentation in the application is given in tables in

annexes of ISO/IEC 18000-63 and ISO/IEC 18000-64.
6 © ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 15961-4:2016(E)

The High-In-Range-Limit and Low-In-Range-Limit arguments apply only to temperature and

humidity simple sensors, and the mapping between the bit-based codes and the presentation to the

application are given in tables in annexes of ISO/IEC 18000-63 and ISO/IEC 18000-64. The presentation

should output the real value factored by the measurement span.

The Monitor-Delay argument applies only to temperature and humidity simple sensors. It is intended

to defer the beginning of the monitoring process for logical process control reasons. For example, a

temperature sensor might be applied and configured to a product prior to, or during, a manufacturing

or packaging process where temperature is both controlled and different from the post-production

environment. The monitor delay is used to ensure that the temperature is only monitored after this

controlled period. The monitor delay is a multipl
...

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC DIS 15961-4
ISO/IEC JTC 1 Secretariat: ANSI
Voting begins on Voting terminates on
2013-07-01 2013-10-01

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION • МЕЖДУНАРОДНАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ПО СТАНДАРТИЗАЦИИ • ORGANISATION INTERNATIONALE DE NORMALISATION

INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION • МЕЖДУНАРОДНАЯ ЭЛЕКТРОТЕХНИЧЕСКАЯ КОММИСИЯ • COMMISSION ÉLECTROTECHNIQUE INTERNATIONALE

Information technology — Radio frequency identification (RFID)
for item management: Data protocol —
Part 4:
Application interface commands for battery assist and sensor
functionality
Techniques automatiques d'identification et de capture des données —
Partie 4:
[Revision of first edition (ISO/IEC 15961:2004)]
ICS 35.040

To expedite distribution, this document is circulated as received from the committee

secretariat. ISO Central Secretariat work of editing and text composition will be undertaken at

publication stage.

Pour accélérer la distribution, le présent document est distribué tel qu'il est parvenu du

secrétariat du comité. Le travail de rédaction et de composition de texte sera effectué au

Secrétariat central de l'ISO au stade de publication.

THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY NOT BE

REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
R PURPOSES,

IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USE

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME

STANDARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN NATIONAL REGULATIONS.

RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH

THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION.
International Organization for Standardization, 2013
International Electrotechnical Commission, 2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC DIS 15961-4
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any

means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission.

Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.

ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2013 — All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC CD 15961-4
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... v

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 1

3 Terms, definitions, and abbreviated terms ......................................................................................... 2

4 Conformance ......................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Conformance of the Sensor Processor ............................................................................................... 2

4.3 Application conformance ..................................................................................................................... 3

5 Logical interface model ........................................................................................................................ 3

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Application commands ......................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 The sensor information model for full function sensors .................................................................. 4

5.4 The sensor information model for simple sensors ............................................................................ 5

6 Simple sensor commands .................................................................................................................... 5

6.1 Current air interface reference ............................................................................................................. 5

6.2 Memory mapped simple sensors ......................................................................................................... 6

6.3 Ported simple sensors .......................................................................................................................... 6

6.3.1 Write-Sample-And-Configuration-Record ........................................................................................... 6

6.3.2 Read-Simple-Sensor-Data-Block ......................................................................................................... 8

6.3.3 Other simple sensor commands ........................................................................................................ 10

7 Full function sensors .......................................................................................................................... 11

7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 11

7.2 Write-Sample-And-Configuration ...................................................................................................... 11

7.2.1 Write-Sample-And-Configuration command .................................................................................... 11

7.2.2 Write-Sample-And-Configuration response ..................................................................................... 15

7.3 Read-Alarm-Status .............................................................................................................................. 15

7.3.1 Read-Alarm-Status command ............................................................................................................ 15

7.3.2 Read-Alarm-Status response ............................................................................................................. 16

7.4 Read-Event-Record-Segments ........................................................................................................... 17

7.4.1 Read-Event-Record-Segments command ......................................................................................... 17

7.4.2 Read-Event-Record-Segments response .......................................................................................... 19

7.5 Other full function sensor commands .............................................................................................. 23

© ISO/IEC 2011 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC CD 15961-4
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/IEC 15961-4 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC JTC1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 31, Automatic identification and data capture techniques.

This second/third/... edition cancels and replaces the first/second/... edition (), [clause(s) / subclause(s) /

table(s) / figure(s) / annex(es)] of which [has / have] been technically revised.

ISO/IEC 15961 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information technology — Radio

frequency identification (RFID) for item management:
 Part 1: Application interface
 Part 2: Registration of RFID data constructs
 Part 3 Data constructs

 Part 4: Application interface commands for battery assist and sensor functionality

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ISO/IEC CD 15961-4
Introduction

The technology of radio frequency identification (RFID) is based on non-contact electronic communication

across an air interface. The structure of the bits stored in the memory of the RFID tag is invisible and

accessible between the RFID tag and the interrogator only by the use of the appropriate air interface protocol,

as specified in the corresponding part of ISO/IEC 18000. Since the initial publication of ISO/IEC 18000, it has

become possible to add sensors to the RFID tag using various physical methods, but always using the air

interface protocol as a consistent means of communicating between the RFID tag and the interrogator.

For sensor information, functional commands from the application and responses from the interrogator are

processed in a standard way. This allows equipment to be interoperable. In the special case of the sensor

attached to or integrated within an RFID tag, enables configuration parameters to be encoded in one system's

implementation with the resultant sensory information to be read at a later time in a completely different and

unknown system’s implementation. The data bits stored on each RFID tag and sensor must be formatted in

such a way as to be reliably read at the point of use if the sensor is to fulfil its basic objective. The integrity of

this is achieved through the use of an application protocol, for example as supported by the functional

commands specified in this part of this International Standard and as specified in ISO/IEC 24791.

Manufacturers of radio frequency identification equipment (interrogators, RFID tags, etc.), manufacturers of

sensors, and users of RFID technology supporting sensors each require a publicly available application

protocol. This International Standard specifies the sensor encoding and processing rules, which are

independent of any of the air interface standards defined in the various parts of ISO/IEC 18000. As such, the

sensor encoding and processing rules are consistent components in the RFID system that may, independently,

evolve to support additional air interface protocols and different types of sensors.

The international standards that comprise the data protocol are:

 ISO/IEC 15961-1 defines the transfer of data to and from the application, supported by appropriate

application commands and responses.

 ISO/IEC 15961-2 defines the registration procedure of data constructs to ensure that as new applications

adopt the data protocol that it becomes a relatively straightforward process to support that application.

This can be achieved by the Registration Authority publishing regular updates of the RFID data constructs

that have been assigned, and for a means of incorporating these updates into the processes of ISO/IEC

15961-1.

 ISO/IEC 15961-3 defines the data constructs and the rules that govern their use.

 ISO/IEC 15961-4 defines the transfer of sensor data to and from the application, supported by

appropriate application commands and responses.

 ISO/IEC 15962 specifies the overall process and the methodologies developed to format the application

data into a structure to store on the RFID tag.

 ISO/IEC 24753 specifies the overall process and methodologies developed to format and process

sensory information in a standardised manner and provide an interface with the appropriate air interface

protocol.
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COMMITTEE DRAFT ISO/IEC CD 15961-4
Information technology — Radio frequency identification (RFID)
for item management — Part 4: Application interface
commands for battery assist and sensor functionality
1 Scope

This part of ISO/IEC 15961 provides a set of application commands and their associated responses for the

following functions:
 To start and stop battery assistance

 To select and de-select a particular sensory function supported by the RFID tag

 To set sensor parameters both initially and ongoing
 To start and stop the sensor monitoring the environment
 To access sensor data
 To establish the battery status

ISO/IEC 24753 defines the encoding rules for identifying sensors, their functions, their delivered

measurements, and the processing rules for sensor data. As such, it receives commands as defined in this

International Standard and provides the information that is required for the appropriate responses.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 18000-63, Information technology -- Radio frequency identification for item management -- Part 63:

Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type C

ISO/IEC 18000-64, Information technology -- Radio frequency identification for item management -- Part 64:

Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type D

ISO/IEC 19762-1, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) techniques —

Harmonized vocabulary — Part 1: General terms relating to AIDC

ISO/IEC 19762-3, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) techniques —

Harmonized vocabulary — Part 3: Radio frequency identification (RFID)
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ISO/IEC CD 15961-4

ISO/IEC/IEEE 21451-7 , Information technology — Smart transducer interface for sensors and actuators —

Part 7: Transducers to radio frequency identification (RFID) systems communication protocols and transducer

electronic data sheet (TEDS) formats

ISO/IEC 24753, Information technology — Radio frequency identification (RFID) for item management —

Application protocol: encoding and processing rules for sensors and batteries
3 Terms, definitions, and abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the terms, definitions, and abbreviations given in ISO/IEC 19762,

ISO/IEC/IEEE 21451-7, ISO/IEC 24753 and the following apply.
3.1
sensor processor

implementation of the processes specified in ISO/IEC 24753 to convert between data and information relevant

to the application layer and the bit based encoding on the sensor memory
4 Conformance
4.1 General

The commands and responses in this part of ISO/IEC 15961 are only expressed in an abstract syntax. Their

structure is determined by the records and fields on the particular sensor. As such, conformance to this part

of ISO/IEC 15961 for a particular sensor system is specifically indicated by the resultant proper encoding

according to ISO/IEC 24753 and then passed through RFID air interface protocols to the sensor.

The arguments and fields contained in individual commands and responses identify what needs to be taken

into account for correct input to the ISO/IEC 24753 Sensor Processor to achieve a valid encoding. Also, they

identify what an application expects to have returned following access to a sensor on an RFID tag. Because

of the way the protocol is structured, the commands and responses specified in this part of ISO/IEC 15961 are,

to a large extent, independent of particular RFID tag types that support sensors. The effect of this is that

ISO/IEC 24753 can specify conformance requirements for valid encoding, which this part of ISO/IEC 15961

cannot.

All the commands and arguments, and their associated processes, are specified in detail in ISO/IEC 24753.

Object Identifiers are used throughout that standard to uniquely identify arguments within commands and

responses for each type of sensor. Object Identifiers are also used to identify fields with particular sensor

records.
4.2 Conformance of the Sensor Processor

The Sensor Processor is, effectively, the implementation of ISO/IEC 24753. An implementation of ISO/IEC

24753 is required to support one or both of the following:

a) All the processes that are required to support all aspects of full function sensors for configuration and

interpretation of sensor data.

b) All the processes that are required to support all aspects of simple sensors for configuration and

interpretation of sensor data.

1) As IEEE 1451.7 was published in June 2010, and is the reference used in ISO/IEC 24753, this is the reference used

in the body of the text in this part of ISO/IEC 15961
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ISO/IEC CD 15961-4
4.3 Application conformance

An application is expected to support the commands and responses that are defined in ISO/IEC 24753 for full

function sensors and/or simple sensors. Therefore this part of ISO/IEC 15961 shall support either one or both

options (a) and (b) (see 4.2) as determined by the implementation of ISO/IEC 24753 with which it interfaces.

In addition, the application conformance requirements defined by the commands and responses in this part of

ISO/IEC 15961 may be simplified to address a specific type of simple or full function sensor, even to the

extent of only the records and commands required for that sensor. For the commands that are supported, all

the arguments in the command and response shall be supported to achieve the interface with the sensor

processor.
5 Logical interface model
5.1 General

The processes defined in this part of ISO/IEC 15961 are implemented between the application and the air

interface protocol. This part of ISO/IEC 15961 performs similar functions for sensory data as ISO/IEC 15961-

1 does for item-related data. The relationship and basic functions of the standards are illustrated in Figure 1.

BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE
Application Commands & Responses
15962 Processes 24753 Processes
15962 Tag Driver 24753 Sensor Driver
18000-n Air Interface Protocol
Sensor
Figure 1 — Basic application interface model

ISO/IEC 24753 is essential reading in implementing this part of ISO/IEC 15961. Reference needs to be made

to that standard for a full description of the component parts of the model relevant to sensors and batteries. An

overview relevant to this part of ISO/IEC 15961 is provided below.
5.2 Application commands

A set of functional application commands is required to enable the application to identify what sensor functions

are supported, to access data from sensors, to access the status of the battery power, and to reset values

such as alarm values for the sensor activity. These are defined in Clause 6 for simple sensors and Clause 7

for full function sensors.
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ISO/IEC CD 15961-4

The structure of the application commands and response can be determined by clauses in ISO/IEC 24753

that use the same name. The structure of these commands may be derived from the set of object identifiers

applicable for each command and response as specified in ISO/IEC 24753. Because of this, only selected

application interface commands are fully described in this part of ISO/IEC 15961.

5.3 The sensor information model for full function sensors

The sensor information model for full function sensors (Figure 2) shows the relationship between component

processes and structures described later in ISO/IEC 24753 for full function sensors specified in IEEE 1451.7.

A physical sensor is defined as one that monitors a particular environmental feature capable of being

expressed in terms of an SI unit or derived SI unit. A given physical sensor may support a number of logical

sensors, each of which specifies a method of event data output, e.g. maximum value, observed value below a

threshold qualified by a timestamp, count of events observed that are above a threshold.

USER APPLICATION
Application Commands
& Responses
ISO/IEC 24753 Sensor Processing
ISO/IEC 24753 Tag Driver
ISO/IEC 18000
Commands & Responses
ISO/IEC 18000 Sensor Processing
Event
Sensor Sample &
Event
Sensor
Admin
Characteristics Configure
Record
Identifier
Record Record Record
Physical Sensor 1
Physical Sensor 2
Physical Sensor n
RFID TAG & SENSOR
Figure 2 — Sensor information model for full function sensors

Figure 2 clearly illustrates that the commands and responses defined in this part of ISO/IEC 15961 need to be

able to communicate with the Sensor Processor, which is the implementation of ISO/IEC 24753. In turn, the

specific arguments within the commands and responses need to comply with the requirements of the five

sensor records:
 Record 1: Sensor identifier
 Record 2: Sensor characteristics record
 Record 3: Sample and configuration record
 Record 4: Event admin record
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ISO/IEC CD 15961-4
 Record 5: Event record
The commands are described in Clause 6.
5.4 The sensor information model for simple sensors

A simple sensor provides limited functional support to determine whether the temperature or other

environmental conditions have gone outside some allowable limits. These sensors are defined as factory

programmed, which restricts parameter setting from a fully open systems application, but allows data to be

captured using open system air interface commands and processes.

The prime operating mode of a simple sensor is to provide the simple sensor data block using some delivery

mechanism defined by the air protocol interface. The simple sensor data block is a short bit-based code that

provides sensor characteristics, configuration and alarm data. Currently this is 32 bits long, but provision

exists for a maximum length of 48-bits.

There are two formats of simple sensor. The memory mapped simple sensor supports only the simple sensor

data block, which is on the same integrated circuit platform as the data on the RFID tag. The ported simple

sensor supports additional mandatory and optional records, as detailed in the list (below). An annex of

ISO/IEC 18000-63 defines the requirements for processing these records if present on the ported simple

sensor.
NOTE ISO/IEC 18000-64 does not support ported simple sensors.
The sequence of records is as follows:
 Record 1: Simple sensor data block (mandatory for both implementations)
 Record 2: Manufacturer record (mandatory only for the ported simple sensor)

 Record 3: Authorisation password record (optional for the ported simple sensor)

 Record 4: Calibration record (recommended for the ported simple sensor)

 Record 5: Sample and configuration record (mandatory only for the ported simple sensor)

 Record 6: Event record (recommended for the ported simple sensor)

 Record 7: Time synchronisation record (mandatory only for the ported simple sensor and only if the

event record is present)
6 Simple sensor commands
6.1 Current air interface reference

The processing of commands (and responses) for simple sensors is specified in ISO/IEC 24753, which uses

Object Identifiers to identify the specific arguments. As such it is possible in this part of ISO/IEC 15961 to

specify the structure of commands and responses in a manner that does not depend on the existence of a

particular type of simple sensor. There can only be 16 different types of simple sensor, and the sensor

manufacturer permanently encodes a 3-bit binary value into a predefined location in the sensor memory to

identify the sensor type. In turn, the type code is included as a specific arc in the Object Identifier.

Simple sensors as specified in ISO/IEC 18000-63 and ISO/IEC 18000-64 are used throughout this part of

ISO/IEC 15961 to described arguments and processes. Later versions of these air interface protocols need to

be checked for type codes not addressed here (see the current list in 6.3.1.1). If the basic design for simple

sensors is maintained in the air interface protocol and in ISO/IEC 24753, then this part of ISO/IEC 15961 can

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ISO/IEC CD 15961-4

persist. However, the introduction of a possible 48-bit simple sensor can only be supported with a revision to

this part of ISO/IEC 15961.
6.2 Memory mapped simple sensors

The encoding for configuring and reading memory mapped simple sensors is specified in the ISO/IEC 18000

series of standards that support such sensors. The current air interface protocols that support the memory

mapped simple sensors achieve this as follows:

 For ISO/IEC 18000-63 (Type C), standard read and write commands are used addressing the

relevant memory bank to transfer the bit string representing the simple sensor data block. The

simple sensor data block can also be transmitted as part of the reply to the ACK command, where it

is appended to the unique item identifier encoded in memory bank 1.

 The simple sensor data block is transmitted as part of the data packet for an ISO/IEC 18000-64

(Type D) tag.
ISO/IEC 24753 defines two commands for memory mapped simple sensors:
Write-Simple-Sensor-Data-Block command
Read-Simple-Sensor-Data-Block command

However no processes are specified to achieve the bit string that needs to be transferred via the air interface

write command, nor any rules to interpret these bits when the simple sensor data block is read from the RFID

tag. The application interface functions required are identical to two commands more fully defined for ported

simple sensors in this part of ISO/IEC 15961. Therefore, the equivalent command and response defined in

this part of ISO/IEC 15961 (see 6.3.1 and 6.3.2) and the associated processes in ISO/IEC 24753 should be

applied to the memory mapped simple sensors. The memory mapped Write-Simple-Sensor-Data-Block

command is directly equivalent to the ported simple sensor Write-Sample-And-Configuration-Record

command (see 6.3.1). The memory mapped Read-Simple-Sensor-Data-Block command is directly

equivalent to the ported simple sensor command of the same name (see 6.3.2).
6.3 Ported simple sensors
6.3.1 Write-Sample-And-Configuration-Record
6.3.1.1 Write-Sample-And-Configuration-Record command

The Write-Sample-And-Configuration-Record command is used to write user-controlled parameters to a

simple sensor, either for the initial mission, or to re-configure on a subsequent mission. The command cannot

be invoked for re-configuration if any of the alarm bits have been set. The command is only concerned with

providing input that will result in the encoding of bits 22 to 4 (where bit 22 is MSB) of the simple sensor data

block.

This command applies to both types of simple sensor: memory mapped and ported simple sensor.

Before this command can be invoked it is necessary to read the simple sensor data block on the tag. This can

be achieved by invoking the Read-Simple-Sensor-Data-Block command (see 6.3.2), and ignoring all but

these three fields, represented by the encoding in bits 31 to 23:
 Sensor type, for which the following type codes apply:
Type 0 for temperature sensors with a span of 14°C.
Type 1 for temperature sensors with a span of 28°C.
Type 2 for relative humidity sensors
Type 3 for impact sensors
Type 4 for tilt sensors
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 Measurement span
 Accuracy

The Password argument is conditional because it only applies to some ported simple sensors. If the

password is not known, then its size can be determined by invoking the Read-Manufacturer's-Record

command where bits 5 and 6 declare the size of the password. The password is a write-once process and is

not readable. Therefore, to process the configuration command when a password is set on the ported simple

sensor, it is essential to match the password both in terms of length and value.
The Sampling-Regime argu
...

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