Timber — Round and sawn timber — Vocabulary

This document defines terms related to round and sawn timber. It applies to identification of a tree and its components, stages of processing in round and sawn forms, and timber grading, dimensions, anatomical structure, features, moisture content and conditions relating to stain, fungal and insect attack. It does not apply to terms related to strength properties of wood, engineered timber products or timber structures.

Bois — Bois ronds et bois sciés — Vocabulaire

Le présent document définit la terminologie relative aux bois ronds aux et bois sciés. Il s'applique à l'identification d'un arbre et de ses constituants, aux étapes d'usinage sous forme ronde et sciée, ainsi qu'au classement du bois, ses dimensions, sa structure anatomique, ses singularités, sa teneur en humidité et les conditions relatives à la discoloration ainsi qu'aux attaques de champignons et d'insectes. Il ne s'applique pas aux termes relatifs aux caractéristiques de résistance du bois, des produits transformés à base de bois ou des structures en bois.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Sep-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
09-Sep-2021
Completion Date
09-Sep-2021
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 24294
Second edition
2021-09
Timber — Round and sawn timber —
Vocabulary
Bois — Bois ronds et bois sciés — Vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO 24294:2021(E)
ISO 2021
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Terms related to round timber .............................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Terms related to sawn timber ................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6 Terms related to moisture content .................................................................................................................................................13

7 Terms related to dimensions of round timber ...................................................................................................................16

8 Terms related to dimensions of sawn timber ......................................................................................................................18

9 Terms related to the anatomical structure of timber .................................................................................................20

10 Terms related to common features of round and sawn timber ........................................................................22

11 Terms related to features of round timber ............................................................................................................................24

12 Terms related to features of sawn timber ...............................................................................................................................27

13 Terms related to stain and fungal attack ..................................................................................................................................31

14 Terms related to degradation by insects or other wood borers ......................................................................35

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................38

Index .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................39

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 218, Timber.

This second edition of ISO 24294 cancels and replaces ISO 24294:2013 and ISO 1032:1974, which have

been technically revised. The main changes compared to the previous editions are as follows:

— updated, corrected and clarified definitions;

— re-ordered term categories and terms within categories to match the subject matter.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
Introduction

Wood is a naturally occurring resource and is the only major construction material that is renewable.

Because it is renewable, the use of wood and the many different timber products made from wood,

contributes to overall sustainable development. Many of these timber products are intended specifically

for use both as structural and non-structural elements in the construction of timber-framed or

platform-frame buildings. Properties of wood are affected by species, natural growth characteristics

and moisture content and with its unique cell structure; wood has different strength properties in

different grain directions.

This document defines terms related to the physical and mechanical characteristics of the many

different hardwood and softwood round, sawn and processed timbers in a manner that is consistent

and recognized globally. This document has been prepared by the various groups involved in the timber

industry, such as manufacturers, builders, wholesalers and importers, as well as research organizations,

academia, national regulatory bodies, standards developers and professional design organizations.

Understanding the nature of the various physical characteristics and features of round and sawn timber

enables effective communication related to sawn and processed timber, in a manner that is consistently

understood by and equitable to all active and potential traders/users. Its use alongside other standards

also aids harmonization and provide a basis for specialist terminology.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 24294:2021(E)
Timber — Round and sawn timber — Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document defines terms related to round and sawn timber. It applies to identification of a tree

and its components, stages of processing in round and sawn forms, and timber grading, dimensions,

anatomical structure, features, moisture content and conditions relating to stain, fungal and insect

attack. It does not apply to terms related to strength properties of wood, engineered timber products or

timber structures.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
wood

lignocellulosic substance between the pith (9.14) and bark (9.5) of a tree or a shrub

Note 1 to entry: Lignified materials from bamboo, cork, rattan, palm trees and other monocotyledons are not

wood.

Note 2 to entry: Internationally, the terms “wood” and timber (3.2) are often used interchangeably to represent

the basic material of wood products.
3.2
timber

wood (3.1) in the form of standing or felled trees, or a solid wood product of these after processing (3.10)

Note 1 to entry: In the case of processed solid wood products, refers to round timber (4.1) and sawn timber (5.1).

Does not apply to other wood products, such as wood-based panels, veneer, wood pulp, chips (3.11) or sawdust

(3.12).

Note 2 to entry: Internationally, the terms “timber” and “wood” are often used interchangeably to represent the

basic material of wood products.

Note 3 to entry: In Canada and the U.S., there is a homograph for the term “timber”. See 5.6.

3.3
species

botanical category classifying a group of distinct trees with a significant level of genetic similarity

EXAMPLE Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Norway spruce (Picea abies).

Note 1 to entry: Usually referred to by a common name and identified by a botanical name that is based on a

Linnaean binomial of its genus and species.
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
3.3.1
species group
species combination, en CA, U.S.

population of two or more tree species (3.3) or multiple populations of the same tree species combined

into a single marketing group on the basis of similar properties using criteria appropriate for the

intended end use
EXAMPLE Spruce-pine-fir (S-P-F).

Note 1 to entry: Evaluated to develop combined species properties so that the wood products from species within

the group can be used interchangeably.

Note 2 to entry: Trees of the same species group may originate from one or more growth or production regions.

3.4
hardwood
wood (3.1) of trees of the botanical class Angiospermae, subclass Dicotyledonae
Note 1 to entry: The term has no reference to the actual hardness of the wood.
Note 2 to entry: Generally deciduous trees with broad leaves and enclosed seeds.
3.5
softwood
wood (3.1) of trees of the botanical class Gymnospermae, subclass Coniferophytae
Note 1 to entry: The term has no reference to the actual hardness of the wood.

Note 2 to entry: Generally evergreen trees with needle or scale-like leaves and unenclosed seeds, also known as

conifers.
3.6
feature

physical, morphological or growth characteristic of timber (3.2) that could affect its use

3.7
defect

feature (3.6) that results in lower quality of timber (3.2) which causes restrictions in use

3.8
grading

separation or sorting of timber (3.2) by end-use, tree species (3.3), appearance, mechanical or working

properties, sizes or some combination thereof
3.9
batch
lot
specified quantity of a product
3.10
processing

function or a combination of functions other than felling (4.26) that change the form of the material

without changing its solid wood (3.1) structure

Note 1 to entry: May include debarking (4.14), sawing, re-sawing, planing (surfacing), cross-cutting and trimming

at the sawmill, but does not include gluing.

Note 2 to entry: May be supplemented by drying (6.10) at various stages of production.

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ISO 24294:2021(E)
3.11
chips
small flakes of wood (3.1) produced during a fragmentation process
Note 1 to entry: Generally utilized for pulp, wood-based products or fuel.
3.12
sawdust
fine particles of wood (3.1) produced during the process of sawing
3.13
cross-section
virtual section at a right angle to the longitudinal axis
3.14
length
shortest distance between the ends of a piece of timber (3.2)
4 Terms related to round timber
4.1
round timber

felled tree after delimbing and removal of top, that may or may not have been cross-cut

4.1.1
long pole
round timber (4.1) that has not been cross-cut
4.1.2
log
cross-cut portion of round timber (4.1)
4.1.3
butt log
log (4.1.2) produced from the larger end of a long pole (4.1.1)
4.1.4
middle log

log (4.1.2) produced from the portion of a long pole (4.1.1) between the butt log (4.1.3) and the top end

log (4.1.5)
Note 1 to entry: More than one middle log may be obtained from one long pole.
4.1.5
top end log
log (4.1.2) produced from the smaller end of a long pole (4.1.1)
4.1.6
cylindrical log
perfect round log

log (4.1.2) that has a cross-section (3.13) on both ends that represents a true circle

Note 1 to entry: The roundness of a log is determined by measuring the largest diameter (7.1) and the diameter at

right angles to it, at the least round end and calculating the ratio of the lesser and greater diameters, expressed as

a percentage. The roundness of 100 % is rarely achieved naturally.
4.2
crown
upper portion of a tree with branches
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
4.3
spring of the crown

zone of the stem (4.4) from where the lowest branches of the crown (4.2) grow out

4.4
stem
portion of a tree above ground, excluding branches
Note 1 to entry: Sometimes refers to trees in general, i.e. stems per unit area.
4.5
trunk
portion of a stem (4.4) used for valuing a standing tree
Note 1 to entry: Usually specified by stating the minimum top diameter (7.1.3).
4.6
butt swelling
flared base part of the stem (4.4)
4.7
buttress
projecting rib at the lower end of the stem (4.4)
4.8
stump

portion of the tree that remains above and below ground level after felling (4.26)

Note 1 to entry: Does not apply to uprooted trees (4.26.1).
4.9
branch whorl

zone of the stem (4.4) where several branches or knots (10.1) occur at approximately the same cross-

section (3.13)
4.10
de-sapped round timber
round timber (4.1) that has had all sapwood (9.1) thoroughly removed

Note 1 to entry: The sapwood is removed generally to prevent biodeterioration (13.1).

4.11
pruned timber
timber (3.2) from a tree that had its lower branches removed by pruning (4.11.1)
4.11.1
pruning

removal of live or dead branches or of multiple leaders of shoots from standing trees

[SOURCE: ISO 6814:2009, 2.19]
4.12
stop
portion of a stem (4.4) where there is a marked reduction in diameter (7.1)

Note 1 to entry: Can occur at a thick branch or at a branch whorl (4.9) in some tree species (3.3).

4.13
cross-cut point
location on round timber (4.1) where it will be cross-cut
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
4.13.1
theoretical cross-cut point

point at which a trunk (4.5) or round timber (4.1) is visually assessed for cross-cutting for grading (3.8)

purposes
4.14
debarking
removing bark (9.5) from trees or round timber (4.1)
4.14.1
rough debarking
partial removing of bark (9.5)
4.14.2
bundle debarking
simultaneous debarking (4.14) of a group of round timbers (4.1)
4.14.3
piece-by-piece debarking
debarking (4.14) of individual round timbers (4.1)
4.14.4
patch debarking

rough debarking (4.14.1) resulting in spots or patches of remaining bark (9.5) on the surface of round

timber (4.1)
4.14.5
clean debarking
complete removal of bark (9.5) and any remnants of branches and branch wood
4.15
ring barking
girdling, en CA, U.S.

removing a narrow strip of bark (9.5) around the stem (4.4) of a living tree to weaken it or cause death

Note 1 to entry: Not to be confused with debarking (4.14) for the purpose of processing (3.10) round timber (4.1).

4.16
sawlog
log (4.1.2) for processing (3.10) into sawn timber (5.1)
4.17
veneer log
log (4.1.2) for conversion into veneer
4.18
pulpwood

log (4.1.2) or logs used for mechanical or chemical conversion into pulp for paper or wood panel

products
4.19
pit prop
round timber (4.1) intended for supporting mine works
4.20
special assortment log

log (4.1.2) specified by length (3.14) or diameter (7.1), or both, for a specific end-use

4.21
regularized round timber
round timber (4.1) processed to obtain a cylindrical or conical shape
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
4.22
pole
long round timber (4.1) for use in a free-standing application
4.23
stake
round timber (4.1) of small diameter (7.1) usually pointed at one end
Note 1 to entry: May also be split or sawn.
4.24
bundle

group of evenly placed logs (4.1.2), bundled by strapping or other packaging means

4.25
pile
stack, en CA, U.S.
deck, en CA, U.S.
group of logs (4.1.2) stacked in a row or several parallel rows

Note 1 to entry: Can be located at a forest landing, road-side landing or mill yard.

4.26
felling
separating the stem (4.4) of a tree from its root system

Note 1 to entry: Done by cutting a standing tree near ground level to leave a stump (4.8) or by cutting off a root

ball of an uprooted tree (4.26.1).
4.26.1
uprooted tree

tree that is blown over as a result of wind or mechanically pushed over with the root ball still attached

5 Terms related to sawn timber
5.1
sawn timber
lumber, en CA, U.S.
sawn lumber, en CA, U.S.

solid wood (3.1) product obtained by the longitudinal sawing of logs (4.1.2), having at least two parallel

planes

Note 1 to entry: Often supplemented by additional processing (3.10) and/or drying (6.10).

Note 2 to entry: Does not include any products obtained by end, face (5.17) or edge (5.18) gluing of sawn timber

components.
5.1.1
rough sawn timber
sawn timber (5.1) without any additional processing (3.10)
5.1.2
regularized green timber
regularized green lumber, en CA, U.S.

sawn timber (5.1), in a green state, processed to specified permitted deviations (8.8)

5.1.3
prepared timber
blank

sawn timber (5.1) that, at the end-use moisture content (6.7), has been processed to permitted deviations

(8.8) under special agreement between buyer and seller
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
5.2
regularized dried timber
regularized dried lumber, en CA, U.S.
regularized dry timber

sawn timber (5.1) that, after drying (6.10) to the end-use moisture content (6.7), has been processed to

specified permitted deviations (8.8)
5.3
planed timber
planed lumber, en CA, U.S.
dressed lumber, en CA, U.S.
surfaced lumber, en CA, U.S.

sawn timber (5.1) that, at the end-use moisture content (6.7), has been processed for its full length (3.14)

and width (8.2) on at least one face (5.17) to obtain a smooth surface

Note 1 to entry: The end-use moisture content forming part of a specification for planed lumber is typically

specified as either an average moisture content (6.1) with a limit on the variation, or as a moisture content limit,

which a large portion of the production shall not exceed.
5.4
profiled timber
profiled lumber, en CA, U.S.

sawn timber (5.1) that, at the end-use moisture content (6.7), has been processed to obtain a specified,

non-rectangular cross-section (3.13)
5.5
boule

set of pieces of unedged timber (5.14), resulting from cutting a log (4.1.2) longitudinally by successive

parallel cuts, and reassembled into the original log form without the slabs (5.15)

5.6
baulk
timber, en CA, U.S.
large scantling, en MY
large sawn timber (5.1) of square or rectangular cross-section (3.13)

Note 1 to entry: In Canada and the U.S., the minimum dimensions of the cross-section of a timber are

114 mm × 114 mm (nominal 5 in × 5 in).

Note 2 to entry: In Malaysia, the minimum dimensions of the cross-section of a large scantling are nominal

10 in × 6 in.

Note 3 to entry: In Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, the minimum dimensions of the cross-section of a baulk are

100 mm × 100 mm.

Note 4 to entry: In the EU, the minimum thickness (8.1) of a baulk is 80 mm and the sum of the thickness and

width (8.2) shall be greater than or equal to 200 mm.

Note 5 to entry: In Canada and the U.S., there is a homograph for the term “timber”. See 3.2.

5.7
board
piece of sawn timber (5.1) of smaller dimensions
Note 1 to entry: In Malaysia, at least 141 mm (nominal 6 in) in width (8.2).

Note 2 to entry: In Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, less than 100 mm thick with the width at least twice the thickness

(8.1).
Note 3 to entry: In Great Britain/UK, at least 100 mm (nominal 4 in) in width.

Note 4 to entry: In Japan, less than 75 mm thick with the width at least four times the thickness.

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ISO 24294:2021(E)

Note 5 to entry: In Canada and the U.S., less than 38 mm (nominal 2 in.) thick and 38 mm (nominal 2 in.) or more

in width.
5.8
lath
slat, en CA, U.S.
strip, en MY
thin, narrow strip of sawn timber (5.1)

Note 1 to entry: Typically, 9 mm (3/8 in) to 12,5 mm (1/2 in) in thickness (8.1) and 38 mm (1-1/2 in) in width (8.2).

Note 2 to entry: In Malaysia, the width can be up to 141 mm (nominal 6 in).

Note 3 to entry: Typically used as backing for wall plaster and sometimes for fences.

5.9
scantling

piece of sawn timber (5.1) of rectangular cross-section (3.13) whose thickness (8.1) usually equals or

exceeds half its width (8.2)

EXAMPLE 1 Small scantlings have sizes such as 3 in × 2 in, 4 in × 2 in, 4 in × 3 in, 6 in × 4 in, etc.

EXAMPLE 2 Large scantlings have sizes such as 10 in × 6 in, 12 in × 8 in, 12 in × 12 in, etc.

Note 1 to entry: In Malaysia, the minimum dimensions of the cross-section of a large scantling (5.6) are nominal

10 in × 6 in.

Note 2 to entry: In Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, the thickness of a small scantling is less than 100 mm.

5.10
cant
flitch, en CA, U.S.
log (4.1.2) sawn on at least one side
Note 1 to entry: Usually intended for further processing (3.10).

Note 2 to entry: In some countries, may be specified as having at least two flat sides.

5.11
square-edged timber
square-cornered timber, en CA, U.S.
sawn timber (5.1) of rectangular cross-section (3.13)
Note 1 to entry: Wane (5.13), in specified amounts, is permitted in some cases.

Note 2 to entry: In Canada and the U.S., the term “square-edged” refers to sawn timber free of wane and without

eased edges/eased arrises (5.19.3).

Note 3 to entry: In Canada and the U.S., the term “square cornered” refers to sawn timber with an allowance for

wane in some cases but without eased edges/eased arrises.
5.12
taper-edged timber
sawn timber (5.1) processed so that the edges (5.18) are not parallel
5.13
wane

absence of wood (3.1) in the cross-section (3.13) of sawn timber (5.1) due to the original rounded surface

of a log (4.1.2), with or without bark (9.5), on any face (5.17) or edge (5.18) and extending along the

longitudinal axis of the piece
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
5.14
unedged timber

sawn timber (5.1) with parallel faces (5.17) and with one or both edges (5.18) left unsawn

5.15
slab
thin longitudinal exterior slice of a log (4.1.2) obtained by the first sawcut
Note 1 to entry: May be further processed.
5.16
squared end

end of sawn timber (5.1) that has a plane surface at a right angle to the longitudinal axis of the piece

5.17
face

either of the two wider longitudinal opposite surfaces of sawn timber (5.1) or any of the longitudinal

surfaces if the piece has a square cross-section (3.13)
5.17.1
outside face
face (5.17) furthest away from the pith (9.14)
5.17.2
inside face
face (5.17) nearer to the pith (9.14)
5.17.3
better face

face (5.17) that, using a specific rule for grading (3.8), is judged to be of a higher grade than the other

face
5.17.4
worse face

face (5.17) that, using a specific rule for grading (3.8), is judged to be of a lower grade than the other

face
5.18
edge
either one of the narrow longitudinal surfaces of square-edged timber (5.11)

Note 1 to entry: In Canada and the U.S., also applies to the part of the face (5.17) nearest to the arris (5.19) defined

for the purpose of grading (3.8).

Note 2 to entry: In Canada and the U.S., there is a homograph for the term “edge”. See 5.19.

5.19
arris
edge, en CA, U.S.
line of intersection of two faces (5.17) or a face and an edge (5.18)

Note 1 to entry: In Canada and the U.S., there is a homograph for the term “edge”. See 5.18.

5.19.1
waney arris
waney edge, en CA, U.S.
arris (5.19) that contains wane (5.13) in one or more places
5.19.2
sharp arris
sharp edge, en CA, U.S.
arris (5.19) free of wane (5.13)
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
5.19.3
eased arris
eased edge, en CA, U.S.
arris (5.19) that has a slightly rounded surface
5.20
plain sawn timber

sawn timber (5.1) that has a face (5.17) normal or approximately normal to the rays (9.20)

Note 1 to entry: Limits on the angle between rays depend on the species (3.3) and on other factors; e.g. for oak, the

angle between the rays and the face are between 60° and 90°. Other limits can be specified in rules for grading

(3.8).
5.21
plain sawn timber

sawn timber (5.1) that has a face (5.17) tangential or approximately tangential to the

growth rings (9.8)

Note 1 to entry: Limits for species (3.3) where the rays are not visible are 0° and 30° for the angle between the

growth rings and the face. Other limits can be specified in rules for grading (3.8).

5.22
quarter sawn timber

sawn timber (5.1) that has a face (5.17) tangential or approximately tangential to the rays

(9.20)

Note 1 to entry: Limits on the angle between rays depend on the species (3.3) and on other factors; e.g. for oak,

the angle between the rays and the face are between 0° and 30°. Other limits can be specified in rules for grading

(3.8).
5.23
quarter sawn timber

sawn timber (5.1) that has a face (5.17) normal or approximately normal to the growth

rings (9.8)

Note 1 to entry: Limits for species (3.3) where the rays are not visible are 90° and 60° for the angle between the

growth rings and the face. Other limits can be specified in rules for grading (3.8).

Note 2 to entry: In Canada and the U.S., the term “quarter sawn” refers to timber (3.2) sawn so that the growth

rings form angles of 45° to 90° with the face of the piece.
5.24
fully quarter sawn timber

sawn timber (5.1) where the angle between the rays (9.20) and a face (5.17) is 10° or less

5.25
fully quarter sawn timber

sawn timber (5.1) where the angle between the growth rings (9.8) and a face (5.17) is

80° or more
5.26
grain

fibres (9.18) in wood (3.1) and their direction, size, arrangement, appearance or quality

Note 1 to entry: In English, there is a homograph for the term “grain”. See 9.19.

5.26.1
diagonal grain

deviation of grain (5.26) from a line parallel to the edges (5.18), through the thickness (8.1) of the piece.

Note 1 to entry: See also slope of grain (12.7).
10 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
5.26.2
flat grain
FG, en CA, U.S.
slash grain
SG, en CA, U.S.

timber (3.2) sawn approximately parallel to the growth rings (9.8) so that all or some of the growth

rings form an angle of less than 45° with either face (5.17) of the piece

Note 1 to entry: A piece of sawn timber (5.1) containing both vertical grain (5.26.4) and flat grain is classified as

flat grain.
5.26.3
mixed grain
MG, en CA, U.S.

sawn timber (5.1) with any mixture of vertical grain (5.26.4) and flat grain (5.26.2)

5.26.4
vertical grain
VG, en CA, U.S.
edge grain
EG, en CA, U.S.
rift grain

timber (3.2) sawn at approximate right angles to the growth rings (9.8) so that they form an angle of 45°

or more with either face (5.17) of the piece
5.27
exposed pith

pith (9.14) that is visible on a part or the full length (3.14) of a face (5.17) or an edge (5.18)

5.28
boxed heart
pith (9.14) that is present and not visible on any face (5.17) or edge (5.18)
5.29
free of heart centre
FOHC, en CA, U.S.
side cut
piece of sawn timber (5.1) that does not contain the pith (9.14)
5.30
heart plank
piece of sawn timber (5.1) that contains the pith (9.14)
5.31
side board
first piece of sawn timber (5.1) cut from the outer portion of a log (4.1.2)
5.32
sawing defect
sur
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 24294
Deuxième édition
2021-09
Bois — Bois ronds et bois sciés —
Vocabulaire
Timber — Round and sawn timber — Vocabulary
Numéro de référence
ISO 24294:2021(F)
© ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 24294:2021(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2021

Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en œuvre, aucune partie de cette

publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

y compris la photocopie, ou la diffusion sur l’internet ou sur un intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Une autorisation peut

être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

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Publié en Suisse
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 24294:2021(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d'application ...................................................................................................................................................................................1

2 Références normatives ..................................................................................................................................................................................1

3 Termes et définitions ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Termes relatifs aux bois ronds .............................................................................................................................................................3

5 Termes relatifs aux bois sciés ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6 Termes relatifs à la teneur en humidité ...................................................................................................................................13

7 Termes relatifs aux dimensions des bois ronds ..............................................................................................................17

8 Termes relatifs aux dimensions des bois sciés .................................................................................................................18

9 Termes relatifs à la structure anatomique du bois......................................................................................................20

10 Termes relatifs aux singularités communes des bois ronds et des bois sciés ................................23

11 Termes relatifs aux singularités des bois ronds .............................................................................................................25

12 Termes relatifs aux singularités des bois sciés ...............................................................................................................28

13 Termes relatifs à la discoloration et aux attaques fongiques ...........................................................................32

14 Termes relatifs aux dégradations dues aux insectes ou d'autres foreurs du bois ......................37

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................39

Index .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................40

iii
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 24294:2021(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux.

L'ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier, de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a

été rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir

www.iso.org/directives).

L'attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l'ISO (voir www.iso.org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion

de l'ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir www.iso.org/avant-propos.
Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 218, Bois.

Cette deuxième édition de l'ISO 24294 annule et remplace l'ISO 24294:2013 et l'ISO 1032:1974, qui ont

fait l'objet d'une révision technique.
Les principales modifications sont les suivantes:
— mise à jour, correction et clarification des définitions;

— réorganisation des catégories de termes et des termes au sein des catégories afin de correspondre

au sujet.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www.iso.org/fr/members.html.
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ISO 24294:2021(F)
Introduction

Le bois est une ressource naturelle et est le seul matériau principal de la construction qui soit

renouvelable. Parce qu'il est renouvelable, l'utilisation du bois et de plusieurs produits à base de bois

contribue au développement durable. Beaucoup de ces produits sont destinés à des usages spécifiques

comme éléments structuraux ou non dans la construction de bâtiments à poutres et poteaux ou de

l'ossature à plate-forme. Les propriétés du bois dépendent des essences, de la croissance naturelle et de

la teneur en humidité; le bois possède des caractéristiques de résistance différentes en fonction du sens

du fil.

Le présent document définit des termes relatifs aux caractéristiques physiques et mécaniques des

différents bois feuillus et résineux, les bois ronds, sciés et transformés de manière à ce qu'il y ait

cohérence et reconnaissance globale. Le présent document a été préparé par les différents groupes

impliqués dans l'industrie du bois, comme les fabricants, les constructeurs, les négociants et les

importateurs, aussi bien que les organismes de recherche, les universités, les organisations nationales

en charge des règlementations, les rédacteurs de normes et les organisations professionnelles de

conception.

La compréhension de la nature des différentes caractéristiques physiques et des singularités des bois

ronds et des bois sciés facilite une communication réelle relative au bois scié et au bois transformé

de manière à avoir une compréhension systématique et équitable par les utilisateurs et négociants en

activité ou potentiels. Son utilisation conjointement avec d'autres normes permet une harmonisation et

fournit une base pour les spécialistes de la terminologie.
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 24294:2021(F)
Bois — Bois ronds et bois sciés — Vocabulaire
1 Domaine d'application

Le présent document définit la terminologie relative aux bois ronds aux et bois sciés. Il s'applique à

l'identification d'un arbre et de ses constituants, aux étapes d'usinage sous forme ronde et sciée,

ainsi qu'au classement du bois, ses dimensions, sa structure anatomique, ses singularités, sa teneur

en humidité et les conditions relatives à la discoloration ainsi qu'aux attaques de champignons et

d'insectes. Il ne s'applique pas aux termes relatifs aux caractéristiques de résistance du bois, des

produits transformés à base de bois ou des structures en bois.
2 Références normatives
Le présent document ne contient aucune référence normative.
3 Termes et définitions

L'ISO et l'IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l'adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l'adresse https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
bois

matière ligneuse et cellulosique située entre la moelle (9.14) et l'écorce (9.5) d'un arbre ou d'un arbuste

Note 1 à l'article: Les matériaux ligneux à base de bambou, de liège, de rotin, de palmier et autres monocotylédones

ne sont pas du bois.

Note 2 à l'article: Internationalement, les termes «bois» (wood) et « bois » (timber, 3.2) sont souvent

interchangeables pour représenter le matériau de base utilisé pour former les produits en bois.

3.2
bois

bois (3.1) sous forme d'arbres sur pied ou abattus, ou un produit en bois massif obtenu après usinage

(3.10)

Note 1 à l'article: Dans le cas de produits en bois massif transformés, se référer au bois rond (4.1) et au bois scié

(5.1). Ne s'applique pas aux autres produits en bois, tels que les panneaux à base de bois, le placage, la pâte à

papier, les plaquettes (3.11) ou la sciure (3.12).

Note 2 à l'article: Internationalement, les termes «bois» (wood) et «bois» (timber) sont souvent interchangeables

pour représenter le matériau de base utilisé pour former les produits en bois.

Note 3 à l'article: Au Canada et aux États-Unis, il existe un homonyme pour le terme «bois». Voir 5.6.

3.3
essence

catégorie botanique classant un groupe d'arbres distincts présentant un niveau significatif de similarité

génétique

EXEMPLE Douglas (sapin de Douglas – fr CA) (Pseudotsuga menziesii) et épicéa (Picea abies).

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ISO 24294:2021(F)

Note 1 à l'article: Généralement référencée par un nom commun et identifiée par un nom botanique basé sur un

binôme linnéen de son genre et espèce.
3.3.1
groupe d'essences
combinaison d'essences, fr CA

population d'au moins deux essences (3.3) d'arbres ou de plusieurs populations d'une même essence

d'arbre combinées en un groupe de commercialisation unique sur la base de propriétés similaires en

utilisant des critères appropriés pour l'utilisation finale prévue
EXEMPLE Épicéa-pin-sapin (S-P-F)

Note 1 à l'article: Évalué de manière à développer les propriétés des essences combinées afin que les produits en

bois provenant d'essences comprises dans le groupe puissent être utilisés de manière interchangeable.

Note 2 à l'article: Les arbres d'un même groupe d'essences peuvent provenir d'une ou plusieurs régions de

croissance ou de production.
3.4
bois feuillu

bois (3.1) provenant des arbres de la classe botanique des angiospermes, sous-classe des dicotylédones

Note 1 à l'article: Le terme anglais «hardwood» ne fait pas référence à la dureté réelle du bois.

Note 2 à l'article: Il s'agit généralement de feuillus à feuilles larges dont les graines sont enfermées.

3.5
bois résineux

bois (3.1) provenant des arbres de la classe botanique des gymnospermes, sous-classe des coniférophytes

Note 1 à l'article: Le terme anglais «hardwood» ne fait pas référence à la dureté réelle du bois.

Note 2 à l'article: Il s'agit généralement d'arbres à feuillage persistant avec des feuilles en forme d'aiguilles ou

d'écailles et des graines non enfermées, également connus sous le nom de conifères.

3.6
singularité

particularité physique, morphologique ou anatomique du bois (3.2), susceptible d'affecter son utilisation

3.7
défaut
singularité (3.6) qui diminue la qualité et réduit l'utilisation du bois (3.2)
3.8
classement

séparation ou tri du bois (3.2) selon l'utilisation finale, l'essence (3.3) de l'arbre, l'apparence, les

propriétés mécaniques ou de travail, les dimensions ou une combinaison de celles-ci

3.9
lot
quantité spécifiée d'un produit
3.10
usinage

fonction ou combinaison de fonctions autres que l'abattage (4.26) qui modifient la forme du matériau

sans altérer l'intégrité de sa structure en bois (3.1)

Note 1 à l'article: Peut inclure l'écorçage (4.14), le sciage, le resciage, le rabotage (surfaçage), le tronçonnage et le

parage en scierie, mais n'inclut pas le collage.

Note 2 à l'article: Peut être complété par le séchage (6.10) à différentes étapes de la production.

© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 24294:2021(F)
3.11
plaquettes
particules de bois (3.1) produites lors du processus de fragmentation

Note 1 à l'article: Généralement utilisées pour la pâte à papier, la fabrication de certains produits à base de bois

ou comme combustible.
3.12
sciure
fines particules de bois (3.1) produites lors du processus de sciage
3.13
section transversale
section virtuelle à angle droit par rapport à l'axe longitudinal
3.14
longueur
plus petite distance entre les bouts d'une pièce de bois (3.2)
4 Termes relatifs aux bois ronds
4.1
bois rond
arbre abattu après ébranchage et écimage, ayant été tronçonné ou non
4.1.1
grume
bois rond (4.1) non tronçonné
4.1.2
bille
partie tronçonnée d'un bois rond (4.1)
4.1.3
bille de pied
bille (4.1.2) découpée à partir de la plus grosse section d'une grume (4.1.1)
4.1.4
surbille

bille (4.1.2) produite à partir d'une grume (4.1.1) entre la bille de pied (4.1.3) et la dernière surbille (4.1.5)

Note 1 à l'article: Il est possible d'obtenir plusieurs surbilles à partir d'une grume.

4.1.5
dernière surbille
bille (4.1.2) découpée à partir de la plus petite section d'une grume (4.1.1)
4.1.6
bille cylindrique
bois rond parfait

bille (4.1.2) qui a une section transversale (3.13) sur les deux extrémités représentant un vrai cercle

Note 1 à l'article: La rondeur d'une bille est déterminée par la mesure du diamètre (7.1) le plus grand et le diamètre

qui lui est perpendiculaire sur l'extrémité la moins ronde et en calculant le rapport du plus petit et du plus grand

diamètre, exprimé sous forme de pourcentage. Il est rare qu'une rondeur de 100 % soit naturellement atteinte.

4.2
houppier
partie supérieure de l'arbre comprenant les branches
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ISO 24294:2021(F)
4.3
base du houppier

partie de la tige (4.4) où les branches les plus basses du houppier (4.2) prennent naissance

4.4
tige
partie de l'arbre au-dessus du sol, les branches exclues

Note 1 à l'article: Le terme «tige» est parfois utilisé de manière générale en référence aux arbres, c.-à-d., tiges par

unité de surface.
4.5
tronc
partie de la tige (4.4) permettant de valoriser un arbre sur pied

Note 1 à l'article: Déterminée en général par un diamètre fin bout (7.1.3) minimal.

4.6
empattement
partie évasée située à la base de la tige (4.4)
4.7
contrefort
nervure saillante située à la base de la tige (4.4)
4.8
souche

partie de l'arbre qui reste au-dessus et sous le niveau du sol après l'abattage (4.26)

Note 1 à l'article: Ne s'applique pas aux arbres arrachés (4.26.1).
4.9
couronne

zone de la tige (4.4) sur laquelle plusieurs branches ou nœuds (10.1) apparaissent sensiblement à la

même section transversale (3.13)
4.10
bois rond sans aubier

bois rond (4.1) dont l'aubier (9.1) a été entièrement enlevé par un façonnage approprié

Note 1 à l'article: Généralement, l'aubier est enlevé pour éviter les altérations biologiques (13.1).

4.11
bois élagué

bois (3.2) provenant d'un arbre ayant subi un élagage (4.11.1) des branches inférieures

4.11.1
élagage

enlèvement des branches vivantes ou mortes ou de pousses terminales multiples sur des arbres en place

[SOURCE: ISO 6814:2009, 2.19]
4.12
redent
partie d'une tige (4.4) présentant une réduction marquée de diamètre (7.1)

Note 1 à l'article: Peut apparaître près d'une grosse branche ou d'une couronne (4.9) pour certaines essences (3.3)

d'arbres.
4.13
découpe
point d'un bois rond (4.1) où celui-ci sera tronçonné
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ISO 24294:2021(F)
4.13.1
découpe virtuelle

point auquel un tronc (4.5) ou un bois rond (4.1) est visiblement supposé devoir être découpé, en vue du

classement (3.8)
4.14
écorçage
enlèvement de l'écorce (9.5) des arbres ou des bois ronds (4.1)
4.14.1
écorçage partiel
enlèvement d'une partie de l'écorce (9.5)
4.14.2
écorçage d'un paquet
écorçage (4.14) simultané d'un ensemble de bois ronds (4.1)
4.14.3
écorçage pièce à pièce
écorçage (4.14) de bois ronds (4.1) individuels
4.14.4
écorçage par morceau

écorçage partiel (4.14.1) entraînant des taches ou des morceaux d'écorce (9.5) résiduelle à la surface du

bois rond (4.1)
4.14.5
écorçage complet
enlèvement total de l'écorce (9.5), des branches et des rameaux restants
4.15
annélation
annelage, fr CA

enlèvement d'un ruban étroit d'écorce (9.5) autour de la tige (4.4) d'un arbre vivant afin de l'affaiblir ou

de provoquer sa mort

Note 1 à l'article: Ne pas confondre avec l'écorçage (4.14) en vue de l'usinage (3.10) du bois rond (4.1).

4.16
bille de sciage

bille (4.1.2) destinée à l'usinage (3.10) en vue de sa conversion en bois scié (5.1)

4.17
bille de placage
bille (4.1.2) destinée à la transformation en placage
4.18
bois de trituration

bille(s) (4.1.2) utilisée(s) en vue de la conversion mécanique ou chimique en pâte à papier ou en panneaux

à base de bois
4.19
bois de mine
bois rond (4.1), destiné au soutènement des galeries de mine
4.20
bois rond spécifique

bille (4.1.2) caractérisée par sa longueur (3.14) et/ou son diamètre (7.1) pour un usage spécifique

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ISO 24294:2021(F)
4.21
bois rond égalisé

bois rond (4.1) ayant subi un usinage afin de lui donner une forme cylindrique ou conique

4.22
poteau

bois rond (4.1) de grande longueur, utilisé individuellement en position verticale

4.23
piquet

bois rond (4.1) de petit diamètre (7.1) ayant reçu un usinage en pointe à une extrémité

Note 1 à l'article: Peut également être fendu ou scié.
4.24
paquet

ensemble de billes (4.1.2) rangées et liées par cerclage ou par d'autres moyens d'emballage

4.25
pile
ensemble de billes (4.1.2) empilées en rang ou en plusieurs rangs parallèles

Note 1 à l'article: Peut se trouver sur une aire de dépôt forestière, une aire de dépôt en bord de route ou dans la

cour d'une scierie.
4.26
abattage
séparation de la tige (4.4) d'un arbre de son système racinaire

Note 1 à l'article: Cette opération est réalisée en coupant un arbre sur pied près du niveau du sol en laissant une

souche (4.8) ou en coupant la galette racinaire d'un arbre arraché (4.26.1).
4.26.1
arbre arraché

arbre renversé par le vent ou renversé mécaniquement, la galette racinaire étant encore attachée

5 Termes relatifs aux bois sciés
5.1
bois scié
bois d'œuvre, fr CA

produit en bois (3.1) massif obtenu par sciage longitudinal des billes (4.1.2) et ayant au moins deux plans

parallèles

Note 1 à l'article: Souvent complété par un usinage (3.10) et/ou un séchage (6.10) supplémentaires.

Note 2 à l'article: Ne comprend pas les produits obtenus par collage des bouts, des faces (5.17) ou des rives (5.18)

des constituants de bois scié.
5.1.1
bois brut de sciage
bois scié (5.1) qui n'a subi aucun usinage (3.10) supplémentaire
5.1.2
bois égalisé
bois d'œuvre égalisé, fr CA

bois scié (5.1) à l'état vert, usiné en vue de respecter des écarts admissibles (8.8) spécifiés

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ISO 24294:2021(F)
5.1.3
prédébit
bois ébauché

bois scié (5.1) qui, à la teneur en humidité d'utilisation (6.7), a été usiné en vue de respecter des écarts

admissibles (8.8) spécifiés par accord entre l'acheteur et le vendeur
5.2
bois calibré
bois d'œuvre calibré, fr CA

bois scié (5.1) ayant reçu, après séchage (6.10) à la teneur en humidité d'utilisation (6.7), un usinage en

vue de respecter des écarts admissibles (8.8) spécifiés par accord
5.3
bois raboté
bois d'œuvre raboté, fr CA

bois scié (5.1) qui, à la teneur en humidité d'utilisation (6.7), a été usiné sur toute sa longueur (3.14) et sa

largeur (8.2) sur au moins une face (5.17) pour obtenir une surface parfaitement lisse

Note 1 à l'article: La teneur en humidité d'utilisation faisant partie d'une spécification pour le bois raboté est

généralement spécifiée en tant que teneur en humidité (6.1) moyenne avec une limite de variation, ou en tant que

limite de teneur en humidité qu'une grande partie de la production ne doit pas dépasser.

5.4
bois profilé
bois d'œuvre profilé, fr CA

bois scié (5.1) qui, à la teneur en humidité d'utilisation (6.7), a été usiné dans le but d'obtenir une section

transversale (3.13) particulière, non rectangulaire
5.5
plot

ensemble de plateaux (5.14) obtenus en sciant longitudinalement une bille (4.1.2) par traits successifs

parallèles, et replacés, après sciage, l'un sur l'autre, de façon а reconstituer la bille sans les dosses (5.15)

5.6
pièce équarrie

bois scié (5.1) de grosse section transversale (3.13), de forme carrée ou rectangulaire

Note 1 à l'article: Au Canada et en Amérique du Nord, les dimensions minimales de la section transversale d'une

pièce équarrie sont 114 mm × 114 mm (dimensions nominales 5 po × 5 po).

Note 2 à l'article: En Malaisie, les dimensions minimales des sections transversales d'une grande pièce équarrie

sont 10 po x 6 po (dimensions nominales).

Note 3 à l'article: En Belarus, Russie et Ukraine, les dimensions minimales de la section transversale d'une pièce

équarrie sont 100 mm × 100 mm.

Note 4 à l'article: En Europe, l'épaisseur (8.1) minimale d'une pièce équarrie est de 80 mm et la somme de

l'épaisseur et de la largeur (8.2) doit être supérieure ou égale à 200 mm.

Note 5 à l'article: En français, il existe un homonyme pour le terme «pièce équarrie». Voir 3.2.

5.7
planche
pièce de bois scié (5.1) de plus petite dimension

Note 1 à l'article: En Malaisie, la largeur (8.2) minimale d'une planche est de 141 mm (dimension nominale 6 po).

Note 2 à l'article: En Belarus, Russie et Ukraine, une planche a une épaisseur de moins de 100 mm et une largeur

d'au moins deux fois l'épaisseur (8.1).

Note 3 à l'article: En Grande-Bretagne/Royaume-Uni, la largeur minimale d'une planche est de 100 mm

(dimension nominale 4 po).
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ISO 24294:2021(F)

Note 4 à l'article: Au Japon, l'épaisseur d'une planche doit être inférieure à 75 mm et la largeur doit être d'au

moins quatre fois l'épaisseur.

Note 5 à l'article: Au Canada et en Amérique du Nord, une planche a une épaisseur inférieure à 38 mm (dimension

nominale 2 po) et une largeur supérieure ou égale à 38 mm (dimension nominale 2 po).

5.8
latte
lame, fr CA
bande mince et étroite de bois scié (5.1)

Note 1 à l'article: La dimension typique est de 9 mm (3/8 po) à 12,5 mm (1/2 po) en épaisseur (8.1) et de 38 mm

(1-1/2 po) en largeur (8.2).

Note 2 à l'article: En Malaisie, la largeur peut aller jusqu'à 141 mm (dimension nominale 6 po).

Note 3 à l'article: Typiquement, elle est utilisée en soutien de murs en plâtre et parfois pour des clôtures.

5.9
pièce équarrie

pièce de bois scié (5.1) de section transversale (3.13) rectangulaire dont l'épaisseur (8.1) est habituellement

égale ou supérieure à la moitié de sa largeur (8.2)

EXEMPLE 1 Les petites pièces équarries sont de dimensions telles que 3 po × 2 po, 4 po × 2 po, 4 po × 3 po,

6 po × 4 po, etc.

EXEMPLE 2 Les grandes pièces équarries sont de dimensions telles que 10 po × 6 po, 12 po × 8 po, 12 po × 12

po, etc.

Note 1 à l'article: En Malaisie, les dimensions minimales des sections transversales d'une grande pièce équarrie

(5.6) sont 10 po x 6 po (dimensions nominales).

Note 2 à l'article: En Belarus, Russie et Ukraine, l'épaisseur d'une petite pièce équarrie est en dessous de 100 mm.

5.10
noyau
équarri, fr CA
bille (4.1.2) sciée sur au moins un côté
Note 1 à l'article: Généralement destiné à un usinage (3.10) ultérieur.

Note 2 à l'article: Dans certains pays, il peut être spécifié que le noyau possède au moins deux côtés plats.

5.11
avivé
avivé d'équerre, fr CA
bois scié (5.1) de section transversale (3.13) rectangulaire

Note 1 à l'article: Des flaches (5.13) sont permises dans certains cas dans la limite de tolérance.

Note 2 à l'article: Au Canada et en Amérique du Nord, le terme «avivé» est utilisé en référence au bois scié sans

aucune flache et sans bords adoucis/arêtes adoucies (5.19.3).

Note 3 à l'article: Au Canada et en Amérique du Nord, le terme «avivé d'équerre» est utilisé en référence au bois

scié avec une tolérance pour les flaches (5.13) mais sans bords adoucis/arêtes adoucies (5.19.3).

5.12
avivés coniques
bois scié (5.1) usiné de telle façon que les rives (5.18) ne sont pas parallèles
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ISO 24294:2021(F)
5.13
flache

absence de bois (3.1) dans la section transversale (3.13) du bois scié (5.1) due à la surface arrondie

originale d'une bille (4.1.2), avec ou sans écorce (9.5), sur toute face (5.17) ou rive (5.18) et s'étendant le

long de l'axe longitudinal de la pièce
5.14
plateau

bois scié (5.1) possédant deux faces (5.17) parallèles et une ou deux rives (5.18) laissées brutes

5.15
dosse

fine partie extérieure longitudinale d'une bille (4.1.2), obtenue par le premier sciage

Note 1 à l'article: Peut être usinée ultérieurement.
5.16
bout affranchi d'équerre

extrémité du bois scié (5.1), plane et perpendiculaire à l'axe longitudinal de la pièce

5.17
face

n'importe lequel des deux côtés longitudinaux opposés les plus larges du bois scié (5.1) ou toute surface

longitudinale si la pièce est de section transversale (3.13) carrée
5.17.1
face extérieure
face (5.17) qui est la plus loin de la moelle (9.14)
5.17.2
face intérieure
face (5.17) qui est la plus proche de la moelle (9.14)
5.17.3
parement

face (5.17) qui, selon des règles de classement (3.8) spécifiques, est jugée d'une classe supérieure à celle

des autres faces
5.17.4
contreparement

face (5.17) qui, selon des règles de classement (3.8) spécifiques, est jugée d'une classe inférieure à celle

des autres faces
5.18
rive
chant
côté de la pièce, fr CA
n'importe laquelle des surfaces longitudinales étroites du bois avivé (5.11)

Note 1 à l'article: Au Canada et en Amérique du Nord, s'applique également à la partie de la face (5.17) la plus

proche de l'arête (5.19) définie en vue du classement (3.8).

Note 2 à l'article: Cette note s'applique à la langue anglaise uniquement. Voir 5.19.

5.19
arête
intersection de deux faces (5.17) ou d'une face et d'une rive (5.18)

Note 1 à l'article: Cette note s'applique à la langue anglaise uniquement. Voir 5.18.

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ISO 24294:2021(F)
5.19.1
arête flacheuse
arête (5.19) présentant une ou plusieurs flaches (5.13)
5.19.2
arête vive
arête (5.19) nette de flache (5.13)
5.19.3
arête adoucie
bord adouci
coin arrondi, fr CA
arête (5.19) qui a été arrondie légèrement
5.20
bois scié sur dosse

bois scié (5.1) qui a une face (5.17) perpendiculaire ou approximativement

perpendiculaire aux rayons (9.20)

Note 1 à l'article: Les limites dépendent de l'essence (3.3) et d'autres facteurs; par exemple, pour le chêne, l'angle

entre les rayons et la face se situe entre 60° et 90°. D'autres limites peuvent être précisées dans les règles de

classement (3.8).
5.21
bois scié sur dosse

bois scié (5.1) qui a une face (5.17) tangentielle ou approximativement tangentielle

aux couches d'accroissement (9.8)

Note 1 à l'article: Pour les essences (3.3) où les rayons ne sont pas visibles, les valeurs correspondantes de l'angle

entre les couches d'accroissement et la face sont 0° et 30°. D'autres limites peuven

...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 24294
Second edition
Timber — Round and sawn timber —
Vocabulary
Bois — Bois ronds et bois sciés — Vocabulaire
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO 24294:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 24294:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Terms related to round timber .............................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Terms related to sawn timber ................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6 Terms related to moisture content .................................................................................................................................................13

7 Terms related to dimensions of round timber ...................................................................................................................16

8 Terms related to dimensions of sawn timber ......................................................................................................................18

9 Terms related to the anatomical structure of timber .................................................................................................20

10 Terms related to common features of round and sawn timber ........................................................................22

11 Terms related to features of round timber ............................................................................................................................24

12 Terms related to features of sawn timber ...............................................................................................................................27

13 Terms related to stain and fungal attack ..................................................................................................................................31

14 Terms related to degradation by insects or other wood borers ......................................................................35

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................38

Index .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................39

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 218, Timber.

This second edition of ISO 24294 cancels and replaces ISO 24294:2013 and ISO 1032:1974, which have

been technically revised. The main changes compared to the previous editions are as follows:

— updated, corrected and clarified definitions;

— re-ordered term categories and terms within categories to match the subject matter.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
Introduction

Wood is a naturally occurring resource and is the only major construction material that is renewable.

Because it is renewable, the use of wood and the many different timber products made from wood,

contributes to overall sustainable development. Many of these timber products are intended specifically

for use both as structural and non-structural elements in the construction of timber-framed or

platform-frame buildings. Properties of wood are affected by species, natural growth characteristics

and moisture content and with its unique cell structure; wood has different strength properties in

different grain directions.

This document defines terms related to the physical and mechanical characteristics of the many

different hardwood and softwood round, sawn and processed timbers in a manner that is consistent

and recognized globally. This document has been prepared by the various groups involved in the timber

industry, such as manufacturers, builders, wholesalers and importers, as well as research organizations,

academia, national regulatory bodies, standards developers and professional design organizations.

Understanding the nature of the various physical characteristics and features of round and sawn timber

enables effective communication related to sawn and processed timber, in a manner that is consistently

understood by and equitable to all active and potential traders/users. Its use alongside other standards

also aids harmonization and provide a basis for specialist terminology.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 24294:2021(E)
Timber — Round and sawn timber — Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document defines terms related to round and sawn timber. It applies to identification of a tree

and its components, stages of processing in round and sawn forms, and timber grading, dimensions,

anatomical structure, features, moisture content and conditions relating to stain, fungal and insect

attack. It does not apply to terms related to strength properties of wood, engineered timber products or

timber structures.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
wood

lignocellulosic substance between the pith (9.14) and bark (9.5) of a tree or a shrub

Note 1 to entry: Lignified materials from bamboo, cork, rattan, palm trees and other monocotyledons are not

wood.

Note 2 to entry: Internationally, the terms “wood” and timber (3.2) are often used interchangeably to represent

the basic material of wood products.
3.2
timber

wood (3.1) in the form of standing or felled trees, or a solid wood product of these after processing (3.10)

Note 1 to entry: In the case of processed solid wood products, refers to round timber (4.1) and sawn timber (5.1).

Does not apply to other wood products, such as wood-based panels, veneer, wood pulp, chips (3.11) or sawdust

(3.12).

Note 2 to entry: Internationally, the terms “timber” and “wood” are often used interchangeably to represent the

basic material of wood products.

Note 3 to entry: In Canada and the U.S., there is a homograph for the term “timber”. See 5.6.

3.3
species

botanical category classifying a group of distinct trees with a significant level of genetic similarity

EXAMPLE Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Norway spruce (Picea abies).

Note 1 to entry: Usually referred to by a common name and identified by a botanical name that is based on a

Linnaean binomial of its genus and species.
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
3.3.1
species group
species combination, en CA, U.S.

population of two or more tree species (3.3) or multiple populations of the same tree species combined

into a single marketing group on the basis of similar properties using criteria appropriate for the

intended end use
EXAMPLE Spruce-pine-fir (S-P-F).

Note 1 to entry: Evaluated to develop combined species properties so that the wood products from species within

the group can be used interchangeably.

Note 2 to entry: Trees of the same species group may originate from one or more growth or production regions.

3.4
hardwood
wood (3.1) of trees of the botanical class Angiospermae, subclass Dicotyledonae
Note 1 to entry: The term has no reference to the actual hardness of the wood.
Note 2 to entry: Generally deciduous trees with broad leaves and enclosed seeds.
3.5
softwood
wood (3.1) of trees of the botanical class Gymnospermae, subclass Coniferophytae
Note 1 to entry: The term has no reference to the actual hardness of the wood.

Note 2 to entry: Generally evergreen trees with needle or scale-like leaves and unenclosed seeds, also known as

conifers.
3.6
feature

physical, morphological or growth characteristic of timber (3.2) that could affect its use

3.7
defect

feature (3.6) that results in lower quality of timber (3.2) which causes restrictions in use

3.8
grading

separation or sorting of timber (3.2) by end-use, tree species (3.3), appearance, mechanical or working

properties, sizes or some combination thereof
3.9
batch
lot
specified quantity of a product
3.10
processing

function or a combination of functions other than felling (4.26) that change the form of the material

without changing its solid wood (3.1) structure

Note 1 to entry: May include debarking (4.14), sawing, re-sawing, planing (surfacing), cross-cutting and trimming

at the sawmill, but does not include gluing.

Note 2 to entry: May be supplemented by drying (6.10) at various stages of production.

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ISO 24294:2021(E)
3.11
chips
small flakes of wood (3.1) produced during a fragmentation process
Note 1 to entry: Generally utilized for pulp, wood-based products or fuel.
3.12
sawdust
fine particles of wood (3.1) produced during the process of sawing
3.13
cross-section
virtual section at a right angle to the longitudinal axis
3.14
length
shortest distance between the ends of a piece of timber (3.2)
4 Terms related to round timber
4.1
round timber

felled tree after delimbing and removal of top, that may or may not have been cross-cut

4.1.1
long pole
round timber (4.1) that has not been cross-cut
4.1.2
log
cross-cut portion of round timber (4.1)
4.1.3
butt log
log (4.1.2) produced from the larger end of a long pole (4.1.1)
4.1.4
middle log

log (4.1.2) produced from the portion of a long pole (4.1.1) between the butt log (4.1.3) and the top end

log (4.1.5)
Note 1 to entry: More than one middle log may be obtained from one long pole.
4.1.5
top end log
log (4.1.2) produced from the smaller end of a long pole (4.1.1)
4.1.6
cylindrical log
perfect round log

log (4.1.2) that has a cross-section (3.12) on both ends that represents a true circle

Note 1 to entry: The roundness of a log is determined by measuring the largest diameter (7.1) and the diameter at

right angles to it, at the least round end and calculating the ratio of the lesser and greater diameters, expressed as

a percentage. The roundness of 100 % is rarely achieved naturally.
4.2
crown
upper portion of a tree with branches
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
4.3
spring of the crown

zone of the stem (4.4) from where the lowest branches of the crown (4.1) grow out

4.4
stem
portion of a tree above ground, excluding branches
Note 1 to entry: Sometimes refers to trees in general, i.e. stems per unit area.
4.5
trunk
portion of a stem (4.4) used for valuing a standing tree
Note 1 to entry: Usually specified by stating the minimum top diameter (7.1.3).
4.6
butt swelling
flared base part of the stem (4.4)
4.7
buttress
projecting rib at the lower end of the stem (4.4)
4.8
stump

portion of the tree that remains above and below ground level after felling (4.26)

Note 1 to entry: Does not apply to uprooted trees (4.26.1).
4.9
branch whorl

zone of the stem (4.4) where several branches or knots (10.1) occur at approximately the same cross-

section (3.12)
4.10
de-sapped round timber
round timber (4.1) that has had all sapwood (9.1) thoroughly removed

Note 1 to entry: The sapwood is removed generally to prevent biodeterioration (13.1).

4.11
pruned timber
timber (3.2) from a tree that had its lower branches removed by pruning (4.11.1)
4.11.1
pruning

removal of live or dead branches or of multiple leaders of shoots from standing trees

[SOURCE: ISO 6814:2009, 2.19]
4.12
stop
portion of a stem (4.4) where there is a marked reduction in diameter (7.1)

Note 1 to entry: Can occur at a thick branch or at a branch whorl (4.9) in some tree species (3.3).

4.13
cross-cut point
location on round timber (4.1) where it will be cross-cut
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
4.13.1
theoretical cross-cut point

point at which a trunk (4.5) or round timber (4.1) is visually assessed for cross-cutting for grading (3.8)

purposes
4.14
debarking
removing bark (9.5) from trees or round timber (4.1)
4.14.1
rough debarking
partial removing of bark (9.5)
4.14.2
bundle debarking
simultaneous debarking (4.14) of a group of round timbers (4.1)
4.14.3
piece-by-piece debarking
debarking (4.14) of individual round timbers (4.1)
4.14.4
patch debarking

rough debarking (4.14.2) resulting in spots or patches of remaining bark (9.5) on the surface of round

timber (4.1)
4.14.5
clean debarking
complete removal of bark (9.5) and any remnants of branches and branch wood
4.15
ring barking
girdling, en CA, U.S.

removing a narrow strip of bark (9.5) around the stem (4.4) of a living tree to weaken it or cause death

Note 1 to entry: Not to be confused with debarking (4.14) for the purpose of processing (3.10) round timber (4.1).

4.16
sawlog
log (4.1.2) for processing (3.10) into sawn timber (5.1)
4.17
veneer log
log (4.1.2) for conversion into veneer
4.18
pulpwood

log (4.1.2) or logs used for mechanical or chemical conversion into pulp for paper or wood panel

products
4.19
pit prop
round timber (4.1) intended for supporting mine works
4.20
special assortment log

log (4.1.2) specified by length (3.14) or diameter (7.1), or both, for a specific end-use

4.21
regularized round timber
round timber (4.1) processed to obtain a cylindrical or conical shape
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
4.22
pole
long round timber (4.1) for use in a free-standing application
4.23
stake
round timber (4.1) of small diameter (7.1) usually pointed at one end
Note 1 to entry: May also be split or sawn.
4.24
bundle

group of evenly placed logs (4.1.2), bundled by strapping or other packaging means

4.25
pile
stack, en CA, U.S.
deck, en CA, U.S.
group of logs (4.1.2) stacked in a row or several parallel rows

Note 1 to entry: Can be located at a forest landing, road-side landing or mill yard.

4.26
felling
separating the stem (4.4) of a tree from its root system

Note 1 to entry: Done by cutting a standing tree near ground level to leave a stump (4.8) or by cutting off a root

ball of an uprooted tree (4.26.1).
4.26.1
uprooted tree

tree that is blown over as a result of wind or mechanically pushed over with the root ball still attached

5 Terms related to sawn timber
5.1
sawn timber
lumber, en CA, U.S.
sawn lumber, en CA, U.S.

solid wood (3.1) product obtained by the longitudinal sawing of logs (4.1.2), having at least two parallel

planes

Note 1 to entry: Often supplemented by additional processing (3.10) and/or drying (6.10).

Note 2 to entry: Does not include any products obtained by end, face (5.17) or edge (5.18) gluing of sawn timber

components.
5.1.1
rough sawn timber
sawn timber (5.1) without any additional processing (3.10)
5.1.2
regularized green timber
regularized green lumber, en CA, U.S.

sawn timber (5.1), in a green state, processed to specified permitted deviations (8.9)

5.1.3
prepared timber
blank

sawn timber (5.1) that, at the end-use moisture content (6.7), has been processed to permitted deviations

(8.9) under special agreement between buyer and seller
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
5.2
regularized dried timber
regularized dried lumber, en CA, U.S.
regularized dry timber

sawn timber (5.1) that, after drying (6.10) to the end-use moisture content (6.7), has been processed to

specified permitted deviations (8.9)
5.3
planed timber
planed lumber, en CA, U.S.
dressed lumber, en CA, U.S.
surfaced lumber, en CA, U.S.

sawn timber (5.1) that, at the end-use moisture content (6.7), has been processed for its full length (3.14)

and width (8.2) on at least one face (5.17) to obtain a smooth surface

Note 1 to entry: The end-use moisture content forming part of a specification for planed lumber is typically

specified as either an average moisture content (6.1) with a limit on the variation, or as a moisture content limit,

which a large portion of the production shall not exceed.
5.4
profiled timber
profiled lumber, en CA, U.S.

sawn timber (5.1) that, at the end-use moisture content (6.7), has been processed to obtain a specified,

non-rectangular cross-section (3.13)
5.5
boule

set of pieces of unedged timber (5.14), resulting from cutting a log (4.1.2) longitudinally by successive

parallel cuts, and reassembled into the original log form without the slabs (5.15)

5.6
baulk
timber, en CA, U.S.
large scantling, en MY
large sawn timber (5.1) of square or rectangular cross-section (3.13)

Note 1 to entry: In Canada and the U.S., the minimum dimensions of the cross-section of a timber are

114 mm × 114 mm (nominal 5 in × 5 in).

Note 2 to entry: In Malaysia, the minimum dimensions of the cross-section of a large scantling are nominal

10 in × 6 in.

Note 3 to entry: In Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, the minimum dimensions of the cross-section of a baulk are

100 mm × 100 mm.

Note 4 to entry: In the EU, the minimum thickness (8.1) of a baulk is 80 mm and the sum of the thickness and

width (8.2) shall be greater than or equal to 200 mm.

Note 5 to entry: In Canada and the U.S., there is a homograph for the term “timber”. See 3.2.

5.7
board
piece of sawn timber (5.1) of smaller dimensions
Note 1 to entry: In Malaysia, at least 141 mm (nominal 6 in) in width (8.2).

Note 2 to entry: In Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, less than 100 mm thick with the width at least twice the thickness

(8.1).
Note 3 to entry: In Great Britain/UK, at least 100 mm (nominal 4 in) in width.

Note 4 to entry: In Japan, less than 75 mm thick with the width at least four times the thickness.

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ISO 24294:2021(E)

Note 5 to entry: In Canada and the U.S., less than 38 mm (nominal 2 in.) thick and 38 mm (nominal 2 in.) or more

in width.
5.8
lath
slat, en CA, U.S.
strip, en MY
thin, narrow strip of sawn timber (5.1)

Note 1 to entry: Typically, 9 mm (3/8 in) to 12,5 mm (1/2 in) in thickness (8.1) and 38 mm (1-1/2 in) in width (8.2).

Note 2 to entry: In Malaysia, the width can be up to 141 mm (nominal 6 in).

Note 3 to entry: Typically used as backing for wall plaster and sometimes for fences.

5.9
scantling

piece of sawn timber (5.1) of rectangular cross-section (3.13) whose thickness (8.1) usually equals or

exceeds half its width (8.2)

EXAMPLE 1 Small scantlings have sizes such as 3 in × 2 in, 4 in × 2 in, 4 in × 3 in, 6 in × 4 in, etc.

EXAMPLE 2 Large scantlings have sizes such as 10 in × 6 in, 12 in × 8 in, 12 in × 12 in, etc.

Note 1 to entry: In Malaysia, the minimum dimensions of the cross-section of a large scantling (5.6) are nominal

10 in × 6 in.

Note 2 to entry: In Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, the thickness of a small scantling is less than 100 mm.

5.10
cant
flitch, en CA, U.S.
log (4.1.2) sawn on at least one side
Note 1 to entry: Usually intended for further processing (3.10).

Note 2 to entry: In some countries, may be specified as having at least two flat sides.

5.11
square-edged timber
square-cornered timber, en CA, U.S.
sawn timber (5.1) of rectangular cross-section (3.13)
Note 1 to entry: Wane (5.13), in specified amounts, is permitted in some cases.

Note 2 to entry: In Canada and the U.S., the term “square-edged” refers to sawn timber free of wane and without

eased edges/eased arrises (5.19.3).

Note 3 to entry: In Canada and the U.S., the term “square cornered” refers to sawn timber with an allowance for

wane (5.13) in some cases but without eased edges/eased arrises.
5.12
taper-edged timber
sawn timber (5.1) processed so that the edges (5.18) are not parallel
5.13
wane

absence of wood (3.1) in the cross-section (3.13) of sawn timber (5.1) due to the original rounded surface

of a log (4.1.2), with or without bark (9.5), on any face (5.17) or edge (5.18) and extending along the

longitudinal axis of the piece
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
5.14
unedged timber

sawn timber (5.1) with parallel faces (5.17) and with one or both edges (5.18) left unsawn

5.15
slab
thin longitudinal exterior slice of a log (4.1.2) obtained by the first sawcut
Note 1 to entry: May be further processed.
5.16
squared end

end of sawn timber (5.1) that has a plane surface at a right angle to the longitudinal axis of the piece

5.17
face

either of the two wider longitudinal opposite surfaces of sawn timber (5.1) or any of the longitudinal

surfaces if the piece has a square cross-section (3.13)
5.17.1
outside face
face (5.17) furthest away from the pith (9.14)
5.17.2
inside face
face (5.17) nearer to the pith (9.14)
5.17.3
better face

face (5.17) that, using a specific rule for grading (3.8), is judged to be of a higher grade than the other

face
5.17.4
worse face

face (5.17) that, using a specific rule for grading (3.8), is judged to be of a lower grade than the other

face
5.18
edge
either one of the narrow longitudinal surfaces of square-edged timber (5.11)

Note 1 to entry: In Canada and the U.S., also applies to the part of the face (5.17) nearest to the arris (5.19) defined

for the purpose of grading (3.8).

Note 2 to entry: In Canada and the U.S., there is a homograph for the term “edge”. See 5.19.

5.19
arris
edge, en CA, U.S.
line of intersection of two faces (5.17) or a face and an edge (5.18)

Note 1 to entry: In Canada and the U.S., there is a homograph for the term “edge”. See 5.18.

5.19.1
waney arris
waney edge, en CA, U.S.
arris (5.19) that contains wane (5.13) in one or more places
5.19.2
sharp arris
sharp edge, en CA, U.S.
arris (5.19) free of wane (5.13)
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
5.19.3
eased arris
eased edge, en CA, U.S.
arris (5.19) that has a slightly rounded surface
5.20
plain sawn timber

sawn timber (5.1) that has a face (5.17) normal or approximately normal to the rays (9.20)

Note 1 to entry: Limits on the angle between rays depend on the species (3.3) and on other factors; e.g. for oak, the

angle between the rays and the face are between 60° and 90°. Other limits can be specified in rules for grading

(3.8).
5.21
plain sawn timber

sawn timber (5.1) that has a face (5.17) tangential or approximately tangential to the

growth rings (9.8)

Note 1 to entry: Limits species (3.3) where the rays are not visible are 0° and 30° for the angle between the

growth rings and the face. Other limits can be specified in rules for grading (3.8).

5.22
quarter sawn timber

sawn timber (5.1) that has a face (5.17) tangential or approximately tangential to the rays

(9.20)

Note 1 to entry: Limits on the angle between rays depend on the species (3.3) and on other factors; e.g. for oak,

the angle between the rays and the face are between 0° and 30°. Other limits can be specified in rules for grading

(3.8).
5.23
quarter sawn timber

sawn timber (5.1) that has a face (5.17) normal or approximately normal to the growth

rings (9.8)

Note 1 to entry: Limits for species (3.3) where the rays are not visible are 90° and 60° for the angle between the

growth rings and the face. Other limits can be specified in rules for grading (3.8).

Note 2 to entry: In Canada and the U.S., the term “quarter sawn” refers to timber (3.2) sawn so that the growth

rings form angles of 45° to 90° with the face of the piece.
5.24
fully quarter sawn timber

sawn timber (5.1) where the angle between the rays (9.20) and a face (5.17) is 10° or less

5.25
fully quarter sawn timber

sawn timber (5.1) where the angle between the growth rings (9.8) and a face (5.17) is

80° or more
5.26
grain

fibres (9.18) in wood (3.1) and their direction, size, arrangement, appearance or quality

Note 1 to entry: In English, there is a homograph for the term “grain”. See 9.19.

5.26.1
diagonal grain

deviation of grain (5.26) from a line parallel to the edges (5.18), through the thickness (8.1) of the piece.

Note 1 to entry: See also slope of grain (12.7).
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ISO 24294:2021(E)
5.26.2
flat grain
FG, en CA, U.S.
slash grain
SG, en CA, U.S.

timber (3.2) sawn approximately parallel to the growth rings (9.8) so that all or some of the growth

rings form an angle of less than 45° with either face (5.17) of the piece

Note 1 to entry: A piece of sawn timber (5.1) containing both vertical grain (5.26.4) and flat grain is classified as

flat grain.
5.26.3
mixed grain
MG, en CA, U.S.

sawn timber (5.1) with any mixture of vertical grain (5.26.4) and flat grain (5.26.2)

5.26.4
vertical grain
VG, en CA, U.S.
edge grain
EG, en CA, U.S.
rift grain

timber (3.2) sawn at approximate right angles to the growth rings (9.8) so that they form an angle of 45°

or more with either face (5.17) of the piece
5.27
exposed pith

pith (9.14) that is visible on a part or the full length (3.14) of a face (5.17) or an edge (5.18)

5.28
boxed heart
pith (9.14) that is present and not visible on any face (5.17) or edge (5.18)
5.29
free of heart centre
FOHC, en CA, U.S.
side cut
piece of sawn timber (5.1) that does not contain the pith (9.14
...

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