Smart community infrastructures -- Guidance on smart transportation with QR code identification and authentification in transportation and its related or additional services

This document provides guidance on transportation and its related or additional services using quick response (QR) codes for identification and authentication in data transfer, in order to make their services both convenient and advantageous for customers and service agents while protecting them from cheating and illegal action in data transfer.

Infrastructures urbaines intelligentes -- Lignes directrices relatives au transport intelligent utilisant l'identification et l'authentification par QR code dans le domaine du transport et de ses services connexes ou supplémentaires

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
16-Aug-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
14-Jul-2021
Completion Date
13-Jul-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 37180
First edition
2021-08
Smart community infrastructures —
Guidance on smart transportation
with QR code identification and
authentification in transportation and
its related or additional services
Infrastructures urbaines intelligentes — Lignes directrices relatives
au transport intelligent utilisant l'identification et l'authentification
par QR code dans le domaine du transport et de ses services connexes
ou supplémentaires
Reference number
ISO 37180:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 37180:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 37180:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Concept of smart transportation with QR code identification and authentication ........................2

4.1 Background ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.2 Practical usefulness of QR codes ............................................................................................................................................. 2

4.3 Satisfying the Sustainable Development Goals ........................................................................................................... 2

5 QR code identification and authentication-applicable transportation and its related

or additional services ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Services to customers in public transportation ......................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Services to customers in private transportation ....................................................................................................... 3

5.4 Services to customers in inter-modal, carrier or line operational transportation for

public and private purposes ........................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.5 Business work by operators, administrators and facilities owners of public

transportation and its related or additional services ............................................................................................ 3

5.6 Business work by operators, administrators and facilities owners of private

transportation and its related or additional services ............................................................................................ 3

6 QR code identification, authentication and authorization in or for smart transportation ....3

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 QR code identification ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3 QR code authentication ................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.4 QR code authorization ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.4.2 Authorization processes ........................................................................................................................................... . 4

6.5 Other practically useful applications of QR codes in transportation and its related

or additional services ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.6 Application to data transfer validation .............................................................................................................................. 5

7 Security of smart transportation with QR code identification and authentication ........................6

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2 QR code identification and authentication security ............................................................................................... 6

7.3 QR code authorization security ................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.3.2 Personal information collection and encryptions ............................................................................... 7

7.3.3 Security procedures ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

8 Organization and operation of smart transportation with QR code identification

and authentication ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2 Secure-trusted infrastructures for QR code identification and authentication .............................. 7

8.2.1 Credible service management modules ....................................................................................................... 7

8.2.2 Big data analysis centres ........................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2.3 Registration centres ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.2.4 Data transfer modules ................................................................................................................................................. 8

8.2.5 Terminal application modules ............................................................................................................................. 8

9 Quality maintenance of smart transportation with QR code identification and

authentication ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9.2 Parameters to be observed ........................................................................................................................................................... 8

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 37180:2021(E)

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 37180:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 268, Sustainable cities and communities,

Subcommittee SC 1, Smart community infrastructures.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 37180:2021(E)
Introduction

Quick Response (or QR) codes are widely used worldwide due to their extremely large capacity for

data storage and data transfer instead of barcodes. In the transportation field, QR codes have been

used for over 20 years. However, their application is limited since the identification and authentication

procedure with QR codes in data transfer takes over one second. In cities, a ticket inspection gate

should communicate with 60 customers per minute for their ticket validation at rail stations. As the

number of people delayed due to ticket processing in a concourse increases, this results in more risk

leading to passenger injuries. A typical example is the metro in Bangkok, Thailand. The slow processing

rate of ticket inspection machines disturbs passenger flows in the station. The passengers are delayed

frequently at the gate due to the processing resulting in missed trains.

In the past, the security of QR codes was very limited, and so it was highly risky to use the QR code for

ticket value information retention. If the QR codes were falsely duplicated, the copies would work as a

valid ticket. Transportation operators were hesitant to apply QR codes in ticketing and used the code

only for specific purposes or particular situations. For example, a bus stop numbered ticket for fare

adjustment in bus services and seat reservation sold within one hour of train departure.

However, the lack of security features has been overcome by improving QR code identification and

authentication procedures through the use of dynamic encryption keys and their matching fields.

These processes aid in achieving fluidity enhancement, controllable anonymity, non-forgery, non-

repeatable data transfer and non-repudiation. QR codes are now effective tools to identify data senders

and recipients. Further, QR codes can be used to authenticate information contents and authorize

personal status, by completing the procedures safely and quickly. This advanced performance and

security cultivate improved transportation and its related or additional service fields, such as money

transfer services for payment and charging pre-paid cards. Thereby, ensuring that the services are

more beneficial for customers and assist service agents with the more highly accurate and functional

informational data flow. In geographic information systems where large data are traded, supported

with such efforts, QR code applications already started for data provenance indication, metadata

linkage, dictionary organization, data integration, qualification and exchange as well as security.

This guidance document describes QR code identification and authentication to be applied in such

services.

In the development of this document, ISO Guide 82 has been taken into account in addressing

sustainability issues.
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 37180:2021(E)
Smart community infrastructures — Guidance on
smart transportation with QR code identification and
authentification in transportation and its related or
additional services
1 Scope

This document provides guidance on transportation and its related or additional services using quick

response (QR) codes for identification and authentication in data transfer, in order to make their

services both convenient and advantageous for customers and service agents while protecting them

from cheating and illegal action in data transfer.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
QR code

quick response (QR) code, such ones as designated in ISO/IEC 18004, which

is to be used for identification and authentication in data transfer in or for smart transportation in a

general meaning defined in ISO 37154:2017, 3.7

Note 1 to entry: Smart transportation in a general meaning is transportation that provides city issue solutions by

transportation system.

Note 2 to entry: In smart transportation, data are usually transferred between customers and service agents in

transportation and its related or additional services and between the agents.

Note 3 to entry: QR codes designated by ISO/IEC 18004 should be used in smart transportation. When using

other QR codes not covered by ISO standards, the user would be charged on the utilization even while such QR

codes still technically work for smart transportation.
3.2
QR code identification

process to identify data senders and recipients with QR codes (3.1) when transferring data in

transportation and its related or additional services
3.3
QR code authentication

process to authenticate information contents with QR codes (3.1) when transferring data in

transportation and its related or additional services
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 37180:2021(E)
3.4
QR code authorization

process to authorize personal status by QR code (3.1) identification and authentication in transportation

and its related or additional services
3.5
service agent

person working for operators, administrators and facilities owners in transportation and its related or

additional services
4 Concept of smart transportation with QR code identification and
authentication
4.1 Background

In transportation and its related or additional services, data should be transferred safely and quickly

between customers and service agents for specific purposes such as fare or fee payment and receipts,

seat, sleeping car and hotel room reservations and confirmation as well as delivery items and freight

tracking. In this case, data sender and recipient identification and information content authentication

should be completed instantaneously. Identification confirms who is who, while authentication

recognizes what is whose. Identification and authentication work to verify persons and information,

respectively. For example, it can be checked with a QR code printed on a ticket that the ticket is valid,

held by a qualified person and fixed for the fare and fee payment to transportation operators. The

payment can also be transacted through QR-codes, if highly secured and quickly processed.

4.2 Practical usefulness of QR codes

QR codes have good readability which is helpful in identifying persons by authenticating the content

within information and retaining multiple types of information.

QR codes are applied by printing directly on paper or other materials such as plastic tickets and pasting

a sticker printed therewith anywhere convenient for services (e.g. ticket vending machine bodies,

transportation vehicle fee boxes, cashier counters) for identification of data senders and recipients

(e.g. customers, service agents) and authentication of information contents (e.g. reservations, money

transaction, enquiries). Smartphones, which are normally equipped with digital camera functions,

work effectively as QG code readers and indicators. PC displays are also useful QR code indication

devices, which show homepages linked to official websites for information enquiries. QR codes protect

customers, if used with identification and authentication, from cheating action through phishing

websites while customers are communicating therewith.
4.3 Satisfying the Sustainable Development Goals
Smart transportation works to satisfy the UN-Sustainable Development
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 37180
ISO/TC 268/SC 1
Smart community infrastructures —
Secretariat: JISC
Guidance on smart transportation
Voting begins on:
2021­05­18 with QR code identification and
authentification in transportation and
Voting terminates on:
2021­07­13
its related or additional services
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 37180:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 37180:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 37180:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Concept of smart transportation with QR code identification and authentication ........................2

4.1 Background ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.2 Practical usefulness of QR codes ............................................................................................................................................. 2

4.3 Satisfying the Sustainable Development Goals ........................................................................................................... 2

5 QR code identification and authentication-applicable transportation and its related

or additional services ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Services to customers in public transportation ......................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Services to customers in private transportation ....................................................................................................... 3

5.4 Services to customers in inter­modal, carrier or line operational transportation for

public and private purposes ........................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.5 Business work by operators, administrators and facilities owners of public

transportation and its related or additional services ............................................................................................ 3

5.6 Business work by operators, administrators and facilities owners of private

transportation and its related or additional services ............................................................................................ 3

6 QR code identification, authentication and authorization in or for smart transportation ....3

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 QR code identification ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3 QR code authentication ................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.4 QR code authorization ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.4.2 Authorization processes ........................................................................................................................................... . 4

6.5 Other practically useful applications of QR codes in transportation and its related

or additional services ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.6 Application to data transfer validation .............................................................................................................................. 5

7 Security of smart transportation with QR code identification and authentication ........................6

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2 QR code identification and authentication security ............................................................................................... 6

7.3 QR code authorization security ................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.3.2 Personal information collection and encryptions ............................................................................... 7

7.3.3 Security procedures ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

8 Organization and operation of smart transportation with QR code identification

and authentication ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2 Secure-trusted infrastructures for QR code identification and authentication .............................. 7

8.2.1 Credible service management modules ....................................................................................................... 7

8.2.2 Big data analysis centres ........................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2.3 Registration centres ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.2.4 Data transfer modules ................................................................................................................................................. 8

8.2.5 Terminal application modules ............................................................................................................................. 8

9 Quality maintenance of smart transportation with QR code identification and

authentication ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9.2 Parameters to be observed ........................................................................................................................................................... 8

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 37180:2021(E)

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 37180:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 268, Sustainable cities and communities,

Subcommittee SC 1, Smart community infrastructures.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 37180:2021(E)
Introduction

Quick Response (or QR) codes are widely used worldwide due to their extremely large capacity for

data storage and data transfer instead of barcodes. In the transportation field, QR codes have been

used for over 20 years. However, their application is limited since the identification and authentication

procedure with QR codes in data transfer takes over one second. In cities, a ticket inspection gate

should communicate with 60 customers per minute for their ticket validation at rail stations. As the

number of people delayed due to ticket processing in a concourse increases, this results in more risk

leading to passenger injuries. A typical example is the metro in Bangkok, Thailand. The slow processing

rate of ticket inspection machines disturbs passenger flows in the station. The passengers are delayed

frequently at the gate due to the processing resulting in missed trains.

In the past, the security of QR codes was very limited, and so it was highly risky to use the QR code for

ticket value information retention. If the QR codes were falsely duplicated, the copies would work as a

valid ticket. Transportation operators were hesitant to apply QR codes in ticketing and used the code

only for specific purposes or particular situations. For example, a bus stop numbered ticket for fare

adjustment in bus services and seat reservation sold within one hour of train departure.

However, the lack of security features has been overcome by improving QR code identification and

authentication procedures through the use of dynamic encryption keys and their matching fields.

These processes aid in achieving fluidity enhancement, controllable anonymity, non-forgery, non-

repeatable data transfer and non-repudiation. QR codes are now effective tools to identify data senders

and recipients. Further, QR codes can be used to authenticate information contents and authorize

personal status, by completing the procedures safely and quickly. This advanced performance and

security cultivate improved transportation and its related or additional service fields, such as money

transfer services for payment and charging pre-paid cards. Thereby, ensuring that the services are

more beneficial for customers and assist service agents with the more highly accurate and functional

informational data flow. In geographic information systems where large data are traded, supported

with such efforts, QR code applications already started for data provenance indication, metadata

linkage, dictionary organization, data integration, qualification and exchange as well as security.

This guidance document describes QR code identification and authentication to be applied in such

services.

In the development of this document, ISO Guide 82 has been taken into account in addressing

sustainability issues.
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 37180:2021(E)
Smart community infrastructures — Guidance on
smart transportation with QR code identification and
authentification in transportation and its related or
additional services
1 Scope

This document provides guidance on transportation and its related or additional services using quick

response (QR) codes for identification and authentication in data transfer, in order to make their

services both convenient and advantageous for customers and service agents while protecting them

from cheating and illegal action in data transfer.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
QR code

quick response (QR) code, such ones as designated in ISO/IEC 18004, which

is to be used for identification and authentication in data transfer in or for smart transportation in a

general meaning defined in ISO 37154:2017, 3.7

Note 1 to entry: Smart transportation in a general meaning is transportation that provides city issue solutions by

transportation system.

Note 2 to entry: In smart transportation, data are usually transferred between customers and service agents in

transportation and its related or additional services and between the agents.

Note 3 to entry: QR codes designated by ISO/IEC 18004 should be used in smart transportation. When using

other QR codes not covered by ISO standards, the user would be charged on the utilization even while such QR

codes still technically work for smart transportation.
3.2
QR code identification

process to identify data senders and recipients with QR codes (3.1) when transferring data in

transportation and its related or additional services
3.3
QR code authentication

process to authenticate information contents with QR codes (3.1) when transferring data in

transportation and its related or additional services
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 37180:2021(E)
3.4
QR code authorization

process to authorize personal status by QR code (3.1) identification and authentication in transportation

and its related or additional services
3.5
service agent

person working for operators, administrators and facilities owners in transportation and its related or

additional services
4 Concept of smart transportation with QR code identification and
authentication
4.1 Background

In transportation and its related or additional services, data should be transferred safely and quickly

between customers and service agents for specific purposes such as fare or fee payment and receipts,

seat, sleeping car and hotel room reservations and confirmation as well as delivery items and freight

tracking. In this case, data sender and recipient identification and information content authentication

should be completed instantaneously. Identification confirms who is who, while authentication

recognizes what is whose. Identification and authentication work to verify persons and information,

respectively. For example, it can be checked with a QR code printed on a ticket that the ticket is valid,

held by a qualified person and fixed for the fare and fee payment to transportation operators. The

payment can also be transacted through QR-codes, if highly secured and quickly processed.

4.2 Practical usefulness of QR codes

QR codes have good readability which is helpful in identifying persons by authenticating the content

within information and retaining multiple types of information.

QR codes are applied by printing directly on paper or other materials such as plastic tickets and pasting

a sticker printed therewith anywhere convenient for services (e.g. ticket vending machine bodies,

transportation vehicle fee boxes, cashier counters) for identification of data senders and recipients

(e.g. customers, service agents) and authentication of information contents (e.g. reservations, money

transaction, enquiries). Smartphones, which are normally equipped with digital camera functions,

work effectively as QG code readers and indicators. PC displays are also useful QR code indication

devices, which show homepages linked to official websites for information enquiries. QR codes protect

customers, if used with identification and authentication, from cheating action through phishing

webs
...

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