Investigation of brazeability with spreading and gap-filling test

This document specifies three test methods for investigating brazeability. A spreading test shows testing method with measurement of the spread area of the filler metals. A T-joint test describes a scheme to construct a T-shape design by the test pieces and a testing method. A varying gap test describes a test piece and a testing method for assessing the influence of the various parameters which can influence brazing during manufacture as a function of clearances.

Étude de l'aptitude au brasage au moyen d'un essai de mouillage et de capillarité

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Status
Published
Publication Date
07-Mar-2021
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
08-Mar-2021
Completion Date
08-Mar-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 5179
Second edition
2021-03
Investigation of brazeability with
spreading and gap-filling test
Étude de l'aptitude au brasage au moyen d'un essai de mouillage et
de capillarité
Reference number
ISO 5179:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 5179:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 5179:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Description of the test piece ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.1 Spreading test piece............................................................................................................................................................................ 1

4.2 Gap filling test .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2.1 T-joint test piece ............................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2.2 Varying gap test piece .................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Purpose of the test .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

6 Preparation of test piece .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

7 Brazing cycle ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

8 Examination .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

8.1 Spreading test piece............................................................................................................................................................................ 4

8.2 T-joint test piece ......... ............................................................................................................................................................................ 4

8.3 Varying gap test piece ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

9 Micrographic inspection for varying gap test......................................................................................................................... 4

9.1 Varying gap test piece ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

10 Results ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 5179:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 44, Welding and allied processes,

Subcommittee SC 13, Brazing materials and processes.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 5179:1983), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— the spreading test has been added;
— the T-joint test has been added.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at https:// www .iso .org/ members .html.

Official interpretations of ISO/TC 44 documents, where they exist, are available from this page: https://

committee .iso .org/ sites/ tc44/ home/ interpretation .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 5179:2021(E)
Introduction

When designing and making a brazed joint, quite apart from the physical properties of the brazing

alloy and the mechanical properties which can be expected from the joint, it is important to know

the brazeability as a function of the operating conditions adopted. The determination of wettability

has already been the subject of numerous investigations and proposals regarding testing methods. In

carrying out these investigations, the most frequently used methods are based on the spreading of a

drop, or on the measurement of surface tension, but they in fact only take one element of the problem

into account. It is important to know not only the way in which the liquid filler metal wets the surface of

the parent material but also how this same liquid filler metal behaves in a given gap between the joint

components when diffusion takes place.

In this document, brazeability is defined as a total degree of joinability. The joinability consists of both

wettability and fluidity to permit distribution into a joint, i.e. ability to fill a joint gap, although total

brazeability includes performance of the physical, and mechanical properties in services.

As the tests to be designated for brazeability, three methods are introduced in this document. The

traditional varying gap test is described for the most real ability to fill the gap, but it requires a private

sample preparation and special evaluation technique with X-ray device. The T-joint test is newly

developed to investigate ability to fill the gap in an easier manner. It can be easily operated at industrial

laboratories. Moreover, a simple spreading test is designated for practical convenience.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 5179:2021(E)
Investigation of brazeability with spreading and gap-
filling test
1 Scope
This document specifies three test methods for investigating brazeability.

A spreading test shows testing method with measurement of the spread area of the filler metals.

A T-joint test describes a scheme to construct a T-shape design by the test pieces and a testing method.

A varying gap test describes a test piece and a testing method for assessing the influence of the various

parameters which can influence brazing during manufacture as a function of clearances.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (i
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 5179
Second edition
Investigation of brazeability with
spreading and gap-filling test
Étude de l'aptitude au brasage au moyen d'un essai de mouillage et
de capillarité
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO 5179:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 5179:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 5179:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Description of the test piece ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.1 Spreading test piece............................................................................................................................................................................ 1

4.2 Gap filling test .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2.1 T-joint test piece ............................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2.2 Varying gap test piece .................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Purpose of the test .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

6 Preparation of test piece .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

7 Brazing cycle ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

8 Examination .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

8.1 Spreading test piece............................................................................................................................................................................ 4

8.2 T-joint test piece ......... ............................................................................................................................................................................ 4

8.3 Varying gap test piece ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

9 Micrographic inspection for varying gap test......................................................................................................................... 4

9.1 Varying gap test piece ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

10 Results ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 5179:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 44, Welding and allied processes,

Subcommittee SC 13, Brazing materials and processes.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 5179:1983), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— the spreading test has been added;
— the T-joint test has been added.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at https:// www .iso .org/ members .html.

Official interpretations of ISO/TC 44 documents, where they exist, are available from this page: https://

committee .iso .org/ sites/ tc44/ home/ interpretation .html.
iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 5179:2021(E)
Introduction

When designing and making a brazed joint, quite apart from the physical properties of the brazing

alloy and the mechanical properties which can be expected from the joint, it is important to know

the brazeability as a function of the operating conditions adopted. The determination of wettability

has already been the subject of numerous investigations and proposals regarding testing methods. In

carrying out these investigations, the most frequently used methods are based on the spreading of a

drop, or on the measurement of surface tension, but they in fact only take one element of the problem

into account. It is important to know not only the way in which the liquid filler metal wets the surface of

the parent material but also how this same liquid filler metal behaves in a given gap between the joint

components when diffusion takes place.

In this document, brazeability is defined as a total degree of joinability. The joinability consists of both

wettability and fluidity to permit distribution into a joint, i.e. ability to fill a joint gap, although total

brazeability includes performance of the physical, and mechanical properties in services.

As the tests to be designated for brazeability, three methods are introduced in this document. The

traditional varying gap test is described for the most real ability to fill the gap, but it requires a private

sample preparation and special evaluation technique with X-ray device. The T-joint test is newly

developed to investigate ability to fill the gap in an easier manner. It can be easily operated at industrial

laboratories. Moreover, a simple spreading test is designated for practical convenience.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 5179:2021(E)
Investigation of brazeability with spreading and gap-
filling test
1 Scope
This document specifies three test methods for investigating brazeability.

A spreading test shows testing method with measurement of the spread area of the filler metals.

A T-joint test describes a scheme to construct a T-shape design by the test pieces and a testing method.

A varying gap test describes a test piece and a testing method for assessing the influence of the various

parameters which can influence brazing during manufacture as a function of clearances.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 857-2, Welding and
...

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