Intelligent transport systems -- Use of nomadic and portable devices to support ITS service and multimedia provision in vehicles

ISO/TR 10992:2011 specifies the introduction of multimedia and telematics nomadic devices in the public transport and automotive world to support intelligent transport systems (ITS) service provisions and multimedia use such as passenger information, automotive information, driver advisory and warning systems, and entertainment system interfaces to ITS service providers and motor vehicle communication networks.

Systèmes intelligents de transport -- Utilisation des dispositifs nomades et portables pour la prise en charge des services ITS et des provisions multimédia dans les véhicules

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Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Dec-2011
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
15-Nov-2011
Completion Date
16-Dec-2011
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 10992
First edition
2011-12-15
Intelligent transport systems — Use of
nomadic and portable devices to support
ITS service and multimedia provision in
vehicles
Systèmes intelligents de transport — Utilisation des dispositifs nomades
et portables pour la prise en charge des services ITS et des provisions
multimédia dans les véhicules
Reference number
ISO/TR 10992:2011(E)
ISO 2011
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ISO/TR 10992:2011(E)
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© ISO 2011

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ii © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 10992:2011(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... v

1  Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2  Terms, definitions, and abbreviated terms ......................................................................................... 1

2.1  Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 1

2.2  Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................. 2

3  Purpose of standardization .................................................................................................................. 4

3.1  Communication media for nomadic and mobile devices .................................................................. 4

3.2  Vehicle communication network for nomadic & mobile devices ..................................................... 9

4  Nomadic and portable devices for ITS services .............................................................................. 13

4.1  General ................................................................................................................................................. 13

4.2  Service items ....................................................................................................................................... 13

4.3  Standardization requirements ............................................................................................................ 14

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 17

© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TR 10992:2011(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

In exceptional circumstances, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from that

which is normally published as an International Standard (“state of the art”, for example), it may decide by a

simple majority vote of its participating members to publish a Technical Report. A Technical Report is entirely

informative in nature and does not have to be reviewed until the data it provides are considered to be no

longer valid or useful.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/TR 10992 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems.

iv © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 10992:2011(E)
Introduction

International Standards on nomadic and portable devices for intelligent transport systems (ITS) services are

designed to facilitate the development, promotion and standardization of the use of nomadic and portable

devices to support ITS service provisions and multimedia use such as passenger information, automotive

information, driver advisory and warning systems, and entertainment system interfaces to ITS service

providers and motor vehicle communication networks. This Technical Report fosters the introduction of

multimedia and telematics nomadic devices in the public transport and automotive world.

These International Standards are developed for the communications architecture and generic requirements

to enable the connectivity between the vehicle and the infrastructure or other vehicles by using nomadic links

within the vehicle (e.g. Bluetooth) and devices introduced into the vehicle (e.g. music players, PDAs etc.)

including the provision of connectivity via mobile devices (2G/3G/Mobile Wireless Broadband etc.) to the

infrastructure; the support of application services within the vehicle; and integration within the CALM

architecture and in vehicle gateways.

Conceptual aspects of the road vehicle to ITS technology chain are illustrated in Figure 1.

Key
1 Road vehicle technology
2 Vehicle interface technology
3 ITS host application & mobile routing technology
4 Short & wide range communication technology
5 ITS host application & mobile routing technology (Roadside-ITS-Station)
6 ITS back office technology (Central-ITS-Station)
7 Vehicle-ITS-Station Gateway protocol
Figure 1 — Road vehicle to ITS technology chain
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ISO/TR 10992:2011(E)
Six different areas of competence are part of the technology chain.
 Road vehicle technology:

This competence is provided by the vehicle manufacturers and their electronic system suppliers. They

design vehicle's domain network architecture and connected ECUs. The diagnostic communication data

of each ECU might be documented according to ISO 22901, the ODX standard, or traditionally in office

type documents. The vehicle manufacturer is obliged to provide the ECU's diagnostic communication

data in a non-discriminatory form to any interested party.
 Vehicle interface technology:

This competence is provided by the diagnostic tool suppliers. The V-ITS-SG has a similar type of

functionality compared to today's Vehicle Communication Interfaces (VCI). Many VCIs support a wireless

interface to communicate with remote Human Machine Interface (HMI) devices e.g. Nomadic Devices.

 ITS Host Applications & Mobile Routing technology (Vehicle-ITS-Station):
This competence is provided by the IT application and communication companies.
 Short and Wide Range Communication technology:
This competence is provided by the IT communication companies.
 ITS Host Applications & Mobile Routing technology (Roadside-ITS-Station):
This competence is provided by the IT application and communication companies.
 ITS Back Office technology (Central-ITS-Station):
This competence is provided by the ITS service provider companies.

The vehicle interface technology connects the road vehicle technology with the ITS technology via the Vehicle

Mobile Gateway (V-ITS-SG) protocol. The V-ITS-SG protocol provides a single solution access method via

standardized XML vehicle data transfer services.

The V-ITS-SG provides vehicle manufacturer/V-ITS-SG supplier controlled access to vehicle data and

functions. The ND (Vehicle Station) software applications have a similar functionality compared to an Internet

browser.

Work on developing these International Standards includes the identification of exisiting International

Standards for nomadic devices and existing vehicle communication network access International Standards.

 ISO 15031 defines emissions-related diagnostic data supported by vehicles in all countries requiring OBD

compliance.

 ISO 27145 WWH-OBD defines diagnostic data (emissions-related systems, future safety related systems,

etc.) to be supported by vehicles in all countries implementing the GTR (Global Technical Regulation) into

their local legislation.

 ISO 22900-2 defines the Modular Vehicle Communication Interface (MVCI) D-PDU API to separate the

protocol data unit (PDU) from the vehicle specific protocols.

 ISO 22901 defines the Open Diagnostic data eXchange (ODX) format which is an XML-based standard

for describing diagnostic related ECU data. This International Standard is becoming the vehicle

manufacturer's choice to document vehicle system diagnostic data and protocol information.

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ISO/TR 10992:2011(E)

 ISO 22902 is a multimedia and telematics standard based on the AMI-C specification and reference

documents for automotive industry. The important logical element of the architecture is a vehicle

interface.

 ISO 22837 defines the reference architecture for probe vehicle systems and a basic data framework for

probe data.

 ISO 29284 defines the standardization of information, communication and control systems in the field of

urban and rural surface transportation, including intermodal and multimodal aspects thereof, traveller

information, traffic management, public transport, commercial transport, emergency services and

commercial services in the ITS field.
 SAE J2534 defines a standardized system for programming of ECUs in a vehicle.

 SAE J2735 defines the support of interoperability among DSRC applications through the use of

standardized message sets, data frames and data elements.

The work also includes identifying further standardization requirements to support the provision of specific ITS

services where provisions using nomadic devices have additional or different requirements than those for

inbuilt communications media.

It also includes the provision of updating information from the passenger and the vehicle via nomadic devices

to external service providers, and updating the nomadic device and/or the vehicle data systems, such as map

updates, etc., and ensures that nomadic devices introduced into vehicles can be used safely to support ITS

and multimedia services.
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved vii
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 10992:2011(E)
Intelligent transport systems — Use of nomadic and portable
devices to support ITS service and multimedia provision in
vehicles
1 Scope

This Technical Report specifies the introduction of multimedia and telematics nomadic devices in the public

transport and automotive world to support intelligent transport systems (ITS) service provisions and

multimedia use such as passenger information, automotive information, driver advisory and warning systems,

and entertainment system interfaces to ITS service providers and motor vehicle communication networks.

2 Terms, definitions, and abbreviated terms
2.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1.1
ALOHA
communication protocol developed at the University of Hawaii
NOTE Also known as ALOHAnet or the ALOHA system.
2.1.2
nomadic device

device that provides communications connectivity via equipment such as cellular telephones, mobile wireless

broadband (WIMAX, HC-SDMA etc.), Wi-Fi etc. and includes short range links, such as Bluetooth, Zigbee etc.

to connect to the motor vehicle communications system network
2.1.3
STA
station

device that contains an IEEE 802.11 conformant medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY)

interface to the wireless medium (WM)
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ISO/TR 10992:2011(E)
2.2 Abbreviated terms
ADSL asymmetric digital subscriber line
AMI-C Automotive Multimedia Information – Collaboration
CALM communication access for land mobile
CAN Controller Area Network
C-ITS-S central - intelligent transport systems - station
ETC electronic toll collection
DSRC dedicated short range communication
DMB digital multimedia broadcasting
D-PDU diagnostic protocol data unit
DSRC dedicated short range communication
DVB-H Digital Video Broadcasting – Handheld
ECU Electronic Control Unit
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute
FCP Function Control Protocol
HC-SDMA High Capacity Spatial Division Multiple Access
IDB Intelligent Data Bus
IP Internet Protocol
IR Infra-red
ITS intelligent transport systems
ITU-R International Telecommunication Union Radio communication sector
LAN Local Area Network
L2CAP logical link control and adaptation protocol
M5 M5 Modem Remote Control Protocol
MAC media access control
MM Millimeter (Wave)
MOST Media Oriented Systems Transport
MVCI modular vehicle communication interface
ND nomadic device
OBE on-board equipment
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ISO/TR 10992:2011(E)
ODX open diagnostic data exchange
OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access
OSGI Open Services Gateway Initiative
OSI open system interconnection
PDA Personal Digital Assistant
PDU Protocol Data Unit
P-ITS-S personal - intelligent transport systems - station
PHY physical layer of the OSI model
R-ITS-S roadside - intelligent transport systems - station
RSE roadside equipment
RSS Really Simple Syndication
S-DMB Satellite – Digital Multimedia Broadcasting
SWG sub working group
TCP transmission control protocol
TDD time division duplex
T-DMB Terrestrial – Digital Multimedia Broadcasting
TICS transport information and control system
UDP user datagram protocol
UDS Unified Diagnostic Services
VEG Vehicle Expert Group
V-ITS-SG vehicle - intelligent transport systems - station gateway
WAVE wireless access for vehicular environment
WiBro Wireless Broadband
WiMax Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
WLAN Wireless Local Area Network
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ISO/TR 10992:2011(E)
3 Purpose of standardization

The main purposes for developing International Standards on nomadic devices are to

a) identify which nomadic media are suitable to support ITS Services and multimedia use,

EXAMPLE 3G, WiBro/WiMax, Mobile Multimedia Broadcasting (T-DMB, S-DMB, DVB-H, MediaFlo, ETC), CALM,

DSRC, etc.

b) identify the existing International Standards for nomadic devices and existing vehicle communication

network access International Standards (for example those developed by ISO TC22, AMI-C etc.),

EXAMPLE Zigbee, Bluetooth, MOST, CAN, IDB 1394, OSGI, AMI-C, Standard Items in TC22.

c) identify additional work required to develop Standards by reference, and/or to develop Standards for

additional protocol requirements, and
EXAMPLE Service items and related requirements.

d) identify the further standardization requirements to support the provision of specific ITS services where

provision using nomadic devices has additional or different requirements than those for inbuilt depicts the

Current status of related standards.communications media.
3.1 Communication media for nomadic and mobile devices
3.1.1 General

In order to identify which nomadic media are suitable to support ITS Services and multimedia use, current

status of related standards is reviewed as shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2 — Communication media
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ISO/TR 10992:2011(E)
3.1.2 Dedicated short range communication (DSRC)

DSRC specifies the physical layer, data link layer and application layer of Dedicated Short Range

Communication (DSRC) at 5.8 GHz for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) services, which is based on Open

System Interconnection (OSI) reference model.

It describes the communication mechanism and procedures between Road Side Equipment (RSE) and On-

Board Equipment (OBE) which pass through RSE's communication zone, providing both point-to-point

interactive communication and/or point-to-multipoint communication.

The communication mode is characterized by synchronous half duplex communication. For communication

initiation from OBE, adaptive slotted ALOHA access scheme is used.

It covers Transport Information and Control System (TICS) service such as Electronic Toll Collection (ETC)

service.
3.1.3 IEEE 802.11p, wireless access in vehicular environment (WAVE)
WAVE introduces enhancements to IEEE 802.11 in order to support:
 Extremely short latency, measured in tens of milliseconds

 Long range, up to 1000 meters (while still supporting short ranges of a few meters)

 Very mobile devices, with speeds while operating of up to 200 km/h

 Extreme multipath, such as what is encountered by STA mounted on a car travelling on a highway

alongside other cars and trucks travelling by large buildings and bridges

To provide complete interoperability at the application level requires standardization of the entire

communications stack, not just of the lowest layers of the MAC and PHY as defined in IEEE 802.11. Those

layers above the PHY and MAC, outside the scope of IEEE 802.11 and are mentioned here only to provide a

complete description of WAVE and how 11p fits into this larger picture. While these upper layers are part of

the overall WAVE architecture, there is no intent to limit 11p operation to the use of these higher layers. As

intended by the OSI model, the 11p specifications may be implemented by different higher layers, such as any

other uses of IEEE 802.11 that have comparable requirements for these layers.
3.1.4 Communication access for land mobile (CALM)

CALM refers to the set of International Standards being developed to support this framework.

The CALM framework supports user transparent continuous communications across various interfaces and

communication media such IEEE 802.11, 802.11p, 802.15, 802.16e, 802.20, 2G/3G/4G cellular systems,

national ITS systems, etc.
Two main areas are being standardized:
a) CALM (Communications Air-Interface, Long and Medium Range), and
b) Probe Data and related areas.
Here are the list of the sub working groups and the fields they are working on:
 SWG 16.0 Architecture;
 SWG 16.1 Media;
 SWG 16.2 Networking;
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ISO/TR 10992:2011(E)
 SWG 16.3 Probe Data;
 SWG 16.4 Application Management;
 SWG 16.5 Emergency Notifications;
 SWG 16.6 CALM ad-hoc subsystem.

The scope of CALM is to provide a standardized set of air interface protocols and parameters for medium and

long range, high speed ITS communication using one or more of several media, with multipoint and

networking protocols within each media, and upper layer protocols to enable transfer between media.

This service includes the following communication modes:

 Vehicle-Infrastructure: Multipoint communication parameters are automatically negotiated, and

subsequent communication may be initiated by either roadside or vehicle.

 Infrastructure-Infrastructure: The communication system may also be used to link fixed points where

traditional cabling is undesirable.

 Vehicle-Vehicle: A low latency peer-peer network with the capability to carry safety related data such as

collision avoidance, and other vehicle-vehicle services such as ad-hoc networks linking multiple vehicles.

Table 1 defines the communication media and scope.
Table 1 — Communication media and scope
Medium M5 IR MM
 5 ~ 6 GHz Microwave  800 ~ 900 nm infrared  use 60-70 GHz Millimeter Wave
Scope
 support 3-27 Mbps  support 1-128 Mbps  support latencies and
communication delays in the order
of milliseconds
 6-54 Mbps  range 300 – 1000 m
 range 300 -1000m  support latencies and  support Multi-Subcarrier
operations (DMB, DSRC, SDR,
communication delays
in the order of etc.
 support latencies and
communication delays milliseconds
in the order of
milliseconds

 cooperation with IEEE,  cooperation with IRDA  surveying the status of MM wave

Current
ASTM and ETSI technology in Europe
Issue
 FDIS Ballot Approval
 adaptation of  reviewing international spectrum
PHY/MAC in IEEE standardization
802.11p WAVE
 ETSI, ITU-R, etc.
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ISO/TR 10992:2011(E)
3.1.5 WiBro and WiMax

WiBro (Wireless Broadband) is a wireless broadband Internet technology being developed by the South

Korean telecoms industry. WiBro is the South Korean service name for IEEE 802.16e (mobile WiMAX)

international standard.

WiBro adapts TDD for duplexing, OFDMA for multiple access and 8.75 MHz as a channel bandwidth. WiBro

was devised to overcome the data rate limitation of mobile phones (for example ADSL or Wireless LAN).

WiBro base stations will offer an aggregate data throughput of 30 to 50 Mbit/s and cover a radius of 1-5 km

allowing for the use of portable internet usage. In detail, it will provide mobility for moving devices up to

120 km/h (74.5 miles/h) compared to Wireless LAN having mobility up to walking speed and mobile phone

having mobility up to 250 km/h.

WiMAX is a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an

alternative to wired broadband like cable and DSL. WiMAX provides fixed, nomadic, portable and, soon,

mobile wireless broadband connectivity without the need for direct line-of-sight with a base station. In a typical

cell radius deployment of three to ten kilometers, WiMAX Forum Certified™ systems can be expected to

deliver capacity of up to 40 Mbps per channel, for fixed and portable access applications.

This is enough bandwidth to simultaneously support hundreds of businesses with T-1 speed connectivity and

thousands of residences with DSL speed connectivity. Mobile network deployments are expected to provide

up to 15 Mbps of capacity within a typical cell radius deployment of up to three kilometers. It is expected that

WiMAX technology will be incorporated in notebook computers and PDAs by 2007, allowing for urban areas

and cities to become “metro zones” for portable outdoor broadband wireless access.

3.1.6 Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB)

Digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB) is a method of multicasting multimedia content to mobile and portable

devices, such as cell phones, by satellite or terrestrial services, or a combination of the two. Some DMB-

capable receiving devices can render content that is individualized to the location or subscriber.

Common examples of multimedia broadcast content include
 text and audio,
 text, audio, and still or animated graphics,
 audio and full-motion video,
 text, audio, and full-motion video, and
 multiple, concurrent display areas, images, or programs.

The most popular application of DMB is mobile television. Movies, video clips, music, RSS feeds, and text

messages can also be transmitted. Most existing and proposed DMB services operate on a fee-based

subscription basis, although advertising has been suggested as a revenue source. A free state-operated DMB

service is available in South Korea.
3.1.7 Cellular (3G)

3G technologies enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while

achieving greater network capacity through improved spectral efficiency. Services include wide-area wireless

voice telephony and broadband wireless data, all in a mobile environment. Typically, they provide service at

5-10 Mb per second.
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ISO/TR 10992:2011(E)

Unlike IEEE 802.11 networks, 3G networks are wide area cellular telephone networks which evolved to

incorporate high-speed internet access and video telephony. IEEE 802.11 (common names Wi-Fi or WLAN)

networks are short range, high-bandwidth networks primarily developed for data.
3.1.8 Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11)

A wireless network uses radio waves, just like cell phones, televisions and radios do. In fact, communication

across a wireless network is a lot like two-way radio communication. Here's what happens:

 A computer's wireless adapter translates data into a radio signal and transmits it using an antenna.

 A wireless router receives the signal and decodes it. It sends the information to the Internet using a

physical, wired Ethernet connection.

The process also works in reverse, with the router receiving information from the Internet, translating it into a

radio signal and sending it to the computer's wireless adapter.

The radios used for Wi-Fi communication are very similar to the radios used for walkie-talkies, cell phones and

other devices. They can transmit and receive radio waves, and they can convert 1s and 0s into radio waves

and convert the radio waves back into 1s and 0s. But Wi-Fi radios have a few notable differences from other

radios:

 They transmit at frequencies of 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz. This frequency is considerably higher than the

frequencies used for cell phones, walkie-talkies and televisions. The higher frequency allows the signal to

carry more data.
 They use IEEE 802.11 networking standards, which come in several flavours:

 IEEE 802.11a transmits at 5 GHz and can move up to 54 megabits of data per second. It also uses

orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), a more efficient coding technique that splits the

radio signals into several sub-signals before they reach a receiver.

 IEEE 802.11b is the slowest and least expensive standard. For a while, its cost made it popular, but

now it's becoming less common as faster standards become less expensive. 802.11b transmits in

the 2.4 GHz frequency band of the radio spectrum. It can handle up to 11 megabits of data per

second, and it uses complimentary code keying (CCK) coding.

 IEEE 802.11g transmits at 2.4 GHz like 802.11b, but it's a lot faster -- it can handle up to 54

megabits of data per second. 802.11g is faster because it uses the same OFDM coding as 802.11a.

 IEEE 802.11n is the standard that significantly improves speed and range for being widely available.

For instance, although 802.11g theoretically moves 54 megabits of data per second, it only achieves

real-world speeds of about 24 megabits of data per second because of network congestion. 802.11n,

however, reportedly can achieve speeds as high as 140 megabits per second.

 IEEE 802.11p is the newest standard that provides the set of specifications required to ensure

interoperability between wireless devices attempting to communicate in potentially rapidly changing

in communications environments and in situations where transactions must be completed in time

frames much shorter than the minimum possible with infrastructure or ad hoc IEEE 801.11 networks.

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ISO/TR 10992:2011(E)
Table 2 provides an overview of communication technology and frequency.
Table 2 — Overview of communication technology and frequency
Type cellular DMB WiBro Wi-Fi DSRC WAVE
FrequencyGHz) 0.8-1.7 0.2/2.6 2.3 2.4/5.8 5.8 5.9
Radio Range(Km) 20 100 3 0.1 0.1 1
Transmit speed(Mbps) 0.3 0.1 1 0.3-54 1 2-54
Mobility (Km/H) 5 60 60 - 160 200
Access time unit S - S s ms ms
Duplex Full duplex Half duplex Full duplex Full duplex Full duplex Full duplex
3.2 Vehicle communication network for nomadic & mobile devices
3.2.1 ISO/TC22/SC3/WG1 data communication
3.2.1.1 Overview

ISO TC22/SC3/WG1 is responsible for studies relating to data communication including diagnostic

communication, data transmission between road vehicles and off-board diagnostic devices and related data

management issues (e.g., definitions, security, and open interface for embedded software). WG1 works on the

items as described in 3.2.1.2 - 3.2.1.4.
3.2.1.2 ISO 22900 MVCI (Modular Vehicle Communication Interface)

The ISO 22900 MVCI is proposed to specify a standardized hardware device and generic software interface

adapting a “plug and play” concept to access OEM proprietary in-vehicle network from after-market

applications. This International Standard consists of three parts as follows.
 Part 1: Hardware design requirements

 Part 2: D-PDU API (Diagnostic Protocol Data Unit Application Programmers Interface)

...

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