Soil quality — Sustainable remediation

ISO 18504:2017 provides procedures on sustainable remediation. In particular, it provides: - standard methodology, terminology and information about the key components and aspects of sustainable remediation assessment; - informative advice on the assessment of the relative sustainability of alternative remediation strategies. ISO 18504:2017 is intended to inform practitioners about contemporary understanding of sustainable remediation. It is not intended to prescribe which methods of assessment, indicators or weights to use. Rather, it is intended to inform consideration of the concept of sustainable remediation in a local legal, policy, socio-economic and environmental context. The scope of ISO 18504:2017 is restricted to sustainable remediation ? that is demonstrably breaking the source-pathway-receptor linkages ? in a manner that has been shown on a site-specific basis under a specific legal context to be sustainable. The concepts of "green remediation" and "green and sustainable remediation" (so called GSR) that in some parts of the world are conflated with sustainable remediation are neither endorsed nor discussed in ISO 18504:2017.

Qualité du sol — Remédiation durable

L'ISO 18504:2017 fournit des procédures en matière de remédiation durable. Il fournit notamment: - une méthodologie normalisée, une terminologie et des informations sur les composantes et les aspects essentiels de l'évaluation de la remédiation durable; - des conseils à des fins informatives sur l'évaluation de la durabilité relative des stratégies de remédiation envisageables sur un site donné. L'ISO 18504:2017 est destiné à informer les praticiens sur la compréhension actuelle de la remédiation durable. Il n'a pas pour objet de recommander les méthodes d'évaluation, les indicateurs ou pondérations à utiliser. Par contre, il a pour objet d'apporter un éclairage sur le concept de remédiation durable dans un contexte réglementaire, politique, socioéconomique et environnemental local. Le domaine d'application du présent document se limite à la remédiation durable, qui, de façon manifeste, brise les liens source-vecteur-cible d'une manière dont le caractère durable, sur un site donné et dans un cadre juridique spécifique, a été démontré. Les concepts de «remédiation écologique» et de «remédiation écologique et durable» (Green and Sustainable Remediation - GSR) qui, dans certaines parties du monde, sont confondus avec la remédiation durable ne sont ni avalisés ni traités dans le présent document.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
01-Aug-2017
Current Stage
9060 - Close of review
Due Date
02-Dec-2022
Ref Project

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ISO 18504:2017(E)
ISO/TC 190/SC 7
Deleted: Date: 2017‐05‐17¶
Date: 2017‐07
ISO/PRF 18504:2017(E)¶
ISO 18504:2017(E)
ISO/TC 190/SC 7/WG 12
Secretariat: DIN
Soil quality — Sustainable remediation
Qualité du sol — Remédiation durable
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18504:2017(E)
Moved down [1]: Soil quality —
Sustainable remediation
Deleted: ¶
Qualité du sol — Remédiation durable¶
Section Break (Next Page)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT¶
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise
specified, no part of this publication may
be reproduced or utilized otherwise in
any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopying, or
posting on the internet or an intranet,
without prior written permission.
Permission can be requested from either
ISO at the address below or ISO’s
member body in the country of the
requester.¶
ISO copyright office¶
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401¶
CH‐1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland¶
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11¶
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47¶
copyright@iso.org¶
www.iso.org¶
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 18504:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviations .................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Sustainable remediation, (re)development and regeneration ....................................................... 3

6 Risk-based contaminated land management ........................................................................................ 4

7 Integrated assessments, metrics and evaluations ............................................................................... 4

7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 4

7.2 Tiered assessments ......................................................................................................................................... 5

7.3 Tiered assessment frameworks ................................................................................................................. 5

7.4 Sustainable remediation assessment techniques ................................................................................ 6

7.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.4.2 Qualitative .......................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.4.3 Semiquantitative .............................................................................................................................................. 7

7.4.4 Quantitative ....................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.5 Holistic sustainable remediation indicator sets .................................................................................. 7

8 Decision making ............................................................................................................................................... 8

8.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

8.2 Project framing ................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.3 How to identify a sustainable remediation approach ........................................................................ 9

8.4 Key principles in decision making ......................................................................................................... 10

8.4.1 Principles ......................................................................................................................................................... 10

8.4.2 Stakeholder engagement ........................................................................................................................... 11

8.4.3 Selection of relevant indicators ............................................................................................................... 11

8.4.4 Assessment of agreed indicators ............................................................................................................ 11

8.4.5 Selection and implementation ................................................................................................................. 11

9 Economic dimension ................................................................................................................................... 12

9.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 12

9.2 Economic indicators .................................................................................................................................... 12

10 Social dimension ........................................................................................................................................... 13

10.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 13

10.2 Social indicators ............................................................................................................................................ 14

11 Environmental dimension ......................................................................................................................... 14

11.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

11.2 Environmental indicators .......................................................................................................................... 14

12 Indicators and metrics ................................................................................................................................ 15

12.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 15

12.2 Setting objectives for remediation ......................................................................................................... 17

12.3 Quantification and qualification ............................................................................................................. 18

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ISO 18504:2017(E)

12.4 Options for indicator and metric selection ......................................................................................... 19

13 The role of sustainable remediation assessment tools .................................................................. 19

13.1 Sustainable remediation assessment ................................................................................................... 19

13.2 Intended objectives addressed by tools ............................................................................................... 19

13.3 Pre-determined indicators and metrics .............................................................................................. 20

13.4 Geographic and process specific information ................................................................................... 20

13.5 General questions for understanding tool use and applicability ............................................... 20

14 Communication ............................................................................................................................................. 21

15 Promoting sustainable remediation ..................................................................................................... 21

16 The role of governance and institutional structures ...................................................................... 22

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 23

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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Deleted: ISO/PRF 18504:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national

standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally

carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a

technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee.

International organizations, governmental and non‐governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in

the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all

matters of electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).
Deleted: www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents). Deleted: www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. Deleted: www.iso.org/iso/forewor
d.html

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 7, Soil

and site assessment.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 18504:2017(E)
Introduction

This document is intended to provide procedures for sustainable remediation. It contains accepted

terminology and understanding of the features of sustainable remediation and of means of assessing the

relative sustainability of site‐specific alternative remediation strategies. Determining what is and is not

sustainable remediation at a specific site will be influenced by many local factors and the governance

context. Therefore, this document seeks to preserve local flexibility and freedom of action.

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Deleted: ISO/PRF 18504:2017(E)
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18504:2017(E)
Moved (insertion) [1]
Soil quality — Sustainable remediation
Deleted: Soil quality — Sustainable
remediation
1 Scope

This document provides procedures on sustainable remediation. In particular, it provides:

— standard methodology, terminology and information about the key components and aspects of

sustainable remediation assessment;

— informative advice on the assessment of the relative sustainability of alternative remediation

strategies.

This document is intended to inform practitioners about contemporary understanding of sustainable

remediation. It is not intended to prescribe which methods of assessment, indicators or weights to use.

Rather, it is intended to inform consideration of the concept of sustainable remediation in a local legal,

policy, socio‐economic and environmental context.

The scope of this document is restricted to sustainable remediation — that is demonstrably breaking

the source‐pathway‐receptor linkages — in a manner that has been shown on a site‐specific basis under

a specific legal context to be sustainable.

The concepts of “green remediation” and “green and sustainable remediation” (so called GSR) that in

some parts of the world are conflated with sustainable remediation are neither endorsed nor discussed

in this document.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/ Deleted: http://www.electropedia

.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
Deleted: http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
brownfield
sites which
— have been affected by former uses of the site or surrounding land;
— are derelict or underused;
— are mainly in fully or partly developed urban areas;
— require intervention to bring them back to beneficial use;
— may have real or perceived contamination problems
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18504:2017(E)
3.2
environmental justice

combination of environmental rights and environmental responsibilities that asserts that everyone has

— a right to healthy places to live, work, play, learn and enjoy themselves;

— a right to a fair share of nature's benefits and ecosystem services, such as food and water;

— a responsibility to look after the planet for others and for future generations

3.3
indicator

single characteristic that represents a sustainability effect, whether benefit or negative impact, which

may be compared across alternative remediation strategies, comprising one or more remediation

techniques and/or institutional controls, to evaluate their relative performance
EXAMPLE Greenhouse gas emissions.
3.4
metric
measurement of an indicator (3.3)
EXAMPLE Tons/Tonnes CO2.
3.5
remediation strategy

one or more remediation technologies and associated works that will meet specified contamination‐

related risk reduction objectives
3.6
remediation technology

technology that pre‐processes, processes or post‐processes the ground or contaminant as part of risk

management
3.7
sustainable development

development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future

generations to meet their own needs

Note 1 to entry: Sustainable development is about integrating the broader expectations of society as a whole of a

high quality of life, health and prosperity with environmental justice and maintaining Earth's capacity to support

life in all its diversity. These social, economic and environmental goals are interdependent and mutually

reinforcing.

[SOURCE: ISO 26000:2010, 2.23, modified — The Note has been modified and the last sentence has

been deleted]
3.8
sustainable redevelopment

component of sustainable development (3.7) that results in the return to use of abandoned, derelict,

underused and potentially contaminated sites in a way that increases their environmental, economic,

and social benefits
3.9
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ISO 18504:2017(E)
sustainable regeneration

component of sustainable development (3.7) that reverses the economic, social and environmental

decline of places
3.10
sustainable remediation

elimination and/or control of unacceptable risks in a safe and timely manner whilst optimising the

environmental, social and economic value of the work
3.11
threshold

limit of acceptability for an indicator that may not be crossed or carries an unacceptable consequence if

it is crossed, such as regulatory non‐compliance
3.12
unacceptable risk
level of risk that requires remediation

Note 1 to entry: The level of risk could be evaluated by comparison to a numeric threshold or by benchmarking

against a narrative definition. Different levels of risk are deemed unacceptable in different countries or even by

different laws within a country.
Deleted: <#>Abbreviated terms¶
4 Abbreviations
BTU British Thermal Units
CBA cost benefit analysis
CCP climate change potential
ESTCP Environmental Security Technology Certification Program
GHG greenhouse gas
GSR green and sustainable remediation
LCA life cycle assessment
MCA multi‐criteria analysis
MNC multi‐national corporation
RBLM risk‐based land management
SuRF Sustainable Remediation Forum
US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency
WBCSD World Business Council for Sustainable Development
5 Sustainable remediation, (re)development and regeneration

Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future

[1]

generations to meet their own needs is considered to constitute sustainable development. In the case

of brownfield sites, remediation is a prelude to physical redevelopment and ultimately socio‐economic

regeneration. Sustainable regeneration provides multiple benefits. For example, it empowers local

communities, provides new employment opportunities, enhances the aesthetics of an area and supports

environmental justice.
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ISO 18504:2017(E)

Since remediation often links into the beneficial redevelopment and reuse of a site, sustainable

[2]

redevelopment is inherently connected with sustainable remediation. Considering the reuse of a site

from the beginning of a remediation project is a fundamental component of sustainable remediation,

and therefore sustainable remediation may act either as a natural precursor to, or as a subset of,

sustainable redevelopment. Much value may be achieved through successfully integrating remediation

into the redevelopment process to exploit synergies while minimizing costs and environmental impacts

associated with bringing sites back to beneficial use.
6 Risk-based contaminated land management

The concept of RBLM means integrating decisions on the need for remediation, the timeframe within

which it should be implemented and the choice of remediation strategy by considering three

[3]
components :
— fitness for current/intended land use;
— protection of the environment;
— long term care.

RBLM is intended to assist reaching balanced and informed decisions to achieve sustainable land

management. The first decision is whether or not the risk posed by land contamination to human

health, ecosystems, property or natural resources is deemed by law or corporate policy to merit

intervention. Such remediation should be acceptable to those with an interest in its outcome —

stakeholders.

Remediation should be reliable and not breakdown uncontrollably in the future. In addition,

remediation should not introduce significant new risks and should be effective over the period in which

the contamination risks need to be managed.

Sustainable remediation is about how to manage risks that merit intervention and should not be seen as

justification for no intervention in the face of such risks.

There might be non‐negotiable boundary conditions, such as legal, corporate policy or regulatory

requirements, which have to be taken into consideration. Alternative remediation strategies that meet

them may then form the focus for the sustainable remediation assessment.
7 Integrated assessments, metrics and evaluations
7.1 General

There are many ways to integrate various dimensions in order to provide a holistic measure to

benchmark against the definition of sustainable remediation. A tiered approach allows application of

simple sustainable remediation assessments at less complex sites and more sophisticated, costly and

perhaps presently contested assessments at more complex sites.

Meaningful sustainability assessment of alternative remediation strategies is possible and should

inform robust and reliable project management decisions. This is despite the fact that sustainability

may not be measured in simple units, and that an assessment of the sustainability of remediation

strategies is necessarily a subjective process at a given point in time and space. Stakeholders should be

encouraged to provide their perspectives on the balance of potential impacts and benefits to facilitate

consensus.
[4]‐[7]

Sustainability assessment of alternative soil and groundwater remediation strategies is improved

by:
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18504:2017(E)

— being limited to those strategies that are likely to achieve site‐specific risk‐management objectives

(i.e. eliminate and/or control unacceptable risks to human health, property, surface or ground

water and the environment);

— following a framework for assessment that is consistent with sustainable remediation (see 3.10)

by:

— considering the environmental, social and economic benefits and impacts associated with each

option;

— identifying which of the remediation strategies being assessed provides the greatest overall

benefits;

— comparing alternative strategies against a relevant common baseline, e.g. pump and treat,

excavation and off‐site disposal or do nothing;

— adopting indicators and metrics that capture all significant benefits and impacts while avoiding

double‐counting;

— adopting a tiered approach, such that the sustainable remediation assessment is proportional to the

scale of the project/problem being addressed;

— taking stakeholder opinions and perspectives into account and, where it is practical to do so,

engage directly with stakeholders;

— documenting the activities, data, assumptions and decision points to aid transparency (e.g. see

[8]
ASTM E2876:2013, Clause 8 ).
7.2 Tiered assessments

A tiered approach may be used, in which simple qualitative approaches are the default and most

commonly used tier, and more complex quantitative tiers are applied only when necessary or otherwise

justified.

Simple or relatively clear‐cut problems require only simple sustainable remediation assessment. As a

general rule, the simplest form of sustainable remediation assessment that allows a robust decision to

be made should be adopted. On projects where the decision depends on a small number of indicators

that can be measured, a more quantitative approach to sustainable remediation assessment may be

necessary to help reach a robust and reliable decision.
7.3 Tiered assessment frameworks

A tiered approach to sustainable remediation assessment illustrates how a simple qualitative,

semiquantitative or fully quantitative approach may be taken to a given project. In all tiers the initial

considerations are the same:

— confirm the project objectives: what question is the assessment being completed to answer?

— confirm the shortlist of remediation strategies: likely to be effective in meeting project objectives;

— identify the relevant stakeholders: who could affect or be affected by the project?

— identify project boundaries: temporal, spatial and lifecycle limits to the assessment;

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18504:2017(E)

— select sustainable remediation indicators: agree on the indicators that will form the basis of the

sustainability assessment;

— determine how each indicator will be characterized or measured: agree on the metrics;

— agree the assessment techniques: sustainable remediation assessment techniques that will be

applied (i.e. the tier and method).

Once these initial issues have been considered, and background information and data collated, the

sustainable remediation assessment proceeds using the agreed assessment technique.

7.4 Sustainable remediation assessment techniques
7.4.1 General

Various qualitative, semiquantitative or quantitative techniques may be used to undertake a sustainable

remediation assessment, either in its entirety, or partially (Table 1). The boundaries between the tiers

are fuzzy. While there may be some overlap between the techniques applied under these three

headings, they serve as a useful classification to emphasize that valid assessments may be completed

using simple, intermediate or more complex approaches. In general, the effort involved increases in

going from qualitative to quantitative assessments. However, users should beware of the danger of

focusing on only those parameters that can (easily) be measured. The inherent flexibility of qualitative

methods means they are easier to apply in a comprehensive manner.

Table 1 — Examples of techniques that may be useful for sustainable remediation assessment

Qualitative Quantitative
Semiquantitative
(simple but comprehensive) (complex but partial)
Narrative analysis Pair‐wise comparison CBA
Non‐parametric ranking MCA LCA
(Environmental) Footprint
Analysis
Cost effectiveness analysis
NOTE This is strictly an economic
analysis.
7.4.2 Qualitative

Qualitative approaches do not attempt to put numbers to different remediation strategies within an

assessment. Instead, non‐parametric or even narrative alternatives to metrics may be used:

— ranking of one alternative against others as being “better”, “neutral” or “worse” for a specific

indicator;

— a narrative drawn from discussions between stakeholders where alternative remediation strategies

are considered and a preferred option selected based on performance against a range of

sustainable remediation indicators.

It is generally possible to consider a wide range of sustainable remediation indicators qualitative; but,

quantitative data that may be readily accessible for some indicators is not used to its full extent.

Alphanumeric terms may be used in rankings (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or a, b, c) and may be helpful in rapidly

identifying patterns, and median rankings may then be considered. However, these labels should not be

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18504:2017(E)

confused with semiquantitative or quantitative data where some form of estimation (and weighting)

has taken place.
7.4.3 Semiquantitative

“Semiquantitative” approaches quantify some, but not all, indicators or they place values and

weightings on all options but without fully monetising and quantifying every aspect, for example:

— MCA using scores (i.e. relative performance of an option against a sustainable remediation

indicator) and weightings (i.e. stakeholder view on the importance of a particular sustainable

remediation indicator) to rank a number of options — typically, an overall rank is derived from the

sum of all weighted scores, when compared to other options;

— quantitative analysis of a number of aspects may be applied alongside more qualitative assessment

of other factors such as quantitative assessment of the CO footprint and remediation direct cost

combined with qualitative consideration of ecological impact and social aspects within a holistic

assessment;

— pair‐wise comparison involves comparing the relative performance for a given indicator of each

candidate strategy against each other and aggregating the outcomes to allow an overall judgment of

the alternatives to be made.
7.4.4 Quantitative

Quantitative approaches require metrics to be applied to the sustainable remediation indicators. The

metric may be some form of common currency within a CBA, or a physical quantification (mass, energy,

time, etc.) within a LCA. While some indicators may be readily quantified, even monetised, it is more

difficult for others. It is not uncommon, therefore, to use simpler assessment methods first to separate

remediation options that are clearly better than others, and then to use partial‐CBA or other

quantitative methods to investigate a small number of sustainable remediation indicators that

distinguish the remaining options. Using such a tiered approach may improve the efficiency of the

assessment process.
Example for a quantitative approach:

— [environmental] “footprint analysis” compares the aggregate environmental footprint of the

candidate remediation strategies.
7.5 Holistic sustainable remediation indicator sets

A sustainable remediation assessment undertaken at any tier requires a set of relevant and

measureable indicators to compare remediation options. A holistic set of indicators and their metrics

...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18504
First edition
2017-07
Soil quality — Sustainable
remediation
Qualité du sol — Remédiation durable
Reference number
ISO 18504:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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ISO 18504:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 18504:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviations........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Sustainable remediation, (re)development and regeneration ............................................................................ 3

6 Risk-based contaminated land management ......................................................................................................................... 4

7 Integrated assessments, metrics and evaluations ............................................................................................................. 4

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.2 Tiered assessments ............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

7.3 Tiered assessment frameworks ............................................................................................................................................... 5

7.4 Sustainable remediation assessment techniques ..................................................................................................... 5

7.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.4.2 Qualitative.............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

7.4.3 Semiquantitative .............................................................................................................................................................. 6

7.4.4 Quantitative .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.5 Holistic sustainable remediation indicator sets ......................................................................................................... 7

8 Decision making .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2 Project framing ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.3 How to identify a sustainable remediation approach ........................................................................................... 8

8.4 Key principles in decision making ......................................................................................................................................... 9

8.4.1 Principles ................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

8.4.2 Stakeholder engagement .......................................................................................................................................10

8.4.3 Selection of relevant indicators ........................................................................................................................10

8.4.4 Assessment of agreed indicators ....................................................................................................................10

8.4.5 Selection and implementation ..........................................................................................................................10

9 Economic dimension .....................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.2 Economic indicators ........................................................................................................................................................................11

10 Social dimension................................................................................................................................................................................................12

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

10.2 Social indicators ..................................................................................................................................................................................12

11 Environmental dimension .......................................................................................................................................................................13

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

11.2 Environmental indicators ...........................................................................................................................................................13

12 Indicators and metrics ................................................................................................................................................................................14

12.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................14

12.2 Setting objectives for remediation ......................................................................................................................................15

12.3 Quantification and qualification ...........................................................................................................................................17

12.4 Options for indicator and metric selection ..................................................................................................................17

13 The role of sustainable remediation assessment tools .............................................................................................17

13.1 Sustainable remediation assessment ...............................................................................................................................17

13.2 Intended objectives addressed by tools .........................................................................................................................18

13.3 Pre-determined indicators and metrics .........................................................................................................................18

13.4 Geographic and process specific information ...........................................................................................................18

13.5 General questions for understanding tool use and applicability ..............................................................19

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 18504:2017(E)

14 Communication ...................................................................................................................................................................................................19

15 Promoting sustainable remediation .............................................................................................................................................19

16 The role of governance and institutional structures ...................................................................................................20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18504:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: w w w . i s o .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 7, Soil

and site assessment.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 18504:2017(E)
Introduction

This document is intended to provide procedures for sustainable remediation. It contains accepted

terminology and understanding of the features of sustainable remediation and of means of assessing

the relative sustainability of site-specific alternative remediation strategies. Determining what is

and is not sustainable remediation at a specific site will be influenced by many local factors and the

governance context. Therefore, this document seeks to preserve local flexibility and freedom of action.

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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18504:2017(E)
Soil quality — Sustainable remediation
1 Scope

This document provides procedures on sustainable remediation. In particular, it provides:

— standard methodology, terminology and information about the key components and aspects of

sustainable remediation assessment;

— informative advice on the assessment of the relative sustainability of alternative remediation

strategies.

This document is intended to inform practitioners about contemporary understanding of sustainable

remediation. It is not intended to prescribe which methods of assessment, indicators or weights to use.

Rather, it is intended to inform consideration of the concept of sustainable remediation in a local legal,

policy, socio-economic and environmental context.

The scope of this document is restricted to sustainable remediation — that is demonstrably breaking

the source-pathway-receptor linkages — in a manner that has been shown on a site-specific basis under

a specific legal context to be sustainable.

The concepts of “green remediation” and “green and sustainable remediation” (so called GSR) that in

some parts of the world are conflated with sustainable remediation are neither endorsed nor discussed

in this document.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
3.1
brownfield
sites which
— have been affected by former uses of the site or surrounding land;
— are derelict or underused;
— are mainly in fully or partly developed urban areas;
— require intervention to bring them back to beneficial use;
— may have real or perceived contamination problems
3.2
environmental justice

combination of environmental rights and environmental responsibilities that asserts that everyone has

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ISO 18504:2017(E)
— a right to healthy places to live, work, play, learn and enjoy themselves;

— a right to a fair share of nature’s benefits and ecosystem services, such as food and water;

— a responsibility to look after the planet for others and for future generations

3.3
indicator

single characteristic that represents a sustainability effect, whether benefit or negative impact, which

may be compared across alternative remediation strategies, comprising one or more remediation

techniques and/or institutional controls, to evaluate their relative performance
EXAMPLE Greenhouse gas emissions.
3.4
metric
measurement of an indicator (3.3)
EXAMPLE Tons/Tonnes CO .
3.5
remediation strategy

one or more remediation technologies and associated works that will meet specified contamination-

related risk reduction objectives
3.6
remediation technology

technology that pre-processes, processes or post-processes the ground or contaminant as part of risk

management
3.7
sustainable development

development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations

to meet their own needs

Note 1 to entry: Sustainable development is about integrating the broader expectations of society as a whole

of a high quality of life, health and prosperity with environmental justice and maintaining Earth’s capacity to

support life in all its diversity. These social, economic and environmental goals are interdependent and mutually

reinforcing.

[SOURCE: ISO 26000:2010, 2.23, modified — The Note has been modified and the last sentence has been

deleted]
3.8
sustainable redevelopment

component of sustainable development (3.7) that results in the return to use of abandoned, derelict,

underused and potentially contaminated sites in a way that increases their environmental, economic,

and social benefits
3.9
sustainable regeneration

component of sustainable development (3.7) that reverses the economic, social and environmental

decline of places
3.10
sustainable remediation

elimination and/or control of unacceptable risks in a safe and timely manner whilst optimising the

environmental, social and economic value of the work
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ISO 18504:2017(E)
3.11
threshold

limit of acceptability for an indicator that may not be crossed or carries an unacceptable consequence if

it is crossed, such as regulatory non-compliance
3.12
unacceptable risk
level of risk that requires remediation

Note 1 to entry: The level of risk could be evaluated by comparison to a numeric threshold or by benchmarking

against a narrative definition. Different levels of risk are deemed unacceptable in different countries or even by

different laws within a country.
4 Abbreviations
BTU British Thermal Units
CBA cost benefit analysis
CCP climate change potential
ESTCP Environmental Security Technology Certification Program
GHG greenhouse gas
GSR green and sustainable remediation
LCA life cycle assessment
MCA multi-criteria analysis
MNC multi-national corporation
RBLM risk-based land management
SuRF Sustainable Remediation Forum
US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency
WBCSD World Business Council for Sustainable Development
5 Sustainable remediation, (re)development and regeneration

Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future

[1]

generations to meet their own needs is considered to constitute sustainable development. In the

case of brownfield sites, remediation is a prelude to physical redevelopment and ultimately socio-

economic regeneration. Sustainable regeneration provides multiple benefits. For example, it empowers

local communities, provides new employment opportunities, enhances the aesthetics of an area and

supports environmental justice.

Since remediation often links into the beneficial redevelopment and reuse of a site, sustainable

[2]

redevelopment is inherently connected with sustainable remediation. Considering the reuse of a site

from the beginning of a remediation project is a fundamental component of sustainable remediation,

and therefore sustainable remediation may act either as a natural precursor to, or as a subset of,

sustainable redevelopment. Much value may be achieved through successfully integrating remediation

into the redevelopment process to exploit synergies while minimizing costs and environmental impacts

associated with bringing sites back to beneficial use.
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ISO 18504:2017(E)
6 Risk-based contaminated land management

The concept of RBLM means integrating decisions on the need for remediation, the timeframe

within which it should be implemented and the choice of remediation strategy by considering three

[3]
components :
— fitness for current/intended land use;
— protection of the environment;
— long term care.

RBLM is intended to assist reaching balanced and informed decisions to achieve sustainable land

management. The first decision is whether or not the risk posed by land contamination to human health,

ecosystems, property or natural resources is deemed by law or corporate policy to merit intervention.

Such remediation should be acceptable to those with an interest in its outcome — stakeholders.

Remediation should be reliable and not breakdown uncontrollably in the future. In addition,

remediation should not introduce significant new risks and should be effective over the period in which

the contamination risks need to be managed.

Sustainable remediation is about how to manage risks that merit intervention and should not be seen as

justification for no intervention in the face of such risks.

There might be non-negotiable boundary conditions, such as legal, corporate policy or regulatory

requirements, which have to be taken into consideration. Alternative remediation strategies that meet

them may then form the focus for the sustainable remediation assessment.
7 Integrated assessments, metrics and evaluations
7.1 General

There are many ways to integrate various dimensions in order to provide a holistic measure to

benchmark against the definition of sustainable remediation. A tiered approach allows application of

simple sustainable remediation assessments at less complex sites and more sophisticated, costly and

perhaps presently contested assessments at more complex sites.

Meaningful sustainability assessment of alternative remediation strategies is possible and should

inform robust and reliable project management decisions. This is despite the fact that sustainability

may not be measured in simple units, and that an assessment of the sustainability of remediation

strategies is necessarily a subjective process at a given point in time and space. Stakeholders should be

encouraged to provide their perspectives on the balance of potential impacts and benefits to facilitate

consensus.
[4]-[7]

Sustainability assessment of alternative soil and groundwater remediation strategies is

improved by:

— being limited to those strategies that are likely to achieve site-specific risk-management objectives

(i.e. eliminate and/or control unacceptable risks to human health, property, surface or ground water

and the environment);

— following a framework for assessment that is consistent with sustainable remediation (see 3.10) by:

— considering the environmental, social and economic benefits and impacts associated with

each option;
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ISO 18504:2017(E)

— identifying which of the remediation strategies being assessed provides the greatest overall

benefits;

— comparing alternative strategies against a relevant common baseline, e.g. pump and treat, excavation

and off-site disposal or do nothing;

— adopting indicators and metrics that capture all significant benefits and impacts while avoiding

double-counting;

— adopting a tiered approach, such that the sustainable remediation assessment is proportional to the

scale of the project/problem being addressed;

— taking stakeholder opinions and perspectives into account and, where it is practical to do so, engage

directly with stakeholders;

— documenting the activities, data, assumptions and decision points to aid transparency (e.g. see

[8]
ASTM E2876: 2013, Clause 8 ).
7.2 Tiered assessments

A tiered approach may be used, in which simple qualitative approaches are the default and most

commonly used tier, and more complex quantitative tiers are applied only when necessary or otherwise

justified.

Simple or relatively clear-cut problems require only simple sustainable remediation assessment. As a

general rule, the simplest form of sustainable remediation assessment that allows a robust decision to

be made should be adopted. On projects where the decision depends on a small number of indicators

that can be measured, a more quantitative approach to sustainable remediation assessment may be

necessary to help reach a robust and reliable decision.
7.3 Tiered assessment frameworks

A tiered approach to sustainable remediation assessment illustrates how a simple qualitative,

semiquantitative or fully quantitative approach may be taken to a given project. In all tiers the initial

considerations are the same:

— confirm the project objectives: what question is the assessment being completed to answer?

— confirm the shortlist of remediation strategies: likely to be effective in meeting project objectives;

— identify the relevant stakeholders: who could affect or be affected by the project?

— identify project boundaries: temporal, spatial and lifecycle limits to the assessment;

— select sustainable remediation indicators: agree on the indicators that will form the basis of the

sustainability assessment;

— determine how each indicator will be characterized or measured: agree on the metrics;

— agree the assessment techniques: sustainable remediation assessment techniques that will be

applied (i.e. the tier and method).

Once these initial issues have been considered, and background information and data collated, the

sustainable remediation assessment proceeds using the agreed assessment technique.

7.4 Sustainable remediation assessment techniques
7.4.1 General

Various qualitative, semiquantitative or quantitative techniques may be used to undertake a sustainable

remediation assessment, either in its entirety, or partially (Table 1). The boundaries between the

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ISO 18504:2017(E)

tiers are fuzzy. While there may be some overlap between the techniques applied under these three

headings, they serve as a useful classification to emphasize that valid assessments may be completed

using simple, intermediate or more complex approaches. In general, the effort involved increases in

going from qualitative to quantitative assessments. However, users should beware of the danger of

focusing on only those parameters that can (easily) be measured. The inherent flexibility of qualitative

methods means they are easier to apply in a comprehensive manner.

Table 1 — Examples of techniques that may be useful for sustainable remediation assessment

Qualitative Quantitative
Semiquantitative
(simple but comprehensive) (complex but partial)
Narrative analysis Pair-wise comparison CBA
Non-parametric ranking MCA LCA
(Environmental) Footprint Analysis
Cost effectiveness analysis
NOTE This is strictly an economic
analysis.
7.4.2 Qualitative

Qualitative approaches do not attempt to put numbers to different remediation strategies within an

assessment. Instead, non-parametric or even narrative alternatives to metrics may be used:

— ranking of one alternative against others as being “better”, “neutral” or “worse” for a specific

indicator;

— a narrative drawn from discussions between stakeholders where alternative remediation strategies

are considered and a preferred option selected based on performance against a range of sustainable

remediation indicators.

It is generally possible to consider a wide range of sustainable remediation indicators qualitative; but,

quantitative data that may be readily accessible for some indicators is not used to its full extent.

Alphanumeric terms may be used in rankings (e.g. 1, 2, 3 or a, b, c) and may be helpful in rapidly

identifying patterns, and median rankings may then be considered. However, these labels should not

be confused with semiquantitative or quantitative data where some form of estimation (and weighting)

has taken place.
7.4.3 Semiquantitative

“Semiquantitative” approaches quantify some, but not all, indicators or they place values and weightings

on all options but without fully monetising and quantifying every aspect, for example:

— MCA using scores (i.e. relative performance of an option against a sustainable remediation indicator)

and weightings (i.e. stakeholder view on the importance of a particular sustainable remediation

indicator) to rank a number of options — typically, an overall rank is derived from the sum of all

weighted scores, when compared to other options;

— quantitative analysis of a number of aspects may be applied alongside more qualitative assessment

of other factors such as quantitative assessment of the CO footprint and remediation direct cost

combined with qualitative consideration of ecological impact and social aspects within a holistic

assessment;

— pair-wise comparison involves comparing the relative performance for a given indicator of each

candidate strategy against each other and aggregating the outcomes to allow an overall judgment

of the alternatives to be made.
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ISO 18504:2017(E)
7.4.4 Quantitative
Quantitative approaches require metrics to be applied to the sust
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 18504
Première édition
2017-07
Qualité du sol — Remédiation durable
Soil quality — Sustainable remediation
Numéro de référence
ISO 18504:2017(F)
ISO 2017
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ISO 18504:2017(F)
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© ISO 2017

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ISO 18504:2017(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abréviations .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Remédiation, (ré)aménagement et requalification durables................................................................................ 3

6 Gestion des sols pollués en fonction du risque ..................................................................................................................... 4

7 Évaluations intégrées et paramètres ............................................................................................................................................... 4

7.1 Généralités .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

7.2 Évaluations par étapes progressives .................................................................................................................................... 5

7.3 Cadres d’évaluation pour une approche par étapes progressives .............................................................. 5

7.4 Techniques d’évaluation de la remédiation durable .............................................................................................. 6

7.4.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.4.2 Approche qualitative .................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.4.3 Approche semi-quantitative .................................................................................................................................. 7

7.4.4 Approche quantitative ................................................................................................................................................ 7

7.5 Ensembles holistiques d'indicateurs de remédiation durable ...................................................................... 7

8 Processus décisionnel ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.1 Généralités .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

8.2 Cadrage du projet ................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.3 Comment identifier une approche de remédiation durable ............................................................................ 9

8.4 Principes fondamentaux du processus décisionnel .............................................................................................10

8.4.1 Principes ..............................................................................................................................................................................10

8.4.2 Implication des parties prenantes .................................................................................................................11

8.4.3 Sélection des indicateurs pertinents ...........................................................................................................11

8.4.4 Évaluation des indicateurs convenus ..........................................................................................................12

8.4.5 Sélection et mise en œuvre ..................................................................................................................................12

9 Composante économique .........................................................................................................................................................................12

9.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................12

9.2 Indicateurs économiques ............................................................................................................................................................13

10 Composante sociale ........................................................................................................................................................................................13

10.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................13

10.2 Indicateurs sociaux ..........................................................................................................................................................................14

11 Composante environnementale .........................................................................................................................................................14

11.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................14

11.2 Indicateurs environnementaux .............................................................................................................................................15

12 Indicateurs et paramètres .......................................................................................................................................................................15

12.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................15

12.2 Détermination des objectifs de la remédiation ........................................................................................................17

12.3 Quantification et qualification ................................................................................................................................................18

12.4 Options pour la sélection des indicateurs et des paramètres .....................................................................19

13 Rôle des outils d’évaluation de la remédiation durable ...........................................................................................19

13.1 Évaluation de la remédiation durable ..............................................................................................................................19

13.2 Objectifs recherchés traités par les outils.....................................................................................................................19

13.3 Indicateurs et paramètres prédéterminés ...................................................................................................................20

13.4 Informations géographiques et informations spécifiques aux processus ........................................20

13.5 Questions générales concernant la compréhension de l’utilisation des outils et

leur applicabilité .................................................................................................................................................................................20

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14 Communication ...................................................................................................................................................................................................21

15 Promotion de la remédiation durable ........................................................................................................................................21

16 Le rôle de la gouvernance et des structures institutionnelles ...........................................................................22

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

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ISO 18504:2017(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux.

L'ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/ directives).

L'attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l'ISO (voir www .iso .org/ brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion

de l'ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant: www .iso .org/ avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaborée par le Comité technique ISO/TC 190, Qualité du sol, sous-comité

SC 7, Évaluation des sols et des sites.
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ISO 18504:2017(F)
Introduction

Le présent document a pour objet de fournir des procédures en matière de remédiation durable. Il

présente une terminologie reconnue et une interprétation des caractéristiques d’une remédiation

durable et les moyens d’évaluer la durabilité relative de stratégies de remédiation envisageables et

spécifiques à un site donné. La détermination de ce qui relève ou non d’une remédiation durable sur un

site donné sera fonction de nombreux facteurs locaux et du contexte en matière de gouvernance. Par

conséquent, le présent document vise à préserver une flexibilité locale et une liberté d’action.

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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 18504:2017(F)
Qualité du sol — Remédiation durable
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document fournit des procédures en matière de remédiation durable. Il fournit notamment:

— une méthodologie normalisée, une terminologie et des informations sur les composantes et les

aspects essentiels de l’évaluation de la remédiation durable;

— des conseils à des fins informatives sur l’évaluation de la durabilité relative des stratégies de

remédiation envisageables sur un site donné.

Le présent document est destiné à informer les praticiens sur la compréhension actuelle de la

remédiation durable. Il n’a pas pour objet de recommander les méthodes d’évaluation, les indicateurs ou

pondérations à utiliser. Par contre, il a pour objet d’apporter un éclairage sur le concept de remédiation

durable dans un contexte réglementaire, politique, socioéconomique et environnemental local.

Le domaine d’application du présent document se limite à la remédiation durable, qui, de façon

manifeste, brise les liens source-vecteur-cible d’une manière dont le caractère durable, sur un site

donné et dans un cadre juridique spécifique, a été démontré.

Les concepts de «remédiation écologique» et de «remédiation écologique et durable» (Green and

Sustainable Remediation - GSR) qui, dans certaines parties du monde, sont confondus avec la

remédiation durable ne sont ni avalisés ni traités dans le présent document.
2 Références normatives
Le présent document ne contient aucune référence normative.
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s'appliquent.

L'ISO et l'IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:
— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse http:// www .electropedia .org/

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp

3.1
friche
sites qui

— ont subi les effets d’utilisations antérieures du site ou des terrains environnants,

— sont dégradés ou sous-utilisés,

— se situent principalement dans des zones urbaines partiellement ou pleinement développées,

— nécessitent une intervention pour être réaffectés à d’autres usages utiles et productifs,

— peuvent présenter des problèmes réels ou perçus de pollution
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ISO 18504:2017(F)
3.2
justice environnementale

combinaison de droits environnementaux et de responsabilités environnementales qui affirme que

chacun

— a droit à des lieux sains de vie, de travail, de loisirs, d’apprentissage et de distraction,

— a droit à un partage équitable des bienfaits de la nature et des services écosystémiques, comme la

nourriture et l’eau,

— a le devoir de veiller sur la planète pour les autres et pour les générations futures

3.3
indicateur

caractéristique unique qui représente un effet de la durabilité, que cet effet ait un impact bénéfique

ou négatif, et qui peut être comparée dans le cadre de stratégies de remédiation envisageables sur

un site donné, comprenant chacune une ou plusieurs techniques de remédiation et/ou des contrôles

institutionnels, pour évaluer leurs performances relatives
EXEMPLE Émissions de gaz à effet de serre.
3.4
paramètre
mesure d’un indicateur (3.3)
EXEMPLE Tonnes CO .
3.5
stratégie de remédiation

une ou plusieurs technique de dépollution, ainsi que les actions associées, qui répondront à des objectifs

donnés de réduction des risques liés à une pollution
3.6
technique de dépollution

technique de prétraitement, traitement et post-traitement du sol ou d’un polluant dans le cadre d’une

gestion du risque
3.7
développement durable

développement qui répond aux besoins du présent sans compromettre la capacité des générations

futures à répondre à leurs besoins

Note 1 à l'article: Le développement durable vise à combiner les attentes plus larges de la société en général

en matière de haute qualité de vie, de santé et de prospérité avec celles de la justice environnementale, tout en

maintenant la capacité de la Terre à supporter la vie dans toute sa diversité. Ces objectifs sociaux, économiques et

environnementaux sont interdépendants et se renforcent mutuellement.

[SOURCE: ISO 26000:2010, 2.23, modifiée — La Note a été modifiée et la dernière phrase supprimée]

3.8
réaménagement durable

composante du développement durable (3.7) qui aboutit à la remise en état exploitable de sites

abandonnés, dégradés, sous-utilisés et potentiellement pollués de façon à accroître leurs bénéfices

environnementaux, économiques et sociaux
3.9
requalification durable

composante du développement durable (3.7) qui met fin au déclin économique, social et environnemental

des zones considérées
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ISO 18504:2017(F)
3.10
remédiation durable

élimination et/ou maîtrise des risques inacceptables de manière sûre et en temps raisonnable tout en

optimisant la valeur environnementale, sociale et économique des actions de remédiation

3.11
seuil

limite d’acceptabilité d’un indicateur dont le dépassement n’est pas autorisé ou qui, s’il est franchi,

entraîne des conséquences inacceptables telles qu’une non-conformité réglementaire

3.12
risque inacceptable
niveau de risque qui exige une remédiation

Note 1 à l'article: Le niveau de risque peut être évalué par comparaison à un seuil numérique ou par référence à

une définition explicative. Des niveaux de risque différents peuvent être considérés comme inacceptables dans

des pays différents ou même en fonction des différentes lois applicables au sein d’un même pays.

4 Abréviations
BTU British Thermal Units (unités thermiques britanniques)
BCA Bilan coûts-avantages
PCC Potentiel de changement climatique
ESTCP Environmental Security Technology Certification Program
GES Gaz à effet de serre
RED Remédiation écologique et durable
ACV Analyse du cycle de vie
AMC Analyse multicritère
SuRF (Forum de la remédiation durable)

US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency (Agence des États-Unis pour la protection

environnementale)

WBCSD World Business Council for Sustainable Development (Conseil mondial des affaires pour le

développement durable)
5 Remédiation, (ré)aménagement et requalification durables

On considère qu’un aménagement qui répond aux besoins du présent sans compromettre la capacité

[1]

des générations futures à répondre à leurs besoins est un développement durable. Dans le cas des

friches polluées, la remédiation est un prélude au réaménagement physique et, en fin de compte, à la

requalification socio-économique. La requalification durable procure de multiples bénéfices. Par

exemple, elle renforce la position des communautés d’acteurs locaux, procure de nouvelles possibilités

d’emploi, améliore les qualités esthétiques d’un secteur et contribue à la justice environnementale.

Puisque la remédiation s’accompagne souvent du réaménagement et de la réutilisation d’un site, avec

les avantages/bénéfices qui en résultent, le réaménagement durable est intrinsèquement associé à

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la remédiation durable . Réfléchir dès le début d’un projet de remédiation à la réutilisation d'un

site représente une composante fondamentale de la remédiation durable et, donc, la remédiation

durable peut constituer le précurseur naturel, ou un sous-ensemble, du réaménagement durable. Une

intégration réussie de la remédiation dans le processus de réaménagement, pour exploiter les synergies,

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peut être source d’une grande valeur ajoutée, tout en réduisant au minimum les coûts et les impacts

environnementaux associés à la remise en état exploitable des sites.
6 Gestion des sols pollués en fonction du risque

Le concept de la gestion des sols pollués en fonction du risque (Green and Sustainable Remediation

- GSR) est un moyen d’assurer la cohérence des décisions portant sur la nécessité d’une remédiation,

le délai dans lequel il convient de la réaliser et le choix de la stratégie de remédiation, en prenant en

[3]
compte trois composantes :
— la compatibilité des sols vis-à-vis de leur usage actuel/futur;
— la protection de l'environnement;
— la prise en charge sur le long terme.

Le concept de gestion des sols pollués en fonction du risque est destiné à faciliter la prise de décisions

équilibrées et éclairées pour parvenir à une gestion durable des sols. La première décision consiste

à définir si la loi ou une politique d’entreprise considère que le risque associé à la pollution des sols

vis-à-vis de la santé humaine, des écosystèmes, des biens et des ressources naturelles mérite une

intervention. Il convient que cette remédiation soit satisfaisante pour ceux qui sont concernés par son

résultat, à savoir les parties prenantes.

Il convient que la remédiation soit fiable et ne présente pas, par la suite, de dégradations ne pouvant être

maîtrisées. Il convient, en outre, que la remédiation ne soit pas source de nouveaux risques significatifs.

Il convient qu’elle soit efficace tout au long de la période durant laquelle il est nécessaire de gérer les

risques liés à la pollution.

La remédiation durable concerne la manière de gérer les risques qui méritent une intervention: il

convient de ne pas la considérer comme un motif de non-intervention face à ces risques.

Il peut y avoir des conditions limites non négociables, comme des exigences légales ou réglementaires,

des politiques d’entreprise, devant être prises en compte. Les stratégies de remédiation envisageable

sur un site donné qui y répondent peuvent être alors au centre de l’évaluation de la remédiation durable.

7 Évaluations intégrées et paramètres
7.1 Généralités

Il existe de nombreuses façons d’intégrer les différentes dimensions en vue d’une appréciation holistique

permettant d’effectuer une comparaison par rapport à la définition de la remédiation durable. Une

approche progressive par étapes permet de réaliser des évaluations de remédiation durable simples

pour des sites peu complexes et des évaluations plus sophistiquées, coûteuses, voire contestées à

l’heure actuelle, pour des sites plus complexes.

Il est possible de procéder à une évaluation de durabilité significative des stratégies de remédiation

envisageables pour un site donné. Il convient que cette évaluation serve de base à des décisions de

gestion de projet robustes et fiables, et ce, en dépit du fait que la durabilité ne peut pas être mesurée en

simples unités de mesure et qu’une évaluation de durabilité des stratégies de remédiation est forcément

un processus subjectif dans le temps et dans l’espace. Il convient d’encourager les parties prenantes à

donner leur point de vue sur l’équilibre entre les impacts et les avantages potentiels pour faciliter le

consensus.

L’évaluation de la durabilité des stratégies envisageables concernant la remédiation du sol et des eaux

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souterraines est améliorée:

— en se limitant aux stratégies qui peuvent permettre d’atteindre les objectifs de gestion du risque

spécifiques au site (c’est-à-dire, élimination et/ou maîtrise des risques inacceptables pour la santé

humaine, les biens, les eaux de surface ou souterraines et l’environnement);
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— en suivant un cadre d’évaluation cohérent avec une remédiation durable (voir 3.10) notamment:

— en prenant en compte les bénéfices et les impacts environnementaux, sociaux et économiques

associés à chaque option;

— en identifiant, parmi les stratégies évaluées, celle qui procure les avantages globaux les plus

importants;

— en comparant les stratégies envisageables par rapport à une référence commune pertinente, par

exemple le pompage et le traitement, l’excavation et l’élimination hors site ou l’absence d’action;

— en adoptant des indicateurs et des paramètres qui mettent en évidence tous les bénéfices et les

impacts significatifs en évitant un double comptage;

— en adoptant une approche par étapes progressives, de sorte que l’exercice d’évaluation de la

remédiation durable est proportionnel à l'importance du projet/du problème traité;

— en prenant en compte les opinions et les points de vue des parties prenantes et, lorsque cela est

possible, en dialoguant directement avec les parties prenantes;

— en documentant les activités, les données, les hypothèses et les points de décision pour faciliter la

[8]
transparence (voir, par exemple, ASTM E2876: 2013, Article 8 ).
7.2 Évaluations par étapes progressives

Il est possible de procéder à une approche par étapes progressive, dans laquelle les approches

qualitatives simples sont par défaut le plus communément utilisé, les niveaux quantitatifs plus

complexes n’étant utilisés que lorsque cela s’avère nécessaire ou justifié.

Des problèmes simples ou relativement bien définis ne nécessitent qu’une évaluation simple de la

remédiation durable. En règle générale, il convient d’adopter la forme d’évaluation de la remédiation

durable la plus simple, qui permet une prise de décision robuste. Pour les projets dont la décision repose

sur un petit nombre d’indicateurs pouvant être mesurés, une approche plus quantitative de l’évaluation

de la remédiation durable peut s’avérer nécessaire pour permettre de parvenir à une décision robuste

et fiable.
7.3 Cadres d’évaluation pour une approche par étapes progressives

Une approche par étapes progressives pour l’évaluation de la remédiation durable illustre la façon

dont une approche qualitative simple, semi-quantitative ou entièrement quantitative peut être adoptée

pour un projet donné. Les considérations initiales sont les mêmes pour toutes les approches par étapes

progressives:

— confirmer les objectifs du projet: à quelle question l’évaluation à mener doit-elle répondre?

— confirmer la présélection des stratégies de remédiation envisageables: celles qui ont des chances

d’être efficaces pour atteindre les objectifs du projet;

— identifier les parties prenantes concernées: qui peut influer sur le projet ou être affecté par le projet?

— identifier le périmètre du projet: limites temporelles, spatiales et de cycle de vie, auxquelles est

soumise l’évaluation;

— sélectionner les indicateurs de la remédiation durable: s’accorder sur les indicateurs qui serviront

de base à l’évaluation de durabilité;

— déterminer la façon dont chaque indicateur sera caractérisé ou mesuré: s’accorder sur les paramètres;

— convenir des techniques d’évaluation: techniques d’évaluation de la remédiation durable qui seront

appliquées (par exemple, quelle étape de l’approche et quelle méthode).
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Une fois que ces premiers éléments ont été étudiés et que les informations contextuelles ont été

rassemblées, l’évaluation de la remédiation durable est réalisée selon la technique d’évaluation

convenue.
7.4 Techniques d’évaluation de la remédiation durable
7.4.1 Généralités

Diverses techniques qualitatives, semi-quantitatives ou quantitatives peuvent être utilisées pour

procéder à une évaluation de la remédiation durable partielle ou intégrale (Tableau 1). Les limites

entre les niveaux de complexité sont vagues. Si certaines techniques appliquées dans le cadre de ces

trois catégories peuvent se chevaucher, elles constituent une classification utile qui souligne qu'il est

possible de réaliser des évaluations valables en utilisant des approches simples, intermédiaires ou plus

complexes. En général, le travail demandé augmente lorsqu’on passe d’évaluations qualitatives à des

évaluations quantitatives. Il convient cepen
...

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