Road vehicles -- Test procedures for evaluating child restraint system interactions with deploying air bags

ISO/TR 14645:2015 describes dummies, procedures, and configurations that can be used to investigate the interactions that occur between a deploying air bag and a Child Restraint System (CRS) that would have been considered properly installed and used in the outer and centre front passenger positions. Static tests can be used to sort CRS/air bag interaction on a comparative basis in either an actual or a simulated vehicle environment. Systems that appear to warrant further testing can be subjected to an appropriate dynamic test at a speed near that needed to deploy an air bag or at a higher speed commonly used to evaluate CRS performance. No test matrix is specified at this time for evaluating either a CRS or an air bag during interaction with each other. Instead, engineering judgment based on prior experience with CRS and/or air bag testing should be used in selecting the tests to be conducted with each individual system. Such tests can be aimed not only at producing interactions with the most severe results but also at identifying those conditions that produce the least interaction and/or satisfactory CRS performance results. Baseline tests to indicate the performance of a CRS in the absence of air bag deployment are also recommended for comparison purposes.

Véhicules routiers -- Méthodes d'essais pour l'évaluation des interactions des systèmes de retenue pour enfants et des sacs gonflables en cours de déploiement

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Published
Publication Date
04-Mar-2015
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6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
14-Jan-2015
Completion Date
05-Mar-2015
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 14645
Second edition
2015-03-01
Road vehicles — Test procedures
for evaluating child restraint system
interactions with deploying air bags
Véhicules routiers — Méthodes d’essais pour l’évaluation des
interactions des systèmes de retenue pour enfants et des sacs
gonflables en cours de déploiement
Reference number
ISO/TR 14645:2015(E)
ISO 2015
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ISO/TR 14645:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 14645:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Test device ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Six-month-old infant dummies ................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.2.1 CRABI 6-month.................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.3 Nine-month-old infant dummy ................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.3.1 P-3/4........................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.4 Twelve-month-old infant dummy ........................................................................................................................................... 2

4.4.1 CRABI 12-month .............................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.5 Three-year-old child dummies .................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.5.1 Three-year-old child Hybrid III ........................................................................................................................... 2

4.5.2 P-3 ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.5.3 Q-3 ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.6 Six-year-old child dummies ......................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.6.1 P-6 ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.6.2 Hybrid-III six-year .......................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.6.3 Q-6 ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Instrumentation .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Measurements ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 CRABI 6-month and 12-month.................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.3 P-3/4 nine-month ................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.4 Hybrid III three-year .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.5 P-3 three-year .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.6 Q-3 Three-year ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.7 Hybrid III six-year................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.8 P-6 six-year ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.9 Q-6 six-year ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.10 Dummy test temperature ............................................................................................................................................................... 5

6 Sled pulse ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 Mild-severity crash pulse ............................................................................................................................................................... 5

7 Static tests .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2 Test set-up ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8 Dynamic tests ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.2 Test set-up ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.3 Simulation of sensing time ........................................................................................................................................................... 7

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TR 14645:2015(E)
Contents Page

9 CRS configurations and dummy combinations ..................................................................................................................... 7

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

9.2 Rear-facing CRSs .................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9.2.2 CRS configuration R1 ................................................................................................................................................... 8

9.2.3 CRS rear facing ISOFIX/LATCH configuration R2 ................................................................................ 8

9.2.4 CRS configuration R3 ................................................................................................................................................... 8

9.3 Laterally-positioned CRSs .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

9.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.3.2 CRS configuration L1 .................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.3.3 CRS configuration L2 .................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.3.4 ISOFIX/LATCH L3 .........................................................................................................................................................10

9.4 Forward-facing CRSs .......................................................................................................................................................................10

9.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

9.4.2 CRS configuration F1 .................................................................................................................................................10

9.4.3 CRS configuration F2 .................................................................................................................................................10

9.4.4 CRS configuration F3 .................................................................................................................................................11

9.5 Boosters .....................................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.5.2 CRS configuration B1 ................................................................................................................................................11

9.5.3 CRS configuration B2 ................................................................................................................................................11

9.5.4 CRS Configuration B3 ................................................................................................................................................12

10 Primary dummy measurements .......................................................................................................................................................12

11 CRABI fixture .........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 14645:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction

and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 36, Safety

aspects and impact testing.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/TR 14645:1998), which has been

technically revised.

This document is published as a Technical Report, rather than as an International Standard, because of

the general inexperience in testing the interaction between child restraint systems (CRS) and deploying

air bags, and the lack of real-world accident data. When statistically significant, real-word data are

available, in which air bags have contacted a variety of child restraints, and there is more testing

experience with this interaction, it may be appropriate to develop an International Standard.

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/TR 14645:2015(E)
Introduction

During its inflation process, an air bag generates a considerable amount of kinetic energy and, as a result,

substantial forces can be developed between the deploying air bag and the child restraint system (CRS).

(For background on air bag design and deployment, see References [1] and [2]. With passenger air bags,

laboratory tests have indicated that these forces can be sufficient to produce serious injury to the CRS

occupant. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has recommended that rear-facing child

restraints of current design be used only in the rear seat of vehicles equipped with such air bags (see

Reference [3]). Even so, many children can be restrained in either rear- or forward-facing CRSs in the front

seat of such vehicles, and the child and/or the CRS can interact with the air bag. These guidelines were

developed to improve the understanding of such interactions and to aid in the assessment of future designs.

A mild-severity crash pulse is described in this Technical Report. This pulse is not vehicle-specific, but

represents general acceleration-time histories. This mild-severity pulse approximates a crash that would

just deploy a typical air bag. This pulse is used to evaluate the effect of the energy of the deploying air

bag when the CRS and dummy are exerting the least amount of inertial force in the forward direction,

but the dummy and/or CRS is moved forward by that inertial force. This generic pulse or other vehicle-

specific pulses can be used as appropriate. Differences in shape between the generic and the vehicle-

specific pulses are expected with corresponding differences expected in dummy responses.

This Technical Report encourages the use of a wide range of test configurations and conditions, while

recognizing that the range of possible interactions is essentially limitless and beyond testing capability.

Furthermore, measurements of primary importance for the various configurations are given in Table 1, but

performance limits are not specified. References [4] to [9] give some background on human impact tolerance

and criteria, describe scaling techniques for different size occupants, and offer interpretations of dummy

responses relative to human injury potential that can be helpful in the evaluation. These and additional

background papers on air bag development and deployment can be found in References [10] and [11].

vi © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 14645:2015(E)
Road vehicles — Test procedures for evaluating child
restraint system interactions with deploying air bags
1 Scope

This Technical Report describes dummies, procedures, and configurations that can be used to investigate

the interactions that occur between a deploying air bag and a Child Restraint System (CRS) that would

have been considered properly installed and used in the outer and centre front passenger positions.

Static tests can be used to sort CRS/air bag interaction on a comparative basis in either an actual or a

simulated vehicle environment. Systems that appear to warrant further testing can be subjected to an

appropriate dynamic test at a speed near that needed to deploy an air bag or at a higher speed commonly

used to evaluate CRS performance. No test matrix is specified at this time for evaluating either a CRS or

an air bag during interaction with each other. Instead, engineering judgment based on prior experience

with CRS and/or air bag testing should be used in selecting the tests to be conducted with each individual

system. Such tests can be aimed not only at producing interactions with the most severe results but also

at identifying those conditions that produce the least interaction and/or satisfactory CRS performance

results. Baseline tests to indicate the performance of a CRS in the absence of air bag deployment are also

recommended for comparison purposes.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
rear-facing
child restraint that positions the child to face the rear of the vehicle
3.2
laterally-positioned

child restraint that positions a prone or supine child perpendicular to the direction of vehicle travel

3.3
forward-facing
child restraint that positions the child to face the front of the vehicle
3.4
booster
normally used to better position adult belt restraints on the child
3.5
ISOFIX/LATCH

“plug-in” system designed for fitting child safety seats in cars quickly and with ease per ISO 13216

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ISO/TR 14645:2015(E)
4 Test device
4.1 General

Five sizes of child dummies, from six-month to age six, are available for CRS/air bag investigations.

However, the recommended dummies for use in this testing are listed in Reference [19].

4.2 Six-month-old infant dummies
4.2.1 CRABI 6-month

With specifications from the SAE Infant dummy task group, a six-month size dummy has been developed

that allows measurement of head, chest, and pelvic accelerations, as well as upper and lower neck and

lumbar spine forces and moments. A special six-channel transducer has also been developed for use in

any of the spinal locations.
4.3 Nine-month-old infant dummy
4.3.1 P-3/4

This dummy is specified in UN-ECE Regulation 44, annex 8, and has been incorporated without

instrumentation in 49 CFR, Part 572, subpart J. It has main-joint articulation and has provision for head

and chest accelerometers and for modeling clay in the abdomen to detect penetration. A three-channel

neck transducer has been developed for use with this dummy.
4.4 Twelve-month-old infant dummy
4.4.1 CRABI 12-month

With specifications from the SAE Infant dummy task group, a twelve-month size dummy has been

developed that allows measurement of head, chest, and pelvic accelerations, as well as upper and lower

neck and lumbar spine forces and moments.
4.5 Three-year-old child dummies

The standard child dummy for FMVSS and CMVSS 213 testing is specified in 49 CFR Part 572, subpart C.

This dummy has provision for head and chest accelerometers. Use of the “new” vinyl-covered fiberglass

head, specified in part 572.16(a) (1), is recommended over the old head.
4.5.1 Three-year-old child Hybrid III

This dummy was developed for passenger air bag testing (see Reference [16]) by a task force of the SAE

Human Biomechanics and Simulation Standards Committee and is commercially available.

4.5.2 P-3

This dummy is specified in UN-ECE Regulation 44, annex 8. It has main-joint articulation and provisions

for head and chest accelerometers and for modelling clay in the abdomen to detect penetration.

4.5.3 Q-3

In 1993, the International Child Dummy Working Group started the development of a new series of child

dummies as a successor to the P-series. This new series was called the Q-series. The development of the

Q-series, directed by the International Child Dummy Working Group, resulted in a Q3 dummy in 1998,

followed by the addition of the Q6 dummy in 1999, and the Q1 in 2000.
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ISO/TR 14645:2015(E)

Part of the development of the Q-dummies has taken place within the European Research programs

CREST (see Reference [1]) and CHILD (see Reference [2]), both aimed at improving child safety in cars.

4.6 Six-year-old child dummies
4.6.1 P-6

This dummy is specified in UN-ECE Regulation 44, annex 8. It has main-joint articulation and has

provision for head and chest accelerometers and for modelling clay in the abdomen to detect penetration.

4.6.2 Hybrid-III six-year

This dummy was developed under a grant from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), with input from

SAE committees, and allows measurement of head, chest, and pelvic accelerations; neck, lumbar, and

femur forces and moments; and chest displacement.
4.6.3 Q-6

The development of the Q-series, directed by the International Child Dummy Working Group, resulted in

a Q3 dummy in 1998, followed by the addition of the Q6 dummy in 1999, and the Q1 in 2000.

Part of the development of the Q-dummies has taken place within the European Research programs

CREST (see Reference [1]) and CHILD (see Reference [2]), both aimed at improving child safety in cars.

5 Instrumentation
5.1 Measurements

Measurements that can be made or calculated using the anthropomorphic test device for each age group

as listed in 5.2 to 5.9. All measurements should be recorded and filtered according to ISO 6487 and

SAE J 211 for body regions. These measurements should be continuous functions of time, so that other

quantities referred to in the references may be derived.
5.2 CRABI 6-month and 12-month
— Head triaxial acceleration
— Head angular acceleration (one channel)
— Upper neck forces and moments (six channels)
— Lower neck forces and moments (six channels)
— Chest triaxial acceleration
— Lumbar spine forces and moments (six channels)
— Pelvic triaxial acceleration
5.3 P-3/4 nine-month
— Head triaxial acceleration (three channels)
— Upper neck forces (Fx, Fz) and moment (Fy)
— Chest triaxial acceleration
5.4 Hybrid III three-year
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ISO/TR 14645:2015(E)
— Head triaxial acceleration
— Head angular acceleration in sagittal plane (one channel)
— Upper neck (C-1) forces and moments (six channels)
— Lower neck (C-1/T-1) forces and moments (six channels)
— Shoulder forces (Fx, Fz; four channels)
— Sternal acceleration (ax; two channels)
— Sternal deflection (one channel)
— Spine tri-axial accelerations (T-1, T-4, T-12; nine channels)
— Lumbar forces and moments (six channels)
— Pubic forces (Fx, Fz; two channels)
— Pelvis tri-axial acceleration (three channels)
5.5 P-3 three-year
— Head tri-axial acceleration (three channels)
— Upper neck (C-1) forces and moments (six channels)
— Spine (T-12) tri-axial acceleration (three channels)
5.6 Q-3 Three-year
— Head triaxial acceleration (three channels)
— Upper neck (C-1) forces and moments (six channels)
— Spine (T-12) triaxial acceleration (three channels)
5.7 Hybrid III six-year
— Head triaxial acceleration
— Head angular acceleration in sagittal plane (one channel)
— Upper neck forces and moments (six channels)
— Lower neck forces and moments (five channels)
— Chest triaxial acceleration
— Chest mid-sternum displacement (one channel)
— Sternal acceleration (ax; two channels)
— Lumbar spine forces and moments (five channels)
— Pelvic triaxial acceleration
— Pelvic submarining (four channels)
— Femur forces and moments (six channels)
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ISO/TR 14645:2015(E)
5.8 P-6 six-year
— Head triaxial acceleration (three channels)
— Spine (T-12) triaxial acceleration (three channels)
— Pelvis triaxial acceleration (three channels)
5.9 Q-6 six-year
— Head triaxial acceleration (three channels)
— Spine (T-12) triaxial acceleration (three channels)
— Pelvis triaxial acceleration (three channels)
5.10 Dummy test temperature

The test dummy temperature should be within the range of 20,6 °C to 22,2 °C (69 °F to 72 °F), at a relative

humidity of 10 % to 70 % after a soak period of at least four hours prior to its application in a test.

6 Sled pulse
6.1 General

For sled tests, a mild-severity crash pulse is defined in 6.2. A vehicle-specific pulse may also be used

as appropriate.
6.2 Mild-severity crash pulse

The mild-severity pulse is intended to be just severe enough to position the dummy and/or the CRS

forward and to deploy the air bag. This pulse is a half-sine type with a peak acceleration occurring near

the centre of the time duration of (8 ± 1) g, where g = 9,806 65 m/s2 between 40 ms to 100 ms, a velocity

change of (27 ± 2) km/h and a (150 ± 5) ms pulse duration. Typical acceleration-time and velocity-time

curves are shown in Figures 1 and 2.
Figure 1 — Generic HYGE sled pulse for a mild-severity crash
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ISO/TR 14645:2015(E)
Figure 2 — Velocity-time history of the generic mild-severity crash sled pulse
7 Static tests
7.1 General

Static tests can be used for preliminary evaluation of CRS/air bag interactions and to sele

...

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