Water quality -- Guidance for rapid radioactivity measurements in nuclear or radiological emergency situation

This document provides guidelines for testing laboratories wanting to use rapid test methods on water samples that may be contaminated following a nuclear or radiological emergency incident. In an emergency situation, consideration should be given to: — taking into account the specific context for the tests to be performed, e.g. a potentially high level of contamination; — using or adjusting, when possible, radioactivity test methods implemented during routine situations to obtain a result rapidly or, for tests not performed routinely, applying specific rapid test methods previously validated by the laboratory, e.g. for 89Sr determination; — preparing the test laboratory to measure a large number of potentially contaminated samples. The aim of this document is to ensure decision makers have reliable results needed to take actions quickly and minimize the radiation dose to the public. Measurements are performed in order to minimize the risk to the public by checking the quality of water supplies. For emergency situations, test results are often compared to operational intervention levels. NOTE Operational intervention levels (OILs) are derived from IAEA Safety Standards[8] or national authorities[9]. A key element of rapid analysis can be the use of routine methods but with a reduced turnaround time. The goal of these rapid measurements is often to check for unusual radioactivity levels in the test sample, to identify the radionuclides present and their activity concentration levels and to establish compliance of the water with intervention levels[10][11][12]. It should be noted that in such circumstances, validation parameters evaluated for routine use (e.g. reproducibility, precision, etc.) may not be applicable to the modified rapid method. However, due to the circumstances arising after an emergency, the modified method may still be fit-for-purpose although uncertainties associated with the test results need to be evaluated and may increase from routine analyses. The first steps of the analytical approach are usually screening methods based on gross alpha and gross beta test methods (adaptation of ISO 10704 and ISO 11704) and gamma spectrometry (adaptation of ISO 20042, ISO 10703 and ISO 19581). Then, if required[13], test method standards for specific radionuclides (see Clause 2) are adapted and applied (for example, 90Sr measurement according to ISO 13160) as proposed in Annex A. This document refers to published ISO documents. When appropriate, this document also refers to national standards or other publicly available documents. Screening techniques that can be carried out directly in the field are not part of this document.

Qualité de l'eau -- Recommandations pour les mesurages rapides de la radioactivité en situation d'urgence nucléaire ou radiologique

Le présent document fournit des lignes directrices pour les laboratoires d'essai désireux d'utiliser des méthodes d'essai rapides sur des échantillons d'eau susceptibles d'ętre contaminés suite ŕ une situation d'urgence nucléaire ou radiologique. Dans une situation d'urgence, il convient : — de prendre en compte le contexte spécifique des essais ŕ effectuer, par exemple un niveau de contamination potentiellement élevé ; — d'utiliser ou d'ajuster, lorsque cela est possible, les méthodes d'essai pour la détermination de la radioactivité mises en œuvre dans des situations de routine pour obtenir rapidement un résultat ou, pour les essais non effectués dans des situations de routine, d'appliquer des méthodes d'essai rapides spécifiques préalablement validées par le laboratoire, par exemple pour la détermination de l'activité volumique de 89Sr ; — de préparer le laboratoire d'essai ŕ mesurer un grand nombre d'échantillons potentiellement contaminés. Le présent document a pour objectif de s'assurer que les décideurs disposent de résultats fiables pour prendre des mesures rapidement et pour réduire au minimum la dose pour le public. Les mesurages sont effectués lors du contrôle de la qualité de l'eau des ressources d'eau afin de réduire au minimum le risque pour le public. Pour les situations d'urgence, les résultats d'essai sont souvent comparés aux niveaux opérationnels d'intervention. NOTE Les niveaux opérationnels d'intervention (NOI) proviennent des normes de sureté l'AIEA[8] ou des autorités nationales[9]. Un élément clé d'analyse rapide peut consister ŕ utiliser les méthodes de routine mais dans un délai plus court. L'objectif de ces mesurages rapides est souvent de contrôler des niveaux de radioactivité inhabituels dans l'échantillon pour essai, d'identifier les radionucléides présents et leurs activités volumiques ainsi que d'établir la conformité de l'eau avec les niveaux d'intervention[10][11][12]. Il convient de noter que dans ces cas, les paramčtres de validation évalués pour l'usage en routine (par exemple, reproductibilité, fidélité, etc.) ne sont pas nécessairement applicables ŕ la méthode rapide modifiée. Cependant, en raison des conséquences découlant d'une situation d'urgence, la méthode modifiée peut rester adaptée ŕ l'usage prévu, bien que les incertitudes associées aux résultats d'essai doivent ętre évaluées et puissent augmenter par rapport aux analyses de routine. Les premičres étapes de la méthode d'analyse reposent généralement sur les méthodes d'essai des activités volumiques alpha globale et bęta globale considérées comme des méthodes de dépistage (adaptation de l'ISO 10704 et de l'ISO 11704) et sur la spectrométrie gamma (adaptation de l'ISO 20042, de l'ISO 10703 et de l'ISO 19581). Puis, si nécessaire[13], les normes sur les méthodes d'essai relatives ŕ des radionucléides spécifiques (voir l'Article 2) sont adaptées et appliquées (par exemple, mesurage du 90Sr conformément ŕ l'ISO 13160) comme cela est proposé ŕ l'Annexe A. Le présent document fait référence ŕ des documents ISO publiés. Le cas échéant, le présent document fait également référence ŕ des normes nationales ou ŕ d'autres documents publics disponibles. Les méthodes de dépistage qui peuvent ętre appliquées directement sur site ne font pas partie du présent document.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
27-Aug-2020
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
22-Jul-2020
Completion Date
21-Jul-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22017
First edition
2020-08
Water quality — Guidance for rapid
radioactivity measurements in
nuclear or radiological emergency
situation
Qualité de l'eau — Recommandations pour les mesurages rapides de
la radioactivité en situation d'urgence nucléaire ou radiologique
Reference number
ISO 22017:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 22017:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Email: copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 22017:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Guidance on emergency measurement ........................................................................................................................................ 4

4.1 Objective of a specific rapid measurement ..................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Routine screening levels versus intervention levels .............................................................................................. 4

4.3 Operational intervention levels (OILs) from EU, USA and IAEA................................................................... 5

5 Rapid measurements ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 Adaptation of the methods used .............................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2 Sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Rapid test methods .............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.3.1 Pre-screening: Identification of most contaminated samples .................................................. 6

5.3.2 Selection of the analytical strategy .................................................................................................................. 6

5.3.3 Appropriate sample volumes and counting times related to intervention levels ... 9

5.3.4 Gross-alpha and gross-beta determination and gamma spectrometry .........................10

5.3.5 Specific separations for alpha emitters or pure beta emitters measurement .........11

6 Laboratory management to perform rapid measurements .................................................................................12

6.1 Protection of laboratory staff ..................................................................................................................................................12

6.2 Sample management.......................................................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Material and staff ...............................................................................................................................................................................12

6.4 Quality management .......................................................................................................................................................................13

6.5 Expression of results and test report ...............................................................................................................................13

Annex A (informative) World Health Organization screening for radionuclides in drinking

water ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

Annex B (informative) Operational Intervention Levels (OILs) from EU, US and IAEA .................................15

Annex C (informative) Overview of different types of rapid measurements during a nuclear

or radiological emergency.......................................................................................................................................................................16

Annex D (informative) Example of a decision scheme for rapid measurements in the early

phase ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 22017:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 147, Water quality, SC 3, Radioactivity

measurements.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 22017:2020(E)
Introduction

Radioactivity from several naturally-occurring and anthropogenic sources is present throughout

the environment. Thus, water bodies (e.g. surface waters, ground waters, sea waters) can contain

radionuclides of natural, human made, or both origins:
40 3 14

— Natural radionuclides, including K, H, C, and those originating from the thorium and uranium

226 228 234 238 210 210
decay series, in particular Ra, Ra, U, U, Po and Pb can be found in water for

natural reasons (e.g. desorption from the soil and wash off by rain water) or can be released from

technological processes involving naturally occurring radioactive materials (e.g. the mining and

processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizers production and use);

— Human-made radionuclides such as transuranium elements (americium, plutonium, neptunium and

3 14 90

curium), H, C, Sr, and some gamma emitting radionuclides can also be found in natural waters.

Small quantities of these radionuclides may be discharged from nuclear fuel cycle facilities into

the environment as the result of authorized routine releases. Some of these radionuclides used for

medical and industrial applications are also released into the environment after use. Anthropogenic

radionuclides are also found in waters as the result of past fallout contaminations resulting from

the explosion in the atmosphere of nuclear devices and accidents such as those that occurred in

Chernobyl and Fukushima.

Radionuclide activity concentration in water bodies can vary according to local geological

characteristics and climatic conditions and can be locally and temporally enhanced by releases from

[1]

nuclear installation during planned, existing, and emergency exposure situations . Drinking-water

may thus contain radionuclides at activity concentrations which could present a risk to human health.

The radionuclides present in liquid effluents are usually controlled before being discharged into

[2]

the environment and water bodies. Drinking waters are monitored for their radioactivity as

[3]

recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) so that proper actions can be taken to ensure

that there is no adverse health effect to the public. Following these international recommendations,

national regulations usually specify radionuclide authorized concentration limits for liquid effluent

discharged to the environment and radionuclide guidance levels for waterbodies and drinking waters

for planned, existing, and emergency exposure situations. Compliance with these limits can be assessed

using measurement results with their associated uncertainties as requested by ISO/IEC Guide 98-3

[4]
and ISO 5667-20 .

Depending of the exposure situation, there are different limits and guidance levels that would result in

an action to reduce health risk.

NOTE 1 The guidance level is the activity concentration with an intake of 2 ld of drinking water for one year,

that results in an effective dose of 0,1 mSva for members of the public. This is an effective dose that represents

[3]

a very low level of risk that is not expected to give rise to any detectable adverse health effect .

[5]

In the event of a nuclear emergency, the WHO Codex Guideline Levels indicates the activity

concentrations corresponding to operational intervention levels.

NOTE 2 The Codex guidelines levels (GLs) apply to radionuclides contained in foods destined for human

consumption and traded internationally, which have been contaminated following a nuclear or radiological

emergency. These GLs apply to food after reconstitution or as prepared for consumption, i.e. not to dried or

concentrated foods, and are based on an intervention exemption level of 1 mSv in a year for members of the

[5]
public (infant and adult) .

Thus, the test method can be adapted so that the characteristic limits, decision threshold and detection

limit, and the uncertainties ensure that the radionuclide activity concentration test results can be

verified to be below the guidance levels required by a national authority for either planned-existing

[6][7]
situations or an emergency situation .

Usually, the test methods can be adjusted to measure the activity concentration of the radionuclide(s)

in either wastewaters before storage or in liquid effluents before being discharged to the environment.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 22017:2020(E)

The test results will enable the plant/installation operator to verify that, before their discharge,

wastewaters/liquid effluent radioactive activity concentrations do not exceed authorized limits.

The test methods described in this document for emergency exposure situations may also be used

during planned, existing exposure situations as well as for wastewaters and liquid effluents with

specific modifications that could change the overall uncertainty, detection limit, and threshold.

The test method(s) may be used for water samples after proper sampling, sample handling, and test

sample preparation (see the relevant part of ISO 5667 series).

This document has been developed to answer the need of test laboratories carrying out these

measurements that may be required by national authorities during a nuclear or radiological emergency

exposure situation.

This document is one of a set of International Standards on test methods dealing with the measurement

of the activity concentration of radionuclides in water samples.

The ISO documents produced for radioactivity measurements in water are detailed methods. In most

cases, these methods have been used in laboratory practice for a number of years and the analytical

characteristics have been documented. However, these methods are generally time consuming and

require well trained analysts to carry them out.

Over the last years, an increasing need was recognized for the addition of guidance on the use of so-

called “rapid methods”. The nuclear accident at Fukushima in March 2011 accentuated the need for

these rapid measurements. During the initial stages of such incidents, decision makers had to deal with

taking protective measures for the population, such as sheltering, evacuation, and the distribution

of iodine prophylaxis. It has been found that time is critical and limited for taking these protective

measures.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22017:2020(E)
Water quality — Guidance for rapid radioactivity
measurements in nuclear or radiological emergency
situation
1 Scope

This document provides guidelines for testing laboratories wanting to use rapid test methods on

water samples that may be contaminated following a nuclear or radiological emergency incident. In an

emergency situation, consideration should be given to:

— taking into account the specific context for the tests to be performed, e.g. a potentially high level of

contamination;

— using or adjusting, when possible, radioactivity test methods implemented during routine situations

to obtain a result rapidly or, for tests not performed routinely, applying specific rapid test methods

previously validated by the laboratory, e.g. for Sr determination;

— preparing the test laboratory to measure a large number of potentially contaminated samples.

The aim of this document is to ensure decision makers have reliable results needed to take actions

quickly and minimize the radiation dose to the public.

Measurements are performed in order to minimize the risk to the public by checking the quality of water

supplies. For emergency situations, test results are often compared to operational intervention levels.

[8]

NOTE Operational intervention levels (OILs) are derived from IAEA Safety Standards or national

[9]
authorities .

A key element of rapid analysis can be the use of routine methods but with a reduced turnaround time.

The goal of these rapid measurements is often to check for unusual radioactivity levels in the test sample,

to identify the radionuclides present and their activity concentration levels and to establish compliance

[10][11][12]

of the water with intervention levels . It should be noted that in such circumstances, validation

parameters evaluated for routine use (e.g. reproducibility, precision, etc.) may not be applicable to the

modified rapid method. However, due to the circumstances arising after an emergency, the modified

method may still be fit-for-purpose although uncertainties associated with the test results need to be

evaluated and may increase from routine analyses.

The first steps of the analytical approach are usually screening methods based on gross alpha and

gross beta test methods (adaptation of ISO 10704 and ISO 11704) and gamma spectrometry (adaptation

[13]

of ISO 20042, ISO 10703 and ISO 19581). Then, if required , test method standards for specific

radionuclides (see Clause 2) are adapted and applied (for example, Sr measurement according to

ISO 13160) as proposed in Annex A.

This document refers to published ISO documents. When appropriate, this document also refers to

national standards or other publicly available documents.

Screening techniques that can be carried out directly in the field are not part of this document.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 9696, Water quality — Gross alpha activity — Test method using thick source
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 22017:2020(E)
ISO 9697, Water quality — Gross beta activity — Test method using thick source

ISO 9698, Water quality — Tritium — Test method using liquid scintillation counting

ISO 10703, Water quality — Determination of the activity concentration of radionuclides — Method by

high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

ISO 10704, Water quality — Gross alpha and gross beta activity — Test method using thin source deposit

ISO 11704, Water quality — Gross alpha and gross beta activity — Test method using liquid scintillation

counting

ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

ISO 13160, Water quality — Strontium 90 and strontium 89 — Test methods using liquid scintillation

counting or proportional counting

ISO 13161, Water quality — Measurement of polonium 210 activity concentration in water by alpha

spectrometry

ISO 13162, Water quality — Determination of carbon 14 activity — Liquid scintillation counting method

ISO 13163, Water quality — Lead-210 — Test method using liquid scintillation counting

ISO 13165-1, Water quality — Radium-226 — Part 1: Test method using liquid scintillation counting

ISO 13165-2, Water quality — Radium-226 — Part 2: Test method using emanometry

ISO 13165-3, Water quality — Radium-226 — Part 3: Test method using coprecipitation and gamma-

spectrometry

ISO 13166, Water quality — Uranium isotopes — Test method using alpha-spectrometry

ISO 13167, Water quality — Plutonium, americium, curium and neptunium — Test method using alpha

spectrometry

ISO 13168, Water quality — Simultaneous determination of tritium and carbon 14 activities — Test method

using liquid scintillation counting

ISO 17294-2, Water quality — Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) —

Part 2: Determination of selected elements including uranium isotopes

ISO 19581, Measurement of radioactivity — Gamma emitting radionuclides — Rapid screening method

using scintillation detector gamma-ray spectrometry

ISO 20042, Measurement of radioactivity — Gamma-ray emitting radionuclides — Generic test method

using gamma-ray spectrometry
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22017:2020(E)
3.1
emergency situation

non-routine situation or event that necessitates prompt action, primarily to mitigate a hazard or

adverse consequences for human health and safety, quality of life, property or the environment

Note 1 to entry: This includes nuclear and radiological emergencies and conventional emergencies such as

fires, release of hazardous chemicals, storms or earthquakes. It includes situations for which prompt action is

[14]
warranted to mitigate the effects of a perceived hazard .
3.2
intervention

any protective action or countermeasure aimed at reducing, or averting, human exposure to radiation

during a nuclear or radiological emergency
3.3
operational intervention level
OIL
set level of a measurable quantity that corresponds to a generic criterion

Note 1 to entry: OILs are calculated levels, measured by instruments or determined by laboratory analysis

that correspond to an intervention level or action level. These are typically expressed in terms of dose rates

or of activity of radioactive material released, time integrated air activity concentrations, ground or surface

concentrations, or activity concentrations of radionuclides in environmental, food or water samples. OILs are

used immediately and directly (without further assessment) to determine the appropriate protective actions on

[14]
the basis of an environmental measurement .
[SOURCE: IAEA safety glossary 2016 Rev. Mod]
3.4
reference level

level of dose or risk, in emergency or existing controllable exposure situations, above which it is judged

to be inappropriate to allow exposures to occur, and below which optimisation of protection should be

implemented

Note 1 to entry: Note1 to entry: The chosen value for a reference level depends upon the prevailing circumstances

[8][9]
of the exposure under consideration .
3.5
screening level

value that takes into account the characteristics of the measuring equipment and the test method to

guarantee that the test results and their uncertainties obtained are fit for purpose for comparison with

the operational intervention levels (OILs) (3.3)

Note 1 to entry: For example, when the screening levels are not exceeded, the OILs are also note exceeded, and

the water is considered safe for consumption. If the screening level is exceeded so is the OIL and consumption of

non-essential food should be stopped, and essential food should be replaced or the people should be relocated if

[13][14]
replacements are not available .
3.6
intervention level
radiation dose above which a specific protective action is generally justified
3.7
iodine prophylaxis

administration of stable iodine to limit the uptake of inhaled/ingested radioactive iodine into the

thyroid gland
3.8
emergency exposure situation

situation of exposure where exposure at an elevated level is inevitable due to unexpected events or

needs of important action
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 22017:2020(E)
4 Guidance on emergency measurement
4.1 Objective of a specific rapid measurement

The type of nuclear or radiological emergency and the initial measurement results provide information

on the nature and amount of radionuclide that has been released.

In the early phase, rapid measurements can be performed for screening, e.g. to determine whether the

sample is significantly contaminated or not.

In the intermediate phase, rapid measurements can be carried out to confirm the nature and activity

concentration of the radionuclide(s) in the water samples.

When the radionuclides are known, a rapid measurement should be able to determine if the activity

concentration(s) measured exceeded the OIL values or not.

In the recovery phase of an emergency situation, when a number of protective measures have been

taken in order to minimize the dose to the public, measurements are also performed to verify the

necessity of these protective measures, such as evacuation, emergency sheltering, food restriction, and

providing iodine prophylaxis to members of the public.

Decision trees are usually used to determine which test methods should be applied. These methods

are often routine test methods in use in testing laboratories, with instructions on how to adapt them

during an emergency situation, or existing ISO documents.

A general overview of the higher priorities to address, for each phase of a nuclear emergency and the

rationale behind these priorities are shown in Table 1. The relative priority of these issues depend on

the type and scale of the nuclear or radiological emergency situation.

Table 1 — Overview of the higher priorities to address for each phase of a nuclear emergency

and the rationale behind these priorities
Phases High priorities Main concerns for water

Early phase Radionuclide identification, global pic- Protective measures for public,

(first days) ture livestock, agriculture, water.
of geographic extent of the
contamination.
Intervention levels exceeded?

Intermediate phase Large number of samples, detailed Evaluate the taken countermeasures with

(days — weeks) picture of contaminated area. measurement data.
Focus on food chain and water. May people return to their homes?

Evaluation of areas where intervention Is food safe to eat? Is water safe to drink?

levels are exceeded. Monitoring and sampling in large areas,
agricultural and urban.

Recovery phase More detailed sampling and analyses with Continue monitoring and sampling more in

(weeks — months) lower detection limits for food and water. depth in agricultural and urban areas: Food

chain and water reservoirs, surface waters.
4.2 Routine screening levels versus intervention levels

In normal situations, the World Health Organization (WHO) has defined routine screening levels for

drinking water, below which no further action is required. These screening levels are 0,5 Bq·l for

gross alpha activity and 1 Bq·l for gross beta activity. If neither of these values is exceeded, the total

indicative dose of 0,1 mSv·y is also not exceeded.

In case of an emergency situation, intervention levels are defined and expressed in terms of a dose limit

−1 −1 −1

per unit of time (e.g. mSv·d , mSv·w or mSv·a ). They are used by policy makers to decide on actions

in order to protect people against high radiation levels. When these intervention levels are exceeded,

appropriate actions are carried out following national emergency handbooks or protocols.

4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 22017:2020(E)
−1 −3

Operational intervention levels (OILs) are usually expressed in activity concentration (Bq·l , Bq.m

or Bq.kg ). Rapid measurements performed following an emergency situation should produce test

results which can be related to OILs.

If required, the conversion from activity to dose to compare with intervention levels should be carried

out by experienced scientific staff. For contaminated water, intervention levels are related to ingestion,

washing, showering or cooking. Here the conversion from activity concentration in drinking water to

dose is done by multiplying the activity concentration by the dose conversion coefficient (for ingestion)

and an approximation of the water consumption per unit time.

Intervention levels may vary from one country to another. In this document, data from the EU and the

USA are given as examples in Annex B. Other states may apply their own national intervention levels.

Sample measurement data are used for decision making based on the assessment of the confidence

that water quality meets given targets, complies with thresholds or lies in a particular range in a

classification system.

Principles, basic requirements, and illustrative methods for decision making are described in

Reference [14], including methods for preliminary examination of the sensitivity of decisions to error

and uncertainty.
4.3 Operational intervention levels (OILs) from EU, USA and IAEA
[9] [11][12]

OILs for the USA and the EU are listed in Annex B. In emergency situations, a higher

contamination level is accepted for a short period of time, days or weeks.
−1 −1

These levels range up to 500 Bq·l for iodine isotopes and to 1 200 Bq·l for gamma-emitting isotopes,

134 137

such as Cs and Cs. It is clear that rapid measurements should be able to determine these activity

concentrations readily.
[8]
The IAEA defines a slightly
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 22017
Première édition
2020-08
Qualité de l'eau — Recommandations
pour les mesurages rapides de la
radioactivité en situation d'urgence
nucléaire ou radiologique
Water quality — Guidance for rapid radioactivity measurements in
nuclear or radiological emergency situation
Numéro de référence
ISO 22017:2020(F)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 22017:2020(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2020

Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en œuvre, aucune partie de cette

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y compris la photocopie, ou la diffusion sur l’internet ou sur un intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Une autorisation peut

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ii © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 22017:2020(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Recommandations relatives au mesurage d’urgence..................................................................................................... 4

4.1 Objectif d’un mesurage rapide spécifique ....................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Niveaux de dépistage de routine en fonction des niveaux d’intervention ........................................... 5

4.3 Niveaux opérationnels d’intervention (NOI) de l’UE, des États-Unis et de l’AIEA ........................ 5

5 Mesurages rapides .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.1 Adaptation des méthodes utilisées ....................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Échantillonnage ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Méthodes d’essai rapides ............................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.1 Dépistage : identification des échantillons hautement contaminés .................................... 7

5.3.2 Sélection de la stratégie analytique ................................................................................................................. 7

5.3.3 Volumes d’échantillons appropriés et durées de comptage associées aux

niveaux d’intervention .............................................................................................................................................10

5.3.4 Détermination de l’activité alpha globale et bêta globale et spectrométrie

gamma .................. ......................................................................................................................... .........................................10

5.3.5 Séparations spécifiques pour le mesurage des émetteurs alpha ou des

émetteurs bêta purs ...................................................................................................................................................12

6 Gestion du laboratoire pour effectuer des mesurages rapides ........................................................................12

6.1 Protection du personnel de laboratoire .........................................................................................................................12

6.2 Gestion des échantillons ..............................................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Matériel et personnel .....................................................................................................................................................................13

6.4 Management de la qualité ..........................................................................................................................................................13

6.5 Expression des résultats et rapport d’essai ................................................................................................................14

Annexe A (informative) Dépistage des radionucléides présents dans l’eau de boisson

préconisé par l’Organisation mondiale de la santé .......................................................................................................15

Annexe B (informative) Niveaux opérationnels d’intervention (NOI) de l’UE, des États-Unis

et de l’AIEA ................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

Annexe C (informative) Vue d’ensemble des différents types de mesurages rapides pendant

une urgence nucléaire ou radiologique .....................................................................................................................................18

Annexe D (informative) Exemple de schéma décisionnel pour les mesurages rapides lors de

la première phase d’urgence ................................................................................................................................................................20

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 22017:2020(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/ directives).

L’attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l’élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l’ISO (voir www .iso .org/ brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, de la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute autre information au sujet de

l’adhésion de l’ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les

obstacles techniques au commerce (OTC) voir le lien suivant : www .iso .org/ iso/ fr/ avant -propos .html.

— Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 147, Qualité de l’eau, sous-comité

SC 3, Mesurages de la radioactivité.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 22017:2020(F)
Introduction

La radioactivité, provenant de diverses sources naturelles et anthropiques, est présente partout dans

l’environnement. Les masses d’eau (par exemple, eaux de surface, eaux souterraines, eaux de mer)

peuvent donc contenir des radionucléides d’origine naturelle et/ou engendrés par l’Homme :

— les radionucléides naturels, y compris le potassium 40, le tritium, le carbone 14 et ceux provenant

des chaînes de désintégration du thorium et de l’uranium, en particulier le radium 226, le radium

228, l’uranium 234, l’uranium 238, le polonium et le plomb 210, peuvent être retrouvés dans l’eau

pour des raisons naturelles (par exemple, désorption par le sol et lessivage par les eaux pluviales) ou

peuvent être rejetés par des procédés technologiques impliquant des matières radioactives existant

à l’état naturel (par exemple, extraction minière et traitement de sables minéraux, ou production et

utilisation d’engrais phosphatés) ;

— les radionucléides artificiels tels que les éléments transuraniens (américium, plutonium, neptunium

et curium), le tritium, le carbone 14, le strontium 90 et certains radionucléides émetteurs gamma

peuvent également être retrouvés dans les eaux naturelles. En raison d’éventuels rejets réguliers

autorisés, de faibles quantités de ces radionucléides sont rejetées dans l’environnement par les

installations du cycle du combustible nucléaire. Certains de ces radionucléides, employés dans des

applications médicales et industrielles, sont également rejetés dans l’environnement après usage.

Il est également possible de retrouver des radionucléides anthropiques dans les eaux suite à une

contamination passée, due aux retombées de l’explosion d’engins nucléaires dans l’atmosphère et

d’accidents nucléaires tels que ceux qui se sont produits à Tchernobyl et Fukushima.

L’activité volumique d’un radionucléide dans les masses d’eau peut varier selon les caractéristiques

géologiques locales et les conditions climatiques ; elle peut localement et temporairement être accrue

suite aux rejets par des installations nucléaires dans des situations d’exposition prévues, existantes

[1]

et d’urgence . L’eau potable peut alors contenir des radionucléides à des niveaux d’activité volumique

pouvant représenter un risque pour la santé humaine.

Les radionucléides présents dans les effluents liquides sont généralement contrôlés avant d’être

[2]

rejetés dans l’environnement et les masses d’eau. La radioactivité des eaux potables est contrôlée,

[3]

comme le recommande l’Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS) . Cela permet de mener des

actions appropriées pour s’assurer de l’absence d’effets nocifs sur la santé publique. Conformément à

ces recommandations internationales, les limites de concentration en radionucléides autorisées pour

les effluents liquides rejetés dans l’environnement et les niveaux de référence de radionucléides pour

les masses d’eau et les eaux potables sont généralement spécifiés par des réglementations nationales

applicables dans des situations d’exposition prévues, existantes et d’urgence. Le respect de ces limites

peut être déterminé à l’aide de résultats de mesure assortis de leurs incertitudes respectives, comme

[4]
exigé par l’ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 et l’ISO 5667-20 .

Selon la situation d’exposition, les limites autorisées et les niveaux de référence, qui aboutiraient à une

action visant à réduire le risque pour la santé, diffèrent.

NOTE 1 Le niveau de référence pour les membres du public est l’activité volumique correspondant à une

consommation de 2 ld d’eau potable par jour pendant une année, donnant une dose efficace de 0,1 mSv/an, ce

[3]

qui représente un très faible niveau de risque d’engendrer des effets nocifs pour la santé détectables .

[5]

Dans une situation d’urgence nucléaire, les niveaux de référence du Codex de l’OMS indiquent les

activités volumiques correspondant aux niveaux opérationnels d’intervention.

NOTE 2 Les niveaux de référence (NR) du Codex s’appliquent aux radionucléides contenus dans les aliments

destinés à la consommation humaine et commercialisés dans le monde, qui ont été contaminés suite à une

urgence nucléaire ou radiologique. Ces NR s’appliquent aux aliments après reconstitution ou tels que préparés

pour la consommation, mais pas aux aliments séchés ou concentrés, et reposent sur un niveau d’exemption

[5]
d’intervention de 1 mSv en une année pour le public (enfants et adultes) .

Les méthodes d’essai doivent donc être adaptées de sorte que leurs limites caractéristiques, leur seuil

de décision, leur limite de détection et les incertitudes associées assurent que les résultats d’essai de

l’activité volumique des radionucléides permettent de vérifier que celle-ci est inférieure aux niveaux

© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés v
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ISO 22017:2020(F)

recommandés requis par l’autorité nationale pour les situations prévues/existantes ou une situation

[6][7]
d’urgence .

Généralement, les méthodes d’essai peuvent être adaptées pour mesurer l’activité volumique d’un ou

de plusieurs radionucléides dans les eaux usées avant stockage ou dans les effluents liquides avant

rejet dans l’environnement. Les résultats d’essai permettront à l’exploitant de l’installation industrielle

de se conformer aux réglementations nationales en vérifiant, avant rejet, que les activités volumiques

d’éléments radioactifs dans les eaux usées/effluents liquides sont inférieures aux limites autorisées.

Les méthodes d’essai décrites dans le présent document pour les situations d’exposition d’urgence

peuvent également être utilisées au cours de situations d’exposition prévues, existantes ainsi que pour

les eaux usées et les effluents liquides avec des modifications spécifiques susceptibles de modifier

l’incertitude globale, la limite de détection et le seuil.

La ou les méthode(s) d’essai peu(ven)t être utilisée(s) pour des échantillons d’eau après échantillonnage,

manipulation de l’échantillon et préparation de l’échantillon pour essai (voir la partie correspondante

de la série ISO 5667).

Le présent document a été élaboré pour répondre au besoin des laboratoires d’essai effectuant

ces mesurages qui peuvent être requis par les autorités nationales dans une situation d’exposition

d’urgence nucléaire ou radiologique.

Le présent document fait partie d’une série de Normes internationales sur les méthodes d’essai relatives

au mesurage de l’activité volumique des radionucléides dans les échantillons d’eau.

Les documents ISO élaborés pour les mesurages de la radioactivité dans l’eau sont des méthodes détaillées.

Dans la plupart des cas, ces méthodes sont couramment mises en pratique depuis plusieurs années dans

les laboratoires, et leurs caractéristiques analytiques sont documentées. Cependant, ces méthodes sont

généralement chronophages et nécessitent des analystes qualifiés pour les mettre en œuvre.

Ces dernières années, la nécessité d’ajouter des recommandations relatives à l’utilisation de « méthodes

rapides » s’est accentuée. L’accident nucléaire qui s’est produit à Fukushima en mars 2011 a accentué

la nécessité de ces mesurages rapides. Aux prémices de ces incidents, les décideurs ont dû prendre des

mesures de protection de la population, notamment la mise à l’abri, l’évacuation et la distribution de

comprimés d’iode. Il est apparu que la durée nécessaire pour prendre ces mesures de protection est

cruciale et limitée.
vi © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 22017:2020(F)
Qualité de l'eau — Recommandations pour les mesurages
rapides de la radioactivité en situation d'urgence nucléaire
ou radiologique
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document fournit des lignes directrices pour les laboratoires d’essai désireux d’utiliser des

méthodes d’essai rapides sur des échantillons d’eau susceptibles d’être contaminés suite à une situation

d’urgence nucléaire ou radiologique. Dans une situation d’urgence, il convient :

— de prendre en compte le contexte spécifique des essais à effectuer, par exemple un niveau de

contamination potentiellement élevé ;

— d’utiliser ou d’ajuster, lorsque cela est possible, les méthodes d’essai pour la détermination de la

radioactivité mises en œuvre dans des situations de routine pour obtenir rapidement un résultat

ou, pour les essais non effectués dans des situations de routine, d’appliquer des méthodes d’essai

rapides spécifiques préalablement validées par le laboratoire, par exemple pour la détermination de

l’activité volumique de Sr ;

— de préparer le laboratoire d’essai à mesurer un grand nombre d’échantillons potentiellement

contaminés.

Le présent document a pour objectif de s’assurer que les décideurs disposent de résultats fiables pour

prendre des mesures rapidement et pour réduire au minimum la dose pour le public.

Les mesurages sont effectués lors du contrôle de la qualité de l’eau des ressources d’eau afin de réduire

au minimum le risque pour le public. Pour les situations d’urgence, les résultats d’essai sont souvent

comparés aux niveaux opérationnels d’intervention.
[8]

NOTE Les niveaux opérationnels d’intervention (NOI) proviennent des normes de sureté l’AIEA ou des

[9]
autorités nationales .

Un élément clé d’analyse rapide peut consister à utiliser les méthodes de routine mais dans un délai

plus court. L’objectif de ces mesurages rapides est souvent de contrôler des niveaux de radioactivité

inhabituels dans l’échantillon pour essai, d’identifier les radionucléides présents et leurs activités

[10][11][12]

volumiques ainsi que d’établir la conformité de l’eau avec les niveaux d’intervention . Il convient

de noter que dans ces cas, les paramètres de validation évalués pour l’usage en routine (par exemple,

reproductibilité, fidélité, etc.) ne sont pas nécessairement applicables à la méthode rapide modifiée.

Cependant, en raison des conséquences découlant d’une situation d’urgence, la méthode modifiée peut

rester adaptée à l’usage prévu, bien que les incertitudes associées aux résultats d’essai doivent être

évaluées et puissent augmenter par rapport aux analyses de routine.

Les premières étapes de la méthode d’analyse reposent généralement sur les méthodes d’essai des

activités volumiques alpha globale et bêta globale considérées comme des méthodes de dépistage

(adaptation de l’ISO 10704 et de l’ISO 11704) et sur la spectrométrie gamma (adaptation de l’ISO 20042,

[13]

de l’ISO 10703 et de l’ISO 19581). Puis, si nécessaire , les normes sur les méthodes d’essai relatives à

des radionucléides spécifiques (voir l’Article 2) sont adaptées et appliquées (par exemple, mesurage du

Sr conformément à l’ISO 13160) comme cela est proposé à l’Annexe A.

Le présent document fait référence à des documents ISO publiés. Le cas échéant, le présent document

fait également référence à des normes nationales ou à d’autres documents publics disponibles.

Les méthodes de dépistage qui peuvent être appliquées directement sur site ne font pas partie du

présent document.
© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés 1
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ISO 22017:2020(F)
2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants sont cités dans le texte de sorte qu’ils constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur

contenu, des exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique.

Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique (y compris les

éventuels amendements).
ISO 9696, Water quality — Gross alpha activity — Test method using thick source
ISO 9697, Water quality — Gross beta activity — Test method using thick source

ISO 9698, Water quality — Tritium — Test method using liquid scintillation counting

ISO 10703, Qualité de l’eau — Détermination de l’activité volumique des radionucléides — Méthode par

spectrométrie gamma à haute résolution

ISO 10704, Water quality — Gross alpha and gross beta activity — Test method using thin source deposit

ISO 11704, Water quality — Gross alpha and gross beta activity — Test method using liquid scintillation

counting

ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

ISO 13160, Qualité de l’eau — Strontium 90 et strontium 89 — Méthodes d’essai par comptage des

scintillations en milieu liquide ou par comptage proportionnel
ISO 13161, Water quality — Polonium 210 — Test method using alpha spectrometry

ISO 13162, Qualité de l’eau — Détermination de l’activité volumique du carbone 14 — Méthode par

comptage des scintillations en milieu liquide

ISO 13163, Qualité de l’eau — Plomb 210 — Méthode d’essai par comptage des scintillations en milieu liquide

ISO 13165-1, Qualité de l’eau — Radium 226 — Partie 1 : Méthode d’essai par comptage des scintillations

en milieu liquide
ISO 13165-2, Water quality — Radium-226 — Part 2: Test method using emanometry

ISO 13165-3, Water quality — Radium-226 — Part 3: Test method using coprecipitation and gamma-

spectrometry

ISO 13166, Water quality — Uranium isotopes — Test method using alpha-spectrometry

ISO 13167, Water quality — Plutonium, americium, curium and neptunium — Test method using alpha

spectrometry

ISO 13168, Water quality — Simultaneous determination of tritium and carbon 14 activities — Test method

using liquid scintillation counting

ISO 17294-2, Water quality — Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) —

Part 2: Determination of selected elements including uranium isotopes

ISO 19581, Measurement of radioactivity — Gamma emitting radionuclides — Rapid screening method

using scintillation detector gamma-ray spectrometry

ISO 20042, Measurement of radioactivity — Gamma-ray emitting radionuclides — Generic test method

using gamma-ray spectrometry
2 © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 22017:2020(F)
3 Termes et définitions

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes :

— ISO Online browsing platform : disponible à l’adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp

— IEC Electropedia : disponible à l’adresse http:// www .electropedia .org/

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s’appliquent.

3.1
situation d’urgence

situation ou événement inhabituel(le) qui nécessite une action rapide, principalement pour atténuer

un danger ou des conséquences néfastes pour la santé et la sécurité des personnes, la qualité de vie, les

biens ou l’environnement

Note 1 à l'article: Ceci inclut les situations d’urgence nucléaires et radiologiques ainsi que les situations d’urgence

habituelles telles que les incendies, le rejet de produits chimiques dangereux, les tempêtes ou les séismes. Sont

incluses les situations dans lesquelles il est justifié d’entreprendre une action rapide pour atténuer les effets d’un

[14]
danger perçu .
3.2
intervention

action ou contre-mesure de protection visant à réduire ou prévenir l’exposition des individus aux

rayonnements pendant une urgence nucléaire ou radiologique
3.3
niveau opérationnel d’intervention
NOI
niveau défini d’une grandeur mesurable qui correspond à un critère générique

Note 1 à l'article: Les NOI sont des niveaux calculés, mesurés à l’aide d’instruments ou déterminés par analyse

en laboratoire, qui correspondent à un niveau d’intervention ou à un niveau d’action. Ils sont habituellement

exprimés en termes de débits de dose ou d’activité de matières radioactives rejetées, d’activités volumiques

dans l’air intégrées sur le temps, de concentrations sur le sol ou les surfaces, ou d’activités volumiques des

radionucléides dans des échantillons d’environnement, d’aliment ou d’eau. Les NOI sont utilisés immédiatement

et directement (sans autre évaluation) pour déterminer les actions protectrices appropriées sur la base d’un

[14]
mesurage environnemental .
[SOURCE: : Glossaire de sûreté de l'AIEA 2016 Rév. Mod]
3.4
niveau de référence

niveau de dose ou de risque, dans des situations d’urgence ou d’exposition contrôlable existantes, au-

dessus duquel il est jugé inapproprié de permettre des expositions et au-dessous duquel l’optimisation

de la protection convient d’être mise en œuvre

Note 1 à l'article: La valeur choisie pour un niveau de référence dépend des circonstances de l’exposition

[8][9]
étudiée .
3.5
niveau de dépistage

valeurs tenant compte des caractéristiques de l’équipement de mesure et de la méthode d’essai pour

garantir que le résultat d’essai et son incertitudes obtenue sont adaptés à la comparaison avec les

niveaux opérationnels d’intervention (NOI) (3.3)

Note 1 à l'article: Par exemple, lorsque les niveaux de dépistage ne sont pas dépassés, les NOI ne le sont pas non

plus et l’eau est considérée propre à la consommation. Si le niveau de dépistage est dépassé, le NOI l’est aussi

et il convient de ne plus consommer l’aliment non essentiel et de remplacer l’aliment essentiel ou il convient de

[13][14]
relocaliser les individus si les remplacements ne sont pas possibles .
© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés 3
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ISO 22017:2020(F)
3.6
niveau d’intervention

dose de rayonnement au-dessus de laquelle une action protectrice est généralement justifiée

3.7
prophylaxie iodée

administration d’iode stable pour limiter l’absorption d’iode radioactif inhalé/ingéré dans la glande

thyroïde
3.8
situation d’exposition d’urgence

situation d’exposition où l’exposition à un niveau élevé est inévitable en raison d’événements inattendus

ou nécessite une action importante
4 Recommandations relatives au mesurage d’urgence
4.1 Objectif d’un mesurage rapide spécifique

Le type d’urgence nucléaire ou radiologique et les premiers résultats de mesure fournissent les

informations sur la nature et la quantité de radionucléides rejetés.

Dans la première phase d’urgence, le mesurage rapide peut être effectué dans un objectif de dépistage,

par exemple pour déterminer si l’échantillon est significativement contaminé ou non.

Dans la phase intermédiaire, les mesurages rapides peuvent être effectués pour confirmer la nature et

la concentration d'activité des radionucléide(s)dans des échantillons d’eau.

Lorsque les radionucléides de l'échantillon sont connus, une mesure rapide devrait être en mesure de

déterminer si la ou les concentrations d'activité mesurées dépassaient ou non les valeurs NOI.

Dans la phase de transition vers le post-accidentel d’une situation d’urgence, lorsqu’un certain nombre

de mesures protectrices ont été prises pour réduire au minimum la dose pour le public, les mesurages

servent également à vérifier la nécessité de ces mesures protectrices, notamment l’évacuation, la mise à

l’abri d’urgence, la restriction alimentaire et la distribution de comprimés d’iode au public.

Des logigrammes sont généralement utilisés pour déterminer les méthodes d’essai qu’il convient

d’appliquer. Ces méthodes sont des méthodes d’essai de routine souvent utilisées dans les laboratoires

d’essai, avec des instructions sur la façon de les adapter pendant une situation d’urgence, ou des

documents ISO existants.

Le Tableau 1 fournit une vue d’ensemble des questions de haute priorité qui se posent lors des phases

décrites ci-dessus, de leur durée et des objectifs associés. La priorité relative de ces questions dépend

du type et de l’échelle de la situation d’urgence nucléaire ou radiologique.

Tableau 1 — Vue d’ensemble de la durée, des questions de haute priorité et des objectifs lors

de la première phase d’urgence, de la phase intermédiaire et de la phase de transition vers le

post-accidentel
Phases Haute priorité Objectif principal eau concerné

Première phase Identité des radionucléides, grande Mesures de protection pour le public, le

d’urgence image de l’étendue géograp
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 22017
ISO/TC 147/SC 3
Water quality — Guidance for rapid
Secretariat: AFNOR
radioactivity measurements in
Voting begins on:
2020­05­26 nuclear or radiological emergency
situation
Voting terminates on:
2020­07­21
Qualité de l'eau — Recommandations pour les mesurages rapides de
la radioactivité en situation d'urgence nucléaire ou radiologique
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ISO/FDIS 22017:2020(E)
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ISO/FDIS 22017:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Guidance on emergency measurement ........................................................................................................................................ 4

4.1 Objective of a specific rapid measurement ..................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Routine screening levels versus intervention levels .............................................................................................. 4

4.3 Operational intervention levels (OILs) from EU, USA and IAEA................................................................... 5

5 Rapid measurements ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 Adaptation of the methods used .............................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2 Sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Rapid test methods .............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.3.1 Pre-screening: identification of highest contaminated samples ............................................ 6

5.3.2 Selection of the analytical strategy .................................................................................................................. 6

5.3.3 Appropriate sample volumes and counting times related to intervention levels ... 9

5.3.4 Gross-alpha and gross-beta determination and gamma spectrometry .........................10

5.3.5 Specific separations for alpha emitters or pure beta emitters measurement .........11

6 Laboratory management to perform rapid measurements .................................................................................12

6.1 Protection of laboratory staff ..................................................................................................................................................12

6.2 Sample management.......................................................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Material and staff ...............................................................................................................................................................................12

6.4 Quality management .......................................................................................................................................................................13

6.5 Expression of results and test report ...............................................................................................................................13

Annex A (informative) World Health Organization screening for radionuclides in drinking

water ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

Annex B (informative) Operational Intervention Levels (OILs) from EU, US and IAEA .................................15

Annex C (informative) Overview of different types of rapid measurements during a nuclear

or radiological emergency.......................................................................................................................................................................16

Annex D (informative) Example of a decision scheme for rapid measurements in the early

phase ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

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ISO/FDIS 22017:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 147, Water quality, SC 3, Radioactivity

measurements.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 22017:2020(E)
Introduction

Radioactivity from several naturally-occurring and anthropogenic sources is present throughout

the environment. Thus, water bodies (e.g. surface waters, ground waters, sea waters) can contain

radionuclides of natural, human made, or both origins:
40 3 14

— Natural radionuclides, including K, H, C, and those originating from the thorium and uranium

226 228 234 238 210 210
decay series, in particular Ra, Ra, U, U, Po and Pb can be found in water for

natural reasons (e.g. desorption from the soil and wash off by rain water) or can be released from

technological processes involving naturally occurring radioactive materials (e.g. the mining and

processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizers production and use);

— Human­made radionuclides such as transuranium elements (americium, plutonium, neptunium and

3 14 90

curium), H, C, Sr, and some gamma emitting radionuclides can also be found in natural waters.

Small quantities of these radionuclides may be discharged from nuclear fuel cycle facilities into

the environment as the result of authorized routine releases. Some of these radionuclides used for

medical and industrial applications are also released into the environment after use. Anthropogenic

radionuclides are also found in waters as the result of past fallout contaminations resulting from

the explosion in the atmosphere of nuclear devices and accidents such as those that occurred in

Chernobyl and Fukushima.

Radionuclide activity concentration in water bodies can vary according to local geological

characteristics and climatic conditions and can be locally and temporally enhanced by releases from

[1]

nuclear installation during planned, existing, and emergency exposure situations . Drinking­water

may thus contain radionuclides at activity concentrations which could present a risk to human health.

The radionuclides present in liquid effluents are usually controlled before being discharged into

[2]

the environment and water bodies. Drinking waters are monitored for their radioactivity as

[3]

recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) so that proper actions can be taken to ensure

that there is no adverse health effect to the public. Following these international recommendations,

national regulations usually specify radionuclide authorized concentration limits for liquid effluent

discharged to the environment and radionuclide guidance levels for waterbodies and drinking waters

for planned, existing, and emergency exposure situations. Compliance with these limits can be assessed

using measurement results with their associated uncertainties as requested by ISO/IEC Guide 98-3

[4]
and ISO 5667­20 .

Depending of the exposure situation, there are different limits and guidance levels that would result in

an action to reduce health risk.

NOTE 1 The guidance level is the activity concentration with an intake of 2 l/d of drinking water for one year,

that results in an effective dose of 0,1 mSv/a for members of the public. This is an effective dose that represents a

[3]

very low level of risk that is not expected to give rise to any detectable adverse health effect .

[5]

In the event of a nuclear emergency, the WHO Codex Guideline Levels indicates the activity

concentrations corresponding to operational intervention levels.

NOTE 2 The Codex guidelines levels (GLs) apply to radionuclides contained in foods destined for human

consumption and traded internationally, which have been contaminated following a nuclear or radiological

emergency. These GLs apply to food after reconstitution or as prepared for consumption, i.e. not to dried or

concentrated foods, and are based on an intervention exemption level of 1 mSv in a year for members of the

[5]
public (infant and adult) .

Thus, the test method can be adapted so that the characteristic limits, decision threshold and detection

limit, and the uncertainties ensure that the radionuclide activity concentration test results can be

verified to be below the guidance levels required by a national authority for either planned-existing

[6][7]
situations or an emergency situation .

Usually, the test methods can be adjusted to measure the activity concentration of the radionuclide(s)

in either wastewaters before storage or in liquid effluents before being discharged to the environment.

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ISO/FDIS 22017:2020(E)

The test results will enable the plant/installation operator to verify that, before their discharge,

wastewaters/liquid effluent radioactive activity concentrations do not exceed authorized limits.

The test methods described in this document for emergency exposure situations may also be used

during planned, existing exposure situations as well as for wastewaters and liquid effluents with

specific modifications that could change the overall uncertainty, detection limit, and threshold.

The test method(s) may be used for water samples after proper sampling, sample handling, and test

sample preparation (see the relevant part of ISO 5667 series).

This document has been developed to answer the need of test laboratories carrying out these

measurements that may be required by national authorities during a nuclear or radiological emergency

exposure situation.

This document is one of a set of International Standards on test methods dealing with the measurement

of the activity concentration of radionuclides in water samples.

The ISO documents produced for radioactivity measurements in water are detailed methods. In most

cases, these methods have been used in laboratory practice for a number of years and the analytical

characteristics have been documented. However, these methods are generally time consuming and

require well trained analysts to carry them out.

Over the last years, an increasing need was recognized for the addition of guidance on the use of so-

called “rapid methods”. The nuclear accident at Fukushima in March 2011 accentuated the need for

these rapid measurements. During the initial stages of such incidents, decision makers had to deal with

taking protective measures for the population, such as sheltering, evacuation, and the distribution

of iodine prophylaxis. It has been found that time is critical and limited for taking these protective

measures.
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 22017:2020(E)
Water quality — Guidance for rapid radioactivity
measurements in nuclear or radiological emergency
situation
1 Scope

This document provides guidelines for testing laboratories wanting to use rapid test methods on

water samples that may be contaminated following a nuclear or radiological emergency incident. In an

emergency situation, consideration should be given to:

— taking into account the specific context for the tests to be performed, e.g. a potentially high level of

contamination;

— using or adjusting, when possible, radioactivity test methods implemented during routine situations

to obtain a result rapidly or, for tests not performed routinely, applying specific rapid test methods

previously validated by the laboratory, e.g. for Sr determination;

— preparing the test laboratory to measure a large number of potentially contaminated samples.

The aim of this document is to ensure decision makers have reliable results needed to take actions

quickly and minimize the radiation dose to the public.

Measurements are performed in order to minimize the risk to the public by checking the quality of water

supplies. For emergency situations, test results are often compared to operational intervention levels.

[8]

NOTE Operational intervention levels (OILs) are derived from IAEA Safety Standards or national

[9]
authorities .

A key element of rapid analysis can be the use of routine methods but with a reduced turnaround time.

The goal of these rapid measurements is often to check for unusual radioactivity levels in the test sample,

to identify the radionuclides present and their activity concentration levels and to establish compliance

[10][11][12]

of the water with intervention levels . It should be noted that in such circumstances, validation

parameters evaluated for routine use (e.g. reproducibility, precision, etc.) may not be applicable to the

modified rapid method. However, due to the circumstances arising after an emergency, the modified

method may still be fit-for-purpose although uncertainties associated with the test results need to be

evaluated and may increase from routine analyses.

The first steps of the analytical approach are usually screening methods based on gross alpha and

gross beta test methods (adaptation of ISO 10704 and ISO 11704) and gamma spectrometry (adaptation

[13]

of ISO 20042, ISO 10703 and ISO 19581). Then, if required , test method standards for specific

radionuclides (see Clause 2) are adapted and applied (for example, Sr measurement according to

ISO 13160) as proposed in Annex A.

This document refers to published ISO documents. When appropriate, this document also refers to

national standards or other publicly available documents.

Screening techniques that can be carried out directly in the field are not part of this document.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 9696, Water quality — Gross alpha activity — Test method using thick source
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ISO/FDIS 22017:2020(E)
ISO 9697, Water quality — Gross beta activity — Test method using thick source

ISO 9698, Water quality — Tritium — Test method using liquid scintillation counting

ISO 10703, Water quality — Determination of the activity concentration of radionuclides — Method by

high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

ISO 10704, Water quality — Gross alpha and gross beta activity — Test method using thin source deposit

ISO 11704, Water quality — Gross alpha and gross beta activity — Test method using liquid scintillation

counting

ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

ISO 13160, Water quality — Strontium 90 and strontium 89 — Test methods using liquid scintillation

counting or proportional counting

ISO 13161, Water quality — Measurement of polonium 210 activity concentration in water by alpha

spectrometry

ISO 13162, Water quality — Determination of carbon 14 activity — Liquid scintillation counting method

ISO 13163, Water quality — Lead-210 — Test method using liquid scintillation counting

ISO 13165­1, Water quality — Radium-226 — Part 1: Test method using liquid scintillation counting

ISO 13165­2, Water quality — Radium-226 — Part 2: Test method using emanometry

ISO 13165­3, Water quality — Radium-226 — Part 3: Test method using coprecipitation and gamma-

spectrometry

ISO 13166, Water quality — Uranium isotopes — Test method using alpha-spectrometry

ISO 13167, Water quality — Plutonium, americium, curium and neptunium — Test method using alpha

spectrometry

ISO 13168, Water quality — Simultaneous determination of tritium and carbon 14 activities — Test method

using liquid scintillation counting

ISO 17294­2, Water quality — Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) —

Part 2: Determination of selected elements including uranium isotopes

ISO 19581, Measurement of radioactivity — Gamma emitting radionuclides — Rapid screening method

using scintillation detector gamma-ray spectrometry

ISO 20042, Measurement of radioactivity — Gamma-ray emitting radionuclides — Generic test method

using gamma-ray spectrometry
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
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ISO/FDIS 22017:2020(E)
3.1
emergency situation

non-routine situation or event that necessitates prompt action, primarily to mitigate a hazard or

adverse consequences for human health and safety, quality of life, property or the environment

Note 1 to entry: This includes nuclear and radiological emergencies and conventional emergencies such as

fires, release of hazardous chemicals, storms or earthquakes. It includes situations for which prompt action is

[14]
warranted to mitigate the effects of a perceived hazard .
3.2
intervention

any protective action or countermeasure aimed at reducing, or averting, human exposure to radiation

during a nuclear or radiological emergency
3.3
operational intervention level
OIL
set level of a measurable quantity that corresponds to a generic criterion
[SOURCE: IAEA safety glossary 2016 Rev. Mod]

Note 1 to entry: OILs are calculated levels, measured by instruments or determined by laboratory analysis

that correspond to an intervention level or action level. These are typically expressed in terms of dose rates

or of activity of radioactive material released, time integrated air activity concentrations, ground or surface

concentrations, or activity concentrations of radionuclides in environmental, food or water samples. OILs are

used immediately and directly (without further assessment) to determine the appropriate protective actions on

[14]
the basis of an environmental measurement .
3.4
reference level

level of dose or risk, in emergency or existing controllable exposure situations, above which it is judged

to be inappropriate to plan to allow exposures to occur, and below which optimisation of protection

should be implemented

Note 1 to entry: Note1 to entry: The chosen value for a reference level depends upon the prevailing circumstances

[8][9]
of the exposure under consideration .
3.5
screening level

value that takes into account the characteristics of the measuring equipment and the test method to

guarantee that the test result and its uncertainty obtained are fit for purpose for comparison with the

operational intervention levels (OILs) (3.3)

Note 1 to entry: For example, when the screening levels are not exceeded so are the OILs and the water is

considered safe for consumption. If the screening level is exceeded so is the OIL and consumption of non-essential

food should be stopped, and essential food should be replaced or the people should be relocated if replacements

[13][14]
are not available .
3.6
intervention level
radiation dose above which a specific protective action is generally justified
3.7
iodine prophylaxis

administration of stable iodine to limit the uptake of inhaled/ingested radioactive iodine into the

thyroid gland
3.8
emergency exposure situation

situation of exposure where exposure at an elevated level is inevitable due to unexpected events or

needs of important action
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ISO/FDIS 22017:2020(E)
4 Guidance on emergency measurement
4.1 Objective of a specific rapid measurement

The type of nuclear or radiological emergency and the initial measurement results provide the

information on the mix and magnitude of any radionuclide or radionuclide mix that has been released.

In the early phase, rapid measurement can be performed for screening, e.g. to determine whether the

sample is significantly contaminated or not.

In the intermediate phase, rapid measurements can be carried out in order to further confirm the

radionuclide or mix of radionuclides in water samples, and to estimate their activity concentrations.

When the radionuclides present are known, a rapid measurement should demonstrate that a fixed value

of activity concentration is exceeded or not (compliance to OIL).

In the recovery phase of an emergency situation, when a number of protective measures have been

taken in order to minimize the dose to the public, measurements also verify the justification of these

protective measures, such as the evacuation planning, emergency sheltering, food restriction and

providing iodine prophylaxis to members of the public.

Decision trees are used to determine which test methods should be applied. These methods are often

routine test methods in use in testing laboratories, with instructions on how to adapt them during an

emergency situation, or existing ISO documents.

A general overview of the high priority issues, duration and goals in the phases described above is

shown in Table 1. The relative priority of these issues depend on the type and scale of the nuclear or

radiological emergency situation.

Table 1 — Overview of duration, high priority issues and goal in early, intermediate and

recovery phases
Phases High priority Main goal WATER is concerned
Early phase Nuclide identity, large picture Protective measures for public,
(first days) of geographic extent of cattle livestock, agriculture, water.
contaminated area.
Intervention levels exceeded?

Intermediate phase Large number of samples, detailed Evaluate the taken countermeasures with

(days — weeks) picture of contaminated area. measurement data.
Focus on food chain and water. May people return to their homes?

Evaluation of areas where intervention Is food safe to eat? Is water safe to drink?

levels are exceeded. Monitoring and sampling in large areas,
agricultural and urban.

Recovery phase More detailed sampling and analyses with Continue monitoring and sampling more in

(weeks — months) lower detection limits for food and water. depth in agricultural and urban areas: Food

chain and water reservoirs, surface waters.
4.2 Routine screening levels versus intervention levels

In normal situations, the World Health Organization (WHO) has defined routine screening levels for

drinking water, below which no further action is required. These screening levels are 0,5 Bq.l for

gross alpha activity and 1 Bq.l for gross beta activity. If neither of these values is exceeded, the Total

Indicative Dose of 0,1 mSv/year is also not exceeded.

In case of an emergency situation, intervention levels are defined and expressed in terms of a dose limit

per unit of time (e.g. mSv/d, mSv/week or mSv/a). They are used by policy makers to decide on actions

in order to protect people against high radiation levels. When these intervention levels are exceeded,

appropriate actions are carried out following national emergency handbooks or protocols.

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ISO/FDIS 22017:2020(E)
−1 −3

Operational intervention levels (OILs) are usually expressed in activity concentration (Bq.l , Bq.m

or Bq.kg ). Rapid measurements performed following an emergency situation should produce test

results which can be related to OILs.

If required, the conversion from activity to dose to compare with intervention levels should be carried

out by experienced scientific staff. For contaminated water, intervention levels are related to ingestion,

washing, showering or cooking. Here the conversion from activity concentration in drinking water to

dose is done by multiplying the activity concentration by the dose conversion coefficient (for ingestion)

and an approximation of the water consumption per unit time.

Intervention levels may vary from one country to another. In this document, data from the EU and the

USA are given as examples in Annex B. Other states may apply their own national intervention levels.

Sample measurement data are used for decision making based on the assessment of the confidence

that water quality meets given targets, complies with thresholds or lies in a particular range in a

classification system.
Principles, basic requirements, and illustrative methods for decision ma
...

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