Animal feeding stuffs — Vocabulary

This document defines terms relating to animal feeding stuffs. NOTE It includes the most common and frequently used terms in the field of animal feeding stuffs.

Aliments des animaux — Vocabulaire

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ISO 20588:2019 - Animal feeding stuffs -- Vocabulary
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Animal feeding stuffs — Vocabulary
Aliments des animaux — Vocabulaire
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ISO 20588:2019(E)
ISO 2019

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ISO 20588:2019(E)

© ISO 2019
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ISO 20588:2019(E)

Contents Page
Foreword .iv
Introduction .v
1 Scope . 1
2 Normative references . 1
3 Terms and definitions . 1
3.1 General terms . 1
3.2 Terms related to feed and feeding . 3
3.3 Terms related to sampling and feed analysis . 8
3.4 Terms related to feed processing and technology .11
Bibliography .14
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ISO 20588:2019(E)

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This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 34, Food products, Subcommittee SC 10,
Animal feeding stuffs.
Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A
complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
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ISO 20588:2019(E)

This document provides definitions of generic terms related to animal feeding stuffs. It aims to encourage
a mutual and consistent understanding and use of uniform terms in processes and frameworks dealing
with the management of risk. This vocabulary document, which contains some common technical
terms used in feed industry, is compiled for proper understanding of special language words or terms
associated with the technical field.
This document can be applied as a reference by competent authorities, as well as specialists involved in
standardization systems, to better and more accurately understand relevant text, correspondences and
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Animal feeding stuffs — Vocabulary
1 Scope
This document defines terms relating to animal feeding stuffs.
NOTE It includes the most common and frequently used terms in the field of animal feeding stuffs.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1 General terms
antimicrobials produced by, or derived from, a micro-organism which destroys or inhibits the growth
of other micro-organisms
antimicrobial agent
substance of natural, semi-synthetic or synthetic origin that at in vivo concentrations kills or inhibits
the growth of microorganisms by interacting with a specific target
substance prolonging the storage life of feed (3.2.17) and feed ingredients (3.2.21) by protecting them
against deterioration caused by oxidation
substance used in livestock rations (3.2.42) to help resist changes in the acidity of the digestive tract
EXAMPLE Sodium bicarbonate.
material to which feed ingredients (3.2.21) are added (e.g. absorbed, impregnated, coated) to facilitate
their uniform distribution in feed (3.2.17)
chelated mineral
organic mineral complex formed between an organic molecule and a mineral
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ISO 20588:2019(E)

substance mixed with feed ingredients (3.2.21) to reduce their concentration and make them more
acceptable to animals, safer and easier to mix (3.4.18) uniformly in a feed (3.2.17)
Note 1 to entry: Diluent may also be a carrier (3.1.5).
substance that makes it possible to form or maintain a homogeneous mixture of two or more immiscible
phases in feed (3.2.17)
Note 1 to entry: Emulsifier is commonly added to milk replacers (3.2.36) to prevent fat from separating.
flavouring compound
flavouring enhancer
substance included in feed (3.2.17) or feed ingredients (3.2.21) to improve smell or palatability
major mineral
mineral required by animals in relatively large amounts
EXAMPLE Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), chlorine (CI), sulfur (S),
sodium (Na).
Note 1 to entry: Macro-minerals are generally required in gram quantities per head per day.
vitamin, mineral or other material usually required in feed (3.2.17) in small amounts
trace mineral
mineral required by animals in small amounts
EXAMPLE 1 Manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), iodine (I).
EXAMPLE 2 Micro-minerals are required in units of mg/kg or smaller.
non-structural carbohydrate
simple carbohydrate, such as starch and sugar, stored inside the cell that serves as a cellular energy source
Note 1 to entry: Non-structural carbohydrates are rapidly and easily digested by an animal.
nutrient allowance
recommendation for the nutrient amounts necessary for maintenance, growth, gestation, yield, work
or performance that includes a safety margin to account for variability in feed ingredients (3.2.21),
environment, animal health, storage losses and waste in the feeding process
nutrient requirement
minimum amount of nutrients (such as protein, minerals and vitamins) and energy necessary to meet
animals’ needs for maintenance, growth, reproduction, yield or performance
Note 1 to entry: Nutrient requirement does not include a safety margin in ration (3.2.42) formulation.
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ISO 20588:2019(E)

non-digestible compounds in feed (3.2.17) that beneficially affect animals by selectively stimulating the
growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of non-pathogenic bacteria population(s) in the colon
substance or, when applicable, micro-organism that protects feed (3.2.17) against deterioration caused
by micro-organisms or their metabolites
direct-fed microbial
live micro-organisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host
EXAMPLE Lactic acid producing strains, e.g. Lactobacillus.
undesirable substance
substance or product, with the exception of pathogenic agents, that is present in and/or on the product
intended for animal feed (3.2.17) and causes a potential danger to animal or human health or to the
environment or could adversely affect livestock production
veterinary drug
substance applied or administered to animals, whether used for therapeutic, prophylactic, metaphylactic
or diagnostic purposes or for modification of physiological functions or behaviour
3.2 Terms related to feed and feeding
ad libitum feeding
ad lib feeding
feeding system by which animals can eat from a prepared diet (3.2.15) as much as they desire
aquatic feed
feed (3.2.17) that is fed to animals living in water
balanced diet
balanced ration
feed (3.2.17), diet (3.2.15) or ration (3.2.42) that contains all known required nutrients in proper
amounts and proportions based upon recommendations of recognized authorities in animal nutrition
for a given set of physiological requirements
barn-dried hay
hay (3.2.31) dried indoors by blowing air through it
Note 1 to entry: It is usually more nutritious than field-dried hay.
milling fraction obtained from the removal of the outer layer of cereals
canned pet food
feed (3.2.17) for pets, which has been processed, packaged, sealed and sterilized for preservation in
cans or similar containers
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ISO 20588:2019(E)

hulls (3.2.33) or other seed coverings, together with other plant parts separated from seeds during
threshing or processing
antiprotozoal agent used to prevent and/or control coccidial infections
EXAMPLE Lasalocid, monensin, narasin, salinomycin.
complementary feed
compound feed (3.2.11) that has a high content of certain substances but is not sufficient for a ration
(3.2.42) and so is used in combination with other feed (3.2.17)
Note 1 to entry: Complementary feed is a form of compound feed.
complete feed
nutritionally adequate feed (3.2.17) compounded by a specific formula that is used as the sole ration
(3.2.42) and that is capable of maintaining life and/or promoting production without any additional
substance except water
Note 1 to entry: Complete feed is a form of compound feed (3.2.11).
compound feed
formula feed
feed mixture
mixture of at least two feed materials (3.2.23), whether or not containing feed additives (3.2.18), for oral
animal feeding in the form of a complementary feed (3.2.9) or a complete feed (3.2.10)
feed (3.2.17) that contains high amounts of a nutrient or nutrients (usually rich in energy and/or protein
but low in fibre) and mixed with other ingredients [usually micro-ingredients (3.1.11)] intended to be
diluted or mixed to produce a complementary feed (3.2.9) or a complete feed (3.2.10)
EXAMPLE Concentrate may be unsafe if fed free choice (3.2.27) or alone.
pelleted feed (3.2.17) that has been broken into smaller granular pieces
cured feed
feed (3.2.17) that has been preserved, for example, by drying, chemical additives or other
preservation methods
feed ingredient (3.2.21) or a mixture of ingredients, including water, that is consumed by animals
distillers’ grain
residual grain or by-product of a fermentation process in alcohol production from grains (especially
corn), which may be fed wet or dry
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ISO 20588:2019(E)

feed stuff
feeding stuff
single or multiple materials, whether processed, semi-processed or raw, and whether or not containing
additives, for oral animal feeding
feed additive
substance intentionally added to feed (3.2.17) and/or water, not consumed as feed by itself, whether or
not it has a nutritional value, that affects the characteristics of feed including organoleptic properties,
animal products, animal production or performance or welfare, or the environment
Note 1 to entry: Microorganisms, enzymes, acidity regulators, trace elements, vitamins and other products fall
within the scope of this definition, depending on the purpose of use and the method of administration.
Note 2 to entry: Coccidiostats (3.2.8) and histomonostats are a category of feed additives.
Note 3 to entry: Feed additive does not include feed materials (3.2.23) and premixtures (3.2.39).
feed conversion ratio
ratio describing the amount of feed (3.2.17) consumed per unit of production, e.g. weight gain, milk,
eggs production
feed grade
quality of feed (3.2.17) suitable for animal, but not human, consumption
feed ingredient
component part or constituent of any mixture making up a feed (3.2.17), whether or not it has a
nutritional value in the animal’s diet (3.2.15), including feed additives (3.2.18)
Note 1 to entry: Ingredients are of plant, animal or aquatic origin, or other organic or inorganic substances.
feed intended for a particular nutritional purpose
functional feed
feed (3.2.17) that can satisfy a particular nutritional purpose by virtue of its particular composition or
method of manufacture, which clearly distinguishes it from ordinary feed
Note 1 to entry: Feed intended for a particular nutritional purpose does not include medicated feed (3.2.34).
feed materials
products of vegetable or animal origin and products derived from industrial processing, either organic
or inorganic substances, whether or not containing feed additives (3.2

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