Information technology -- Smart City ICT reference framework

This document describes a framework, structured in layers of ICT technologies, essential for smart cities' operation. This framework also provides the mapping of the ICT techniques to various system entities in order to support the smart city's business, knowledge management, and operational systems from the engineering perspective.

Technologies de l'information -- Cadre de référence des TIC dans les villes intelligentes

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ISO/IEC 30145-3:2020 - Information technology -- Smart City ICT reference framework
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 30145-3
First edition
2020-08
Information technology — Smart City
ICT reference framework —
Part 3:
Smart city engineering framework
Reference number
ISO/IEC 30145-3:2020(E)
ISO/IEC 2020
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ISO/IEC 30145-3:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 30145-3:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General terms ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Smart city engineering framework ................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.2 Overview of the smart city engineering framework............................................................................................... 2

4.3 Security and privacy protection system ............................................................................................................................ 4

4.4 Construction system ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.5 Operation and maintenance system ..................................................................................................................................... 5

4.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.5.2 Planning ................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.5.3 Implementation ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.5.4 Check .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.5.5 Improvement....................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.6 Identification system ......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.7 Positioning system ............................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.8 Data acquisition layer ....................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.8.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.8.2 Sensor data acquisition .............................................................................................................................................. 7

4.8.3 Human data acquisition ............................................................................................................................................. 9

4.9 Network communication layer ................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.9.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.9.2 General functions ............................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.10 Computing and storage layer ...................................................................................................................................................10

4.10.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

4.10.2 Computing resource ........................................................................................................................................... ........10

4.10.3 Storage resource ...........................................................................................................................................................10

4.10.4 Software resource ........................................................................................................................................................11

4.11 Data and services supporting layer ....................................................................................................................................12

4.11.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

4.11.2 Data integration .............................................................................................................................................................12

4.11.3 Service integration ......................................................................................................................................................13

4.12 Smart application layer .................................................................................................................................................................15

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 30145-3:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see http:// patents .iec .ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 30145 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 30145-3:2020(E)
Introduction
0.1 General

The purpose of this document is to assist city chief information officers (CIO) and other stakeholders in

planning and implementing a smart city. It comprises the following three parts:
— Part 1: Smart city business process framework
— Part 2: Smart city knowledge management framework
— Part 3 (this document): Smart city engineering framework

Each of the three parts is aimed at a different role or viewpoint within the city and thus separate focus

needs to be maintained. The "separation of concerns" is a principle for the development of a city as it

uses ICT to deliver the vision and objectives for the city. The value of using the separation of concerns

is to simplify development and maintenance of the architecture as the city both develops and delivers

improved outcomes for the city stakeholders.

Figure 1 shows the components of the smart city ICT reference framework, which consist of

5 components: stakeholders, vision and outcomes, the business process framework, the knowledge

management framework, and the engineering framework. While stakeholders, vision and outcomes,

and the engineering framework are described in this document, the business process framework and

1) 2)

knowledge management framework are described in ISO/IEC 30145-1:— and ISO/IEC 30145-2:— ,

respectively.

1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/IEC DIS 30145-1:2020.

2) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/IEC DIS 30145-2:2020.

© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC 30145-3:2020(E)
Figure 1 — Smart city ICT reference framework
0.2 Stakeholders

The stakeholders served by the smart city ICT reference framework are businesses, citizens, government

organizations and non-government organizations. This stakeholder list is not exhaustive but defines

the key stakeholders in a smart city and the user for the smart city ICT reference framework.

0.3 Vision and outcomes

The motivation of making a city smart is a result of a shared vision and a set of agreed outcomes from

all of the city stakeholders. The vision and outcomes of the smart city ICT reference framework are

well-being, transparency, sustainability, economic development, efficiency and resilience, collaboration

and innovation. This vision and outcomes list is not exhaustive but defines the key vision and outcomes

of a smart city. The smart city ICT reference framework articulates a vision that the smart city will be

transparent in the delivery of city services which meet city sustainability ambitions. This vision uses

collaboration and innovation approaches to deliver desired city outcomes. City outcomes are expected

to improve efficiency and resilience of city services and promote economic development activities

which enhance the well-being of citizens.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 30145-3:2020(E)
Information technology — Smart City ICT reference
framework —
Part 3:
Smart city engineering framework
1 Scope

This document describes a framework, structured in layers of ICT technologies, essential for smart

cities' operation. This framework also provides the mapping of the ICT techniques to various system

entities in order to support the smart city’s business, knowledge management, and operational systems

from the engineering perspective.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 General terms
3.1.1
data

symbols and signals that represent properties of objects, persons, events and their environment

Note 1 to entry: In the English language the term “data” is generally used as a plural noun. For use in the singular,

the term “data item” is sometimes used.
3.1.2
information
structured data (3.1.1) that are endowed with meaning and purpose

Note 1 to entry: Information is data that have been shaped into a form that is meaningful and useful to

human beings.
3.1.3
positioning system
system of instrumental and computational components for determining position
EXAMPLE Inertial, integrated, linear, optical and satellite positioning systems.
[SOURCE: ISO 19116:2019, 3.24]
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ISO/IEC 30145-3:2020(E)
3.1.4
positional accuracy

closeness of coordinate value to the true or accepted value in a specified reference system

Note 1 to entry: The phrase “absolute accuracy” is sometimes used for this concept to distinguish it from relative

positional accuracy. Where the true coordinate value may not be perfectly known, accuracy is normally tested by

comparison to available values that can best be accepted as true.
[SOURCE: ISO 19116:2019, 3.22]
3.1.5
heterogeneous computing
system that uses more than one kind of processor or cores
3.1.6
heterogeneous computing resources

combination of hardware and software that can support heterogeneous computing (3.1.5)

3.1.7
data integration

process of combining data (3.1.1) residing in different sources and providing users with a unified

view of them
3.2 Abbreviated terms
WGS84 world geodetic system
GPS global positioning system
GLONASS global navigation satellite system
PZ-90 parametry zemli 1990 goda
4 Smart city engineering framework
4.1 Introduction

This document gives descriptions of a Smart city from an engineering perspective. It consists of two

parts, the horizontal engineering layers and the vertical systems. For each of the business processes

defined and categorized in ISO/IEC 30145-1, a city uses the knowledge defined by the knowledge

management framework in ISO/IEC 30145-2. Additionally, the knowledge defined by the knowledge

management framework in ISO/IEC 30145-2 is used to understand how the engineering framework is

implemented. The function of the horizontal layers is to provide a clear mapping of different techniques

and components needed for smart city business processes. The function of the vertical systems is to

guarantee the consistency of the technical implementation of a smart city.
4.2 Overview of the smart city engineering framework

Figure 2 shows the smart city engineering framework from the ICT perspective. The framework consists

of 5 horizontal layers and 5 vertical cross layer systems with 4 types of smart city stake holders. The

five layers are data acquisition layer, network communication layer, computing and storage layer, data

and services supporting layer and smart application layer; whereas the five systems are security and

privacy protection system, construction system, operation and maintenance system, identification

system and positioning system. In addition, the four types of city users are citizens, enterprises,

governmental entities and non-governmental entities. The five layers and five systems are introduced

in detail in 4.3 to 4.12 respectively.
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ISO/IEC 30145-3:2020(E)

The data acquisition layer provides the capability to sense the world and take actions. The network

communication layer consists of Internet, the telephone network, the cable television network and

their convergence. The computing and storage layer includes resources for computing, data storage

and foundation software. The data and services supporting layer fuses the data capture capability,

communication capability, data storage capability and computing capability into data management

and service management capability. The smart application layer offers smart applications and their

integrations across industries and domains with support from the layers underneath. The security

and privacy protection system addresses the security requirements of a smart city. The operation

and maintenance system addresses the ability of a smart city to operate and maintain its IT services.

The construction system addresses the ability of a smart city to transit its IT services into sustainable

operations for design, planning, construction, maintenance and other aspects of smart city needs. The

identification system provides all layers of the engineering framework with identification services.

The positioning system is one of the basic systems in a smart city providing inertial, integrated, linear,

optical and satellite positioning services.
Figure 2 — Smart city engineering framework

From the six-domain IoT Reference Model (RM) and Reference Architecture (RA) in ISO/IEC 30141, the

entities in the smart city engineering framework, which is a layer-based framework, shown in Figure 2,

can be mapped as shown in Table 1.

Table 1 — Mapping of the layers and entities in the smart city engineering framework to the six

domains of ISO/IEC 30141 IoT RA
ISO/IEC 30141 IoT RA Smart City Engineering Framework
Domain Layer Sub-layer Entities
— Not specified in the
Engineering Framework;
but in takeholders. They
are:
— business entities;
stakeholders
(not identified within the
User Domain (UD) NA
— citizens;
Engineering
Framework)
— government
organizations; and
— non-government
organizations
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ISO/IEC 30145-3:2020(E)
Table 1 (continued)
ISO/IEC 30141 IoT RA Smart City Engineering Framework
Domain Layer Sub-layer Entities
— service management
service integration — service integration
Operation & Management data & services
Domain (OMD) supporting layer
— service usage
— data management &
data integration
governance
— smart government
— smart transportation
— smart education
smart application layer N/A
— smart healthcare
— smart home
— smart campus
Application & Service
— service acquisition &
service integration
Domain (ASD)
aggregation
— data integration &
data & services
processing
supporting layer
data integration
— intelligent mining &
analysis
— computing resource
computing & storage
N/A — storage resource
layer
— software resource
— fundamental data
— shared exchangeable data
data & services
data resources
supporting layer
— application domain data
Resource Access &
— Internet data
Interchange Domain (RAID)
— computing resource
computing & storage
N/A — storage resource
layer
— software resource
Sensing & Controlling data & services — data acquisition &
data integration
Domain (SCD) supporting layer integration
— physical entities in each
application domain,
smart application layer
e.g., transportation,
Physical Entity Domain
healthcare, etc.
(PED)
— physical entities being
data & services data acquisition &
monitored for data
supporting layer aggregation
acquisition
4.3 Security and privacy protection system

The security and privacy protection system addresses security requirements such as confidentiality,

integrity and availability. It provides authentication, authorization, non-repudiation, user and role

identity management, integrity, audit, security monitoring, incident response and security policy

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management. This system is applicable to the design, planning, construction, maintenance and other

aspects of the ICT systems of a smart city. This includes protecting the confidentiality and rights of

[9]
individual citizens .
4.4 Construction system

The construction system provides the capabilities of design, planning, construction maintenance and

other aspects of a smart city.
4.5 Operation and maintenance system
4.5.1 General

The operation and maintenance system provides an overall plan for the operation and maintenance

services capabilities; provides necessary resources to implement operation and maintenance service

capabilities, management and services content; ensures the quality of delivery to meet service level

agreement requirements; carries out supervision, measurement, analysis, evaluation and improvement

of operation and maintenance service results and service delivery processes. Existing standards for

ICT service operation and maintenance, such as the ISO/IEC 20000 series, can be used by a smart city.

[3]

Subclauses 4.5.2 to 4.5.5 summarize that approach to service operation and maintenance .

4.5.2 Planning
Planning includes the following aspects:

1. planning operation and maintenance service objects and requirements according to the business

location and capacity, and forming a service catalogue;

2. establishing the appropriate organizational structure and management system following the

service catalogue;

3. implementing operation and maintenance team, processes, and goals, carry out personnel,

resources, technology and process planning, and establishing adapted assessment methods and a

service support system;

4. planning to manage, review and improve the quality of service, and establish internal review and

evaluation mechanisms.
4.5.3 Implementation
Implementation includes the following aspects:

1. developing an overall implementation plan, and performing according to the overall

implementation plan;
2. establishing a communication and coordination mechanism with demand-side;

3. creating appropriate documentation to ensure the traceability of implementation; ensuring

documentation results can be evaluated and measured;

4. constructing an operation and maintenance centre responsible for implementing system

monitoring, operation command, maintenance, equipment management, service response and

other functions;

5. creating the ability to monitor the operational state of hardware, control systems, applications from

the data acquisition layer, the network communication layer, the computing and storage layer, the

data and services supporting layer, the smart application layer, and responding in a timely manner.

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ISO/IEC 30145-3:2020(E)
4.5.4 Check
Check includes the following aspects:

1. periodic reviewing of Planning and Implementation to ensure their suitability and effectiveness;

2. investigating customer satisfaction, and statistically analysing the results of Planning and

Implementation;

3. carrying out assessments based on the indicators illustrated in ISO/IEC 30146.

4.5.5 Improvement

Improvement is the ability to continuously improve operation and maintenance services. Improvement

includes the following aspects:
1. establishing an improvement mechanism;

2. analysing planning, implementation and checking triggers the loop of planning- implementation-

check-improvement.
4.6 Identification system

The identification system provides all layers of the engineering framework with identification services.

The identification services provide unique identifiers for people, places, events, etc. as required by each

layer of the framework. At the lowest level of the engineering framework, identification is facilitated

by positioning systems that are based on a common i.e. “shared” reference framework, e.g., World

[16]

Geodetic System (WGS84) . Identification of people can be as simple as country or city specific

unique identifiers (e.g., citizen ID), or as complicated as using biometric recognition technology to

identify a person with some degree of accuracy, or even more complex where fragmentary information

from multiple sources is combined/fused to hypothesize identify with perhaps an even lower degree of

accuracy. The assignment of unique identifiers by identification system applies also to events, places,

and documents.
4.7 Positioning system

The positioning system ensures that all other systems have a common idea of the spatial position

of things. Many of these positioning services will be operated outside the city architecture and will

provide a positioning service into various components of the city - sensors, applications, autonomous

vehicles, etc. For consistency across the city, it is important that all the positioning uses a common

spatial reference system, as described in ISO 19111. Often, this is a national or international (geodetic)

[17]

reference framework. Examples include WGS84 (used by GPS) and PZ-90 (used by GLONASS), both

[14]

of which are realizations of the International Terrestrial Reference Framework . In many cases, a city

can simply select a single international or national reference system and ensure that all other systems

use it. The level of positional accuracy required depends on the use to which the positional information

will be put. The level of accuracy achievable depends both on the equipment (system) used and the

spatial reference system and supporting technology.
4.8 Data acquisition layer
4.8.1 General

The data acquisition layer provides the capability to sense the world and take actions. The core of the

data acquisition layer is IoT technique. This layer provides several basic capabilities of a smart city such

as sensor data acquisition and human data acquisition.
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ISO/IEC 30145-3:2020(E)
4.8.2 Sensor data acquisition
4.8.2.1 General

The capability leverages electronic devices such as sensor, RFID and camera, etc. to identify and

collect information from the infrastructures, environment, buildings, etc., then to perform situation

monitoring and controlling.

Sensor data acquisition includes two categories of equipment, sensing equipment and actuating

equipment.
4.8.2.2 Sensing equipment
4.8.2.2.1 General

Sensing equipment is classified by capabilities and functions. Categories of sensing equipment are listed

in Table 2.
Table 2 — Categories of sensing equipment
No. Category of sensing equipment
1 Identification recognition equipment
2 Geolocation sensing equipment
3 Image sensing equipment
4 Environment sensing equipment
6 Security sensing equipment
7 Facility sensing equipment
4.8.2.2.2 General function
The general functions of sensing equipment are as follow:

1. Sensing equipment is the equipment through which a smart city can acquire different types of

information about a city, based on which overall sensing and identification information acquisition

and collection can be performed.

2. Sensing equipment of a smart city performs identification recognition, information collection and

monitoring. It includes but is not limited to the following: identification recognition equipment,

geolocation sensing equipment, image sensing equipment, environment sensing equipment,

security sensing equipm
...

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