Measurement of radioactivity in the environment -- Guidelines for effective dose assessment using environmental monitoring data

These international guidelines are based on the assumption that monitoring of environmental components (atmosphere, water, soil and biota) as well as food quality ensure the protection of human health[2][4][5][6][7][8]. The guidelines constitute a basis for the setting of national regulations and standards, inter alia, for monitoring air, water and food in support of public health, specifically to protect the public from ionizing radiation. This document provides — guidance to collect data needed for the assessment of human exposure to radionuclides naturally present or discharged by anthropogenic activities in the different environmental compartments (atmosphere, waters, soils, biological components) and food; — guidance on the environmental characterization needed for the prospective and/or retrospective dose assessment methods of public exposure; — guidance for staff in nuclear installations responsible for the preparation of radiological assessments in support of permit or authorization applications and national authorities' officers in charge of the assessment of doses to the public for the purposes of determining gaseous or liquid effluent radioactive discharge authorizations; — information for the public on the parameters used to conduct a dose assessment for any exposure situations to a representative person/population. It is important that the dose assessment process be transparent, and that assumptions are clearly understood by stakeholders who can participate in, for example, the selection of habits of the representative person to be considered. Generic mathematical models used for the assessment of radiological human exposure are presented to identify the parameters to monitor, in order to select, from the set of measurement results, the "best estimates" of these parameter values. More complex models are often used that require the knowledge of supplementary parameters. The reference and limit values are not included in this document.

Mesurage de la radioactivité dans l'environnement -- Lignes directrices pour l’évaluation de la dose efficace à l’aide de données de surveillance environnementale

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Status
Published
Publication Date
07-Jan-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
19-Nov-2020
Completion Date
18-Nov-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20043-1
First edition
2021-01
Measurement of radioactivity in
the environment — Guidelines for
effective dose assessment using
environmental monitoring data —
Part 1:
Planned and existing exposure
situation
Mesurage de la radioactivité dans l'environnement — Lignes
directrices pour l’évaluation de la dose efficace à l’aide de données de
surveillance environnementale —
Partie 1: Situation d'exposition existante et planifiée
Reference number
ISO 20043-1:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 20043-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 20043-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6 Assessing and monitoring human exposure............................................................................................................................ 8

7 Environmental monitoring program ............................................................................................................................................10

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.2 Planning process ................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.2.1 Selection of the sampling strategy .................................................................................................................11

7.2.2 Description of the sampling plan ....................................................................................................................11

7.3 Sampling process ...............................................................................................................................................................................11

7.3.1 Collection of samples ................................................................................................................................................11

7.3.2 Preparation of the sorted sample ...................................................................................................................12

7.4 Laboratory process ..........................................................................................................................................................................12

7.4.1 Handling of the laboratory sample ...............................................................................................................12

7.4.2 Preparation of the test sample ..........................................................................................................................12

8 Environmental monitoring to assess external exposure .........................................................................................12

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.2 Direct measurement of the external dose ....................................................................................................................13

8.3 Indirect assessment of the external dose ......................................................................................................................14

8.3.1 External exposure from contaminated soil ............................................................................................14

8.3.2 External exposure from contaminated air ..............................................................................................15

9 Environmental monitoring to assess internal exposure ..........................................................................................15

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

9.2 Inhalation..................................................................................................................................................................................................16

9.3 Ingestion ....................................................................................................................................................................................................17

9.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

9.3.2 Ingestion of water ........................................................................................................................................................17

9.3.3 Ingestion of agricultural products .................................................................................................................18

10 Radioactivity measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................18

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

10.2 Soil ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

10.3 Water ............................................................................................................................................................................................................19

10.4 Food stuffs ................................................................................................................................................................................................20

11 Variability and uncertainty ....................................................................................................................................................................21

12 Quality assurance and quality control program ...............................................................................................................21

Annex A (informative) Example of sampling procedures for environmental and food matrices ......23

Annex B (informative) Example of sample preparation methods for environmental and

food matrices .........................................................................................................................................................................................................24

Annex C (informative) Investigation to identify the cause of increase of ambient dose and

activity concentration of environmental samples above their background levels.......................25

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 20043-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO)

principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary

information

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies,

and radiological protection, Subcommittee SC 2, Radiological protection.
A list of all the parts in the ISO 20043 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 20043-1:2021(E)
Introduction

Everyone is exposed to natural radiation. The natural sources of radiation are cosmic rays and naturally

occurring radioactive substances existing in the Earth itself and inside the human body. Human

activities involving the use of radiation and radioactive substances (NORM) cause radiation exposure in

addition to the natural exposure. Some of those activities, such as the mining and use of ores containing

naturally-occurring radioactive substances and the production of energy by burning coal that contains

such substances, simply enhance the exposure from natural radiation sources. Nuclear installations

use radioactive materials and produce radioactive effluent and waste during operation and on their

decommissioning. The use of radioactive materials in industry, agriculture and research is expanding

around the globe.

All these human activities generally also give rise to radiation exposures that are only a small fraction

of the global average level of natural exposure. The medical use of radiation is the largest and a growing

man-made source of radiation exposure in developed countries. It includes diagnostic radiology,

radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and interventional radiology.

Radiation exposure also occurs as a result of occupational activities. It is incurred by workers in

industry, medicine and research using radiation or radioactive substances, as well as by passengers

and crew during air travel and for astronauts. The average level of occupational exposures is generally

[1]
similar to the global average level of natural radiation exposure .

As the uses of radiation increase, so do the potential health risks and the public’s concerns increase.

Thus, all these exposures are regularly assessed in order to

a) improve the understanding of global levels and temporal trends of public and worker exposure,

b) evaluate the components of exposure so as to provide a measure of their relative importance, and

c) identify emerging issues that may warrant more attention and scrutiny. While doses to workers

are usually directly measured, doses to the public are usually assessed by indirect methods

using radioactivity measurement results performed on various sources: waste, effluent and/or

environmental samples.

To ensure that the data obtained from radioactivity monitoring programs support their intended use,

it is essential in the dose assessment process that stakeholders (the operators, the regulatory bodies,

the local information committee and associations, etc.) agree on appropriate data quality objectives,

methods and procedures for: the sampling, handling, transport, storage and preparation of test

samples; the test method; and for calculating measurement uncertainty. An assessment of the overall

measurement uncertainty also needs to be carried out systematically. As reliable, comparable and ‘fit

for purpose’ data are an essential requirement for any public health decision based on radioactivity

measurements, international standards of tested and validated radionuclide test methods are an

important tool for the production of such measurement results. The application of standards serves

also to guaranty comparability over time of the test results and between different testing laboratories.

Laboratories apply them to demonstrate their technical competences and to complete proficiency tests

successfully during interlaboratory comparisons, two prerequisites to obtain national accreditation.

Today, over a hundred international standards, prepared by Technical Committees of the International

Organization for Standardization, including those produced by ISO/TC 85 working groups, and the

International Electrotechnical Commission, are available for measuring radionuclides in different

matrices by testing laboratories.

Generic standards help laboratories to manage the measurement process and specific standards

describing test methods are used specifically by those in charge of radioactivity measurement. These

later cover test methods for:
40 3 14

— Natural radionuclides, including K, H, C and those originating from the thorium and uranium

226 228 234 238 220 222 210

decay series, in particular Ra, Ra, U, U, Rn, Rn, Pb, which can be found in every

material from natural sources or can be released from technological processes involving naturally

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 20043-1:2021(E)

occurring radioactive materials (e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or phosphate

fertilizer production and use), and

— Man-made radionuclides, such as transuranium elements (americium, plutonium, neptunium, and

3 14 90

curium), H, C, Sr and gamma emitting radionuclides found in waste, liquid and gases effluent

and in environmental matrices (air, soil, water, biota) as a result of authorized releases into the

environment and of fallout resulting from the explosion in the atmosphere of nuclear devices and

accidents, such as those that occurred in Chernobyl and Fukushima. Radionuclides, such as H and

C occur both naturally and as by-products of the operation of nuclear reactors.
[2]

The ICRP recognises three types of exposure situations that are intended to cover the entire range of

exposure situations: planned, emergency and existing exposure situations. Planned exposure situations

involve the planned introduction and operation of sources (previously categorised as practices).

Emergency exposure situations are situations requiring prompt action in order to avoid or to reduce

adverse consequences. Existing exposure situations are exposure situations that already exist when

a decision on control is taken, such as those caused by enhanced natural background radiation (e.g.

exposure to radon in existing buildings).

The fraction of the background dose rate to man from environmental radiation, mainly gamma

radiation, is very variable and depends on factors such as the radioactivity of the local rock and soil, the

nature of building materials and the construction of buildings in which people live and work.

This document sets out principles and guidance for the radiological characterisation of the environment

needed for checking the results of

— prospective assessment of dose to the public arising from exposure to ionizing radiation which

may arise from planned discharges to the atmosphere and to the aquatic environment or following

remediation action;

— retrospective assessment for dose that may be made for discharges or disposals that were not initially

covered by an authorization/permit delivered by a national regulatory body (e.g. contaminated land

or dose associated with accidental releases of radionuclides into the environment).

This document is one of a set of generic ISO Standards on measurement of radioactivity.

Example of dose assessment in different exposure situations, modified from Reference [3]

Type of assessment
Situation
Prospective Retrospective
Planned Determining compliance with Estimating dose to the public from past
the relevant dose constraint (dose limit operations
or regulatory requirements). A prospective
assessment includes the exposures expected
to occur in normal operation.
Existing Future prolonged exposures (e.g. after Past exposures (e.g. occupancy
remediation) of contaminated lands)
Emergency Emergency planning (operational Actual impacts after emergency
intervention level)
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20043-1:2021(E)
Measurement of radioactivity in the environment —
Guidelines for effective dose assessment using
environmental monitoring data —
Part 1:
Planned and existing exposure situation
1 Scope

These international guidelines are based on the assumption that monitoring of environmental

components (atmosphere, water, soil and biota) as well as food quality ensure the protection of

[2][4][5][6][7][8]

human health . The guidelines constitute a basis for the setting of national regulations

and standards, inter alia, for monitoring air, water and food in support of public health, specifically to

protect the public from ionizing radiation.
This document provides

— guidance to collect data needed for the assessment of human exposure to radionuclides naturally

present or discharged by anthropogenic activities in the different environmental compartments

(atmosphere, waters, soils, biological components) and food;

— guidance on the environmental characterization needed for the prospective and/or retrospective

dose assessment methods of public exposure;

— guidance for staff in nuclear installations responsible for the preparation of radiological assessments

in support of permit or authorization applications and national authorities’ officers in charge of

the assessment of doses to the public for the purposes of determining gaseous or liquid effluent

radioactive discharge authorizations;

— information for the public on the parameters used to conduct a dose assessment for any exposure

situations to a representative person/population. It is important that the dose assessment process

be transparent, and that assumptions are clearly understood by stakeholders who can participate

in, for example, the selection of habits of the representative person to be considered.

Generic mathematical models used for the assessment of radiological human exposure are presented

to identify the parameters to monitor, in order to select, from the set of measurement results, the "best

estimates" of these parameter values. More complex models are often used that require the knowledge

of supplementary parameters.
The reference and limit values are not included in this document.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC Guide 98-3, Uncertainty of measurement — Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in

me a s ur ement (GUM: 1995)

ISO/IEC Guide 99, International vocabulary of metrology — Basic and general concepts and associated

terms (VIM)
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 20043-1:2021(E)

ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

ISO 80000-10, Quantities and units — Part 10: Atomic and nuclear physics
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the definitions given in ISO 80000-10, ISO/IEC Guide 98-3,

ISO/IEC Guide 99, and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
background

doses, dose rates or activity concentrations associated with natural sources, or any other sources in the

environment that are not amenable to control
3.2
conversion coefficient
coefficient giving effective dose in an external exposure
3.3
data quality objectives

statement of the required detection limits, accuracy, reproducibility and repeatability of the required

analytical and other data

Note 1 to entry: Generic data quality objectives can sometimes be set at national level. Data quality objectives

can also embrace an amount of data required for an area of land (or part of a site) to enable sound comparison

with generic guidelines or standards or for a site-specific or material-specific estimation of risk.

3.4
dose assessment
assessment of the dose(s) to an individual or group of people

Note 1 to entry: For example, assessment of the dose received or committed by an individual on the basis of

results from workplace monitoring or bioassay.
Note 2 to entry: the term exposure assessment is also sometimes used.
3.5
dose coefficient
coefficient giving the committed effective dose from an internal exposure
3.6
emergency exposure situations

situation of exposure arising as a result of an accident, a malicious act or other unexpected event that

requires prompt action in order to avoid or to reduce adverse consequences
3.7
existing exposure situations

situation of exposure that already exists when a decision on the need for control needs to be taken

Note 1 to entry: Existing exposure situations include exposure to natural background radiation that is amenable

to control; exposure due to residual radioactive material that derives from past practices (3.13) that were never

subject to regulatory control; and exposure due to residual radioactive material deriving from a nuclear or

radiological emergency after an emergency has been declared to be ended.
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 20043-1:2021(E)
3.8
hazard

potential for harm or detriment, especially for radiation risks; a factor or condition that might operate

against safety
3.9
intended use

use in accordance with information provided with a product or system, or, in the absence of such

information, by generally understood patterns of usage
3.10
model

analytical representation or quantification of a real system and the ways in which phenomena occur

within that system, used to predict or assess the behaviour of the real system under specified (often

hypothetical) conditions
[SOURCE: IAEA Safety Standard No. RS-G-1.8]
3.11
monitoring

measurement of dose, dose rate or activity for reasons relating to the assessment or control of exposure

to radiation or exposure due to radioactive substances, and the interpretation of the results

[SOURCE: IAEA Safety Glossary Terminology used in Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection – 2018

Edition]
3.12
planned exposure situations

situation of exposure that arises from the planned operation of a source or from a planned activity that

results in an exposure due to a source

[SOURCE: IAEA Safety Glossary Terminology used in Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection – 2018

Edition]
3.13
practice

human activity that introduces additional sources of exposure or exposure pathways or extends

exposure to additional people or modifies the network of exposure pathways from existing sources,

so as to increase the exposure or the likelihood of exposure of people or the number of people exposed

[SOURCE: IAEA Safety Standard No. RS–G–1.8]
3.14
quality assurance

planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that an item, process or

service satisfy given requirements for quality, for example, those specified in the license

[SOURCE: IAEA Safety Standard No. RS-G-1.8]
3.15
radioactive discharges

radioactive substances arising from a source (3.22) within a practice (3.13) which are discharged

as gases, aerosols, liquids or solids to the environment, generally with the purpose of dilution and

dispersion or disposal
[SOURCE: IAEA Safety Standard No. RS-G-1.8]
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 20043-1:2021(E)
3.16
representative person

individual receiving a dose that is representative of the doses to the more highly exposed individuals in

the population
[SOURCE: ICRP Publication 101a. Annuals of the ICRP, 2006]
3.17
risk

combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm

Note 1 to entry: The probability of occurrence includes the exposure to a hazardous situation, the occurrence of a

hazardous event and the possibility to avoid or limit the harm.
3.18
risk assessment
overall process comprising a risk analysis and a risk evaluation
3.19
screening

type of analysis aimed at eliminating from further consideration factors that are less significant for

protection or safety, in order to concentrate on the more significant factors
3.20
site
defined area, in this context often local target area
3.21
soil

surface layer of the Earth’s crust composed of mineral particles, including organic matter

3.22
source

anything that may cause radiation exposure, such as by emitting ionization or radiation or by relating

radioactive substances or materials, and can be treated as a single entry for protection and safety

purposes

Note 1 to entry: For example, materials emitting radon are sources in the environment, a sterilization gamma

irradiation unit is a source for the practice (3.13) of radiation preservation of food, an X ray unit may be a source for

the practice (3.13) of radiodiagnosis; a nuclear power plant is part of the practice (3.13) of generating electricity

by nuclear fission, and may be regarded as a source (e.g. with respect to discharges to the environment) or as

a collection of sources (e.g. for occupational radiation protection purposes). A complex or multiple installation

situated at one location or site may, as appropriate, be considered a single source for the purposes of application

of safety standards.
[SOURCE: IAEA Safety Standard No. RS-G-1.8]
3.23
surface soil

upper part of a natural soil, generally dark-coloured and with a higher content of organic substances

and nutrient when compared to the subsoil below
3.24
surface water

lakes, ponds, impounding reservoirs, springs, flowing (streaming) waters, estuaries, wetlands, inlets,

canals, oceans within the relevant territorial limits, and all other bodies of water, natural or artificial,

inland or coastal, fresh or salt
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 20043-1:2021(E)
4 Symbols
At At +1  average activity concentration in air a of a rad
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 20043-1
ISO/TC 85/SC 2
Measurement of radioactivity in
Secretariat: AFNOR
the environment — Guidelines for
Voting begins on:
2020-10-01 effective dose assessment using
environmental monitoring data —
Voting terminates on:
2020-11-26
Part 1:
Planned and existing exposure
situation
Mesurage de la radioactivité dans l'environnement — Lignes
directrices pour l’évaluation de la dose efficace à l’aide de données de
surveillance environnementale —
Partie 1: Situation d'exposition existante et planifiée
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 20043-1:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20043-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20043-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6 Assessing and monitoring human exposure............................................................................................................................ 8

7 Environmental monitoring program ............................................................................................................................................10

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.2 Planning process ................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.2.1 Selection of the sampling strategy .................................................................................................................11

7.2.2 Description of the sampling plan ....................................................................................................................11

7.3 Sampling process ...............................................................................................................................................................................11

7.3.1 Collection of samples ................................................................................................................................................11

7.3.2 Preparation of the sorted sample ...................................................................................................................11

7.4 Laboratory process ..........................................................................................................................................................................12

7.4.1 Handling of the laboratory sample ...............................................................................................................12

7.4.2 Preparation of the test sample ..........................................................................................................................12

8 Environmental monitoring to assess external exposure .........................................................................................12

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.2 Direct measurement of the external dose ....................................................................................................................13

8.3 Indirect assessment of the external dose ......................................................................................................................14

8.3.1 External exposure from contaminated soil ............................................................................................14

8.3.2 External exposure from contaminated air ..............................................................................................15

9 Environmental monitoring to assess internal exposure ..........................................................................................15

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

9.2 Inhalation..................................................................................................................................................................................................16

9.3 Ingestion ....................................................................................................................................................................................................17

9.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

9.3.2 Ingestion of water ........................................................................................................................................................17

9.3.3 Ingestion of agricultural products .................................................................................................................18

10 Radioactivity measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................18

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

10.2 Soil ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

10.3 Water ............................................................................................................................................................................................................19

10.4 Food stuffs ................................................................................................................................................................................................20

11 Variability and uncertainty ....................................................................................................................................................................20

12 Quality assurance and quality control program ...............................................................................................................21

Annex A (informative) Example of sampling procedures for environmental and food matrices ......23

Annex B (informative) Example of sample preparation methods for environmental and

food matrices .........................................................................................................................................................................................................24

Annex C (informative) Investigation to identify the cause of increase of ambient dose and

activity concentration of environmental samples above their background levels.......................25

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20043-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO)

principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary

information

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies,

and radiological protection, Subcommittee SC 2, Radiological protection.
A list of all the parts in the ISO 20043 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 20043-1:2020(E)
Introduction

Everyone is exposed to natural radiation. The natural sources of radiation are cosmic rays and naturally

occurring radioactive substances existing in the Earth itself and inside the human body. Human

activities involving the use of radiation and radioactive substances (NORM) cause radiation exposure in

addition to the natural exposure. Some of those activities, such as the mining and use of ores containing

naturally-occurring radioactive substances and the production of energy by burning coal that contains

such substances, simply enhance the exposure from natural radiation sources. Nuclear installations

use radioactive materials and produce radioactive effluent and waste during operation and on their

decommissioning. The use of radioactive materials in industry, agriculture and research is expanding

around the globe.

All these human activities generally also give rise to radiation exposures that are only a small fraction

of the global average level of natural exposure. The medical use of radiation is the largest and a growing

man-made source of radiation exposure in developed countries. It includes diagnostic radiology,

radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and interventional radiology.

Radiation exposure also occurs as a result of occupational activities. It is incurred by workers in

industry, medicine and research using radiation or radioactive substances, as well as by passengers

and crew during air travel and for astronauts. The average level of occupational exposures is generally

[1]
similar to the global average level of natural radiation exposure .

As the uses of radiation increase, so do the potential health risk and the public’s concerns increase.

Thus, all these exposures are regularly assessed in order to

a) improve the understanding of global levels and temporal trends of public and worker exposure,

b) to evaluate the components of exposure so as to provide a measure of their relative importance, and

c) to identify emerging issues that may warrant more attention and scrutiny. While doses to workers

are usually directly measured, doses to the public are usually assessed by indirect methods

using radioactivity measurements results performed on various sources: waste, effluent and/or

environmental samples.

To ensure that the data obtained from radioactivity monitoring programs support their intended use,

it is essential in the dose assessment process that stakeholders (the operators, the regulatory bodies,

the local information committee and associations, etc.) agree on appropriate data quality objectives,

methods and procedures for: the sampling, handling, transport, storage and preparation of test

samples; the test method; and for calculating measurement uncertainty. An assessment of the overall

measurement uncertainty also needs to be carried out systematically. As reliable, comparable and ‘fit

for purpose’ data are an essential requirement for any public health decision based on radioactivity

measurements, international standards of tested and validated radionuclide test methods are an

important tool for the production of such measurement results. The application of standards serves

also to guaranty comparability over time of the test results and between different testing laboratories.

Laboratories apply them to demonstrate their technical competences and to complete proficiency tests

successfully during interlaboratory comparisons, two prerequisites to obtain national accreditation.

Today, over a hundred international standards, prepared by Technical Committees of the International

Standardization Organization for Standardizations, including those produced by ISO/TC 85 working

groups, and the International Electrotechnical Commission, are available for measuring radionuclides

in different matrices by testing laboratories.

Generic standards help laboratories to manage the measurement process and specific standards

describing test methods are used specifically by those in charge of radioactivity measurement. These

later cover test methods for:

— Natural radionuclides, including potassium 40, tritium, carbon 14 and those originating from the

thorium and uranium decay series, in particular radium 226, radium 228, uranium 234, uranium

238, radon 220, radon 222, lead 210, which can be found in every material from natural sources or

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ISO/FDIS 20043-1:2020(E)

can be released from technological processes involving naturally occurring radioactive materials

(e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizer production and use), and

— Man-made radionuclides, such as transuranium elements (americium, plutonium, neptunium, and

curium), tritium, carbon 14, strontium 90 and gamma emitting radionuclides found in waste, liquid

and gases effluent and in environmental matrices (air, soil, water, biota) as a result of authorized

releases into the environment and of fallout resulting from the explosion in the atmosphere of nuclear

devices and accidents, such as those that occurred in Chernobyl and Fukushima. Radionuclides,

such as tritium and carbon 14 occur both naturally and as by-products of the operation of nuclear

reactors.
[2]

The ICRP recognises three types of exposure situations that are intended to cover the entire range of

exposure situations: planned, emergency and existing exposure situations. Planned exposure situations

involve the planned introduction and operation of sources (previously categorised as practices).

Emergency exposure situations are situations requiring prompt action in order to avoid or to reduce

adverse consequences. Existing exposure situations are exposure situations that already exist when

a decision on control is taken, such as those caused by enhanced natural background radiation (e.g. on

remediated land).

The fraction of the background dose rate to man from environmental radiation, mainly gamma

radiation, is very variable and depends on factors such as the radioactivity of the local rock and soil, the

nature of building materials and the construction of buildings in which people live and work.

This document sets out principles and guidance for the radiological characterisation of the environment

needed for checking the results of

— prospective assessment of dose to the public arising from exposure to ionizing radiation which

may arise from planned discharges to the atmosphere and to the aquatic environment or following

remediation action;

— retrospective assessment for dose that may be made for discharges or disposals that were not

initially covered by an authorized by a national regulatory body (e.g. contaminated land or dose

associated with accidental releases of radionuclides into the environment).

This document is one of a set of generic ISO Standards on measurement of radioactivity.

Example of dose assessment in different exposure situations, modified from Reference [3]

Type of assessment
Situation
Prospective Retrospective
Planned Determining compliance with Estimating dose to the public from past
the relevant dose constraint (dose limit operations
or regulatory requirements). A prospective
assessment includes the exposures expected
to occur in normal operation.
Existing Future prolonged exposures (e.g. after Past exposures (e.g. occupancy
remediation) of contaminated lands)
Emergency Emergency planning (operational Actual impacts after emergency
intervention level)
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 20043-1:2020(E)
Measurement of radioactivity in the environment —
Guidelines for effective dose assessment using
environmental monitoring data —
Part 1:
Planned and existing exposure situation
1 Scope

These international guidelines are based on the assumption that monitoring of environmental

components (atmosphere, water, soil and biota) as well as food quality ensure the protection of

[2][4][5][6][7][8]

human health . The guidelines constitute a basis for the setting of national regulations

and standards, inter alia, for monitoring air, water and food in support of public health, specifically to

protect the public from ionizing radiation.
This document provides

— guidance to collect data needed for the assessment of human exposure to radionuclides naturally

present or discharged by anthropogenic activities in the different environmental compartments

(atmosphere, waters, soils, biological components) and food;

— guidance on the environmental characterization needed for the prospective and/or retrospective

dose assessment methods of public exposure;

— guidance for staff in nuclear installations responsible for the preparation of radiological assessments

in support of permit or authorization applications and national authorities’ officers in charge of

the assessment of doses to the public for the purposes of determining gaseous or liquid effluent

radioactive discharge authorizations;

— information to the public on the parameters used to conduct a dose assessment for any exposure

situations to a representative person/population. It is important that the dose assessment process

be transparent, and that assumptions are clearly understood by stakeholders who can participate

in, for example, the selection of habits of the representative person to be considered.

Generic mathematical models used for the assessment of radiological human exposure are presented

to identify the parameters to monitor, in order to select, from the set of measurement results, the "best

estimates" of these parameter values. More complex models are often used that require the knowledge

of supplementary parameters.
The reference and limit values are not included in this document.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC Guide 98-3, Uncertainty of measurement — Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in

me a s ur ement (GUM: 1995)

ISO/IEC Guide 99, International vocabulary of metrology — Basic and general concepts and associated

terms (VIM)
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ISO/FDIS 20043-1:2020(E)

ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

ISO 80000-10, Quantities and units — Part 10: Atomic and nuclear physics
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the definitions given in ISO 80000-10, ISO/IEC Guide 98-3,

ISO/IEC Guide 99, and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
background (dose)

doses, dose rates or activity concentrations associated with natural sources, or any other sources in the

environment that are not amenable to control
3.2
conversion coefficient
coefficient giving effective dose in an external exposure
3.3
data quality objectives

statement of the required detection limits, accuracy, reproducibility and repeatability of the required

analytical and other data

Note 1 to entry: Generic data quality objectives can sometimes be set at national level. Data quality objectives

can also embrace an amount of data required for an area of land (or part of a site) to enable sound comparison

with generic guidelines or standards or for a site-specific or material-specific estimation of risk.

3.4
dose assessment
assessment of the dose(s) to an individual or group of people

Note 1 to entry: For example, assessment of the dose received or committed by an individual on the basis of

results from workplace monitoring or bioassay.
Note 2 to entry: the term exposure assessment is also sometimes used.
3.5
dose coefficient
coefficient giving the committed effective dose in an internal exposure
3.6
emergency exposure situations

situation of exposure arising as a result of an accident, a malicious act or other unexpected event that

requires prompt action in order to avoid or to reduce adverse consequences
3.7
existing exposure situations

situation of exposure that already exists when a decision on the need for control needs to be taken

Note 1 to entry: Existing exposure situations include exposure to natural background radiation that is amenable

to control; exposure due to residual radioactive material that derives from past practices (3.13) that were never

subject to regulatory control; and exposure due to residual radioactive material deriving from a nuclear or

radiological emergency after an emergency has been declared to be ended.
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ISO/FDIS 20043-1:2020(E)
3.8
hazard

potential for harm or detriment, especially for radiation risks; a factor or condition that might operate

against safety
3.9
intended use

use in accordance with information provided with a product or system, or, in the absence of such

information, by generally understood patterns of usage
3.10
model

analytical representation or quantification of a real system and the ways in which phenomena occur

within that system, used to predict or assess the behaviour of the real system under specified (often

hypothetical) conditions
[SOURCE: IAEA Safety Standard No. RS-G-1.8]
3.11
monitoring

measurement of dose, dose rate or activity for reasons relating to the assessment or control of exposure

to radiation or exposure due to radioactive substances, and the interpretation of the results

[SOURCE: IAEA Safety Glossary Terminology used in Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection – 2018

Edition]
3.12
planned exposure situations

situation of exposure that arises from the planned operation of a source or from a planned activity that

results in an exposure due to a source

[SOURCE: IAEA Safety Glossary Terminology used in Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection – 2018

Edition]
3.13
practice

human activity that introduces additional sources of exposure or exposure pathways or extends

exposure to additional people or modifies the network of exposure pathways from existing sources,

so as to increase the exposure or the likelihood of exposure of people or the number of people exposed

[SOURCE: IAEA Safety Standard No. RS–G–1.8]
3.14
quality assurance

planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that an item, process or

service satisfy given requirements for quality, for example, those specified in the license

[SOURCE: IAEA Safety Standard No. RS-G-1.8]
3.15
radioactive discharges

radioactive substances arising from a source (3.22) within a practice (3.13) which are discharged

as gases, aerosols, liquids or solids to the environment, generally with the purpose of dilution and

dispersion
[SOURCE: IAEA Safety Standard No. RS-G-1.8]
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3.16
representative person

individual receiving a dose that is representative of the doses to the more highly exposed individuals in

the population
[SOURCE: ICRP Publication 101a. Annuals of the ICRP, 2006]
3.17
risk

combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm

Note 1 to entry: The probability of occurrence includes the exposure to a hazardous situation, the occurrence of a

hazardous event and the possibility to avoid or limit the harm.
3.18
risk assessment
overall process comprising a risk analysis and a risk evaluation
3.19
screening

type of analysis aimed at eliminating from further consideration factors that are less significant for

protection or safety, in order to concentrate on the more significant factors
3.20
site
defined area, in this context often local target area
3.21
soil

surface layer of the Earth’s crust composed of mineral particles, including organic matter

3.22
source

anything that may cause radiation exposure, such as by emitting ionization or radiation or by relating

radioactive substances or materials, and can be treated as a single entry for protection and safety

purposes

Note 1 to entry: For example, materials emitting radon are sources in the environment, a sterilization gamma

irradiation unit is a source for the practice (3.13) of radiation preservation of food, an X ray unit may be a source for

the practice (3.13) of radiodiagnosis; a nuclear power plant is part of the practice (3.13) of generating electricity

by nuclear fission, and may be regarded as a source (e.g. with respect to discharges to the environment) or as

a collection of sources (e.g. for occupational radiation protection purposes). A complex or multiple installation

situated at one location or site may, as appropriate, be considered a single source for the purposes of application

of safet
...

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